AWS Developer and Deployment Theory: Facts and Summaries and Questions/Answers

AWS Certification Exam Preparation

AWS Developer – Deployment Theory Facts and summaries, Top 60 AWS Developer Theory Questions and Answers Dump

Definition 1: The AWS Developer is responsible for designing, deploying, and developing cloud applications on AWS platform

Definition 2: The AWS Developer Tools is a set of services designed to enable developers and IT operations professionals practicing DevOps to rapidly and safely deliver software.

AWS Developer and Deployment Theory Facts and summaries

  1. Continuous Integration is about integrating or merging the code changes frequently, at least once per day. It enables multiple devs to work on the same application.
  2. Continuous delivery is all about automating the build, test, and deployment functions.
  3. Continuous Deployment fully automates the entire release process, code is deployed into Production as soon as it has successfully passed through the release pipeline.
  4. AWS CodePipeline is a continuous integration/Continuous delivery service:
    • It automates your end-to-end software release process based on user defines workflow
    • It can be configured to automatically trigger your pipeline as soon as a change is detected in your source code repository
    • It integrates with other services from AWS like CodeBuild and CodeDeploy, as well as third party custom plug-ins.
  5. AWS CodeBuild is a fully managed build service. It can build source code, run tests and produce software packages based on commands that you define yourself.
  6. Dy default the buildspec.yml defines the build commands and settings used by CodeBuild to run your build.
  7. AWS CodeDeploy is a fully managed automated deployment service and can be used as part of a Continuous Delivery or Continuous Deployment process.
  8. There are 2 types of deployment approach:
    • In-place or Rolling update- you stop the application on each host and deploy the latest code. EC2 and on premise systems only. To roll back, you must re-deploy the previous version of the application.
    • Blue/Green : New instances are provisioned and the new application is deployed to these new instances. Traffic is routed to the new instances according to your own schedule. Supported for EC2, on-premise systems and Lambda functions. Rollback is easy, just route the traffic back to the original instances. Blue is active deployment, green is new release.
  9. Docker allows you to package your software into Containers which you can run in Elastic Container Service (ECS)
  10.  A docker Container includes everything the software needs to run including code, libraries, runtime and environment variables etc..
  11.  A special file called Dockerfile is used to specify the instructions needed to assemble your Docker image.
  12.  Once built, Docker images can be stored in Elastic Container Registry (ECR) and ECS can then use the image to launch Docker Containers.
  13. AWS CodeCommit is based on Git. It provides centralized repositories for all your code, binaries, images, and libraries.
  14. CodeCommit tracks and manages code changes. It maintains version history.
  15. CodeCommit manages updates from multiple sources and enables collaboration.
  16. To support CORS, API resource needs to implement an OPTIONS method that can respond to the OPTIONS preflight request with following headers:
    • Access-Control-Allow-Headers
    • Access-Control-Allow-Origin
    • Access-Control-Allow-Methods
  17. You have a legacy application that works via XML messages. You need to place the application behind the API gateway in order for customers to make API calls. Which of the following would you need to configure?
    You will need to work with the Request and Response Data mapping.
  18. Your application currently points to several Lambda functions in AWS. A change is being made to one of the Lambda functions. You need to ensure that application traffic is shifted slowly from one Lambda function to the other. Which of the following steps would you carry out?
    • Create an ALIAS with the –routing-config parameter
    • Update the ALIAS with the –routing-config parameter

    By default, an alias points to a single Lambda function version. When the alias is updated to point to a different function version, incoming request traffic in turn instantly points to the updated version. This exposes that alias to any potential instabilities introduced by the new version. To minimize this impact, you can implement the routing-config parameter of the Lambda alias that allows you to point to two different versions of the Lambda function and dictate what percentage of incoming traffic is sent to each version.

  19. AWS CodeDeploy: The AppSpec file defines all the parameters needed for the deployment e.g. location of application files and pre/post deployment validation tests to run.
  20. For Ec2 / On Premise systems, the appspec.yml file must be placed in the root directory of your revision (the same folder that contains your application code). Written in YAML.
  21. For Lambda and ECS deployment, the AppSpec file can be YAML or JSON
  22. Visual workflows are automatically created when working with which Step Functions
  23. API Gateway stages store configuration for deployment. An API Gateway Stage refers to A snapshot of your API
  24. AWS SWF Services SWF guarantees delivery order of messages/tasks
  25. Blue/Green Deployments with CodeDeploy on AWS Lambda can happen in multiple ways. Which of these is a potential option? Linear, All at once, Canary
  26. X-Ray Filter Expressions allow you to search through request information using characteristics like URL Paths, Trace ID, Annotations
  27. S3 has eventual consistency for overwrite PUTS and DELETES.

Reference: AWS Developer Tools

AWS Developer and Deployment Theory: Top 60 Questions and Answers Dump

Q0: Which AWS service can be used to compile source code, run tests and package code?

  • A. CodePipeline
  • B. CodeCommit
  • C. CodeBuild
  • D. CodeDeploy

Answer: C.

Reference: AWS CodeBuild


Q1: How can your prevent CloudFormation from deleting your entire stack on failure? (Choose 2)

  • A. Set the Rollback on failure radio button to No in the CloudFormation console
  • B. Set Termination Protection to Enabled in the CloudFormation console
  • C. Use the –disable-rollback flag with the AWS CLI
  • D. Use the –enable-termination-protection protection flag with the AWS CLI

Answer: A. and C.

Reference: Protecting a Stack From Being Deleted


Q2: Which of the following practices allows multiple developers working on the same application to merge code changes frequently, without impacting each other and enables the identification of bugs early on in the release process?

  • A. Continuous Integration
  • B. Continuous Deployment
  • C. Continuous Delivery
  • D. Continuous Development

Answer: A

Reference: What is Continuous Integration?


Q3: When deploying application code to EC2, the AppSpec file can be written in which language?

  • A. JSON
  • B. JSON or YAML
  • C. XML
  • D. YAML


Q4: Part of your CloudFormation deployment fails due to a mis-configuration, by defaukt what will happen?

  • A. CloudFormation will rollback only the failed components
  • B. CloudFormation will rollback the entire stack
  • C. Failed component will remain available for debugging purposes
  • D. CloudFormation will ask you if you want to continue with the deployment

Answer: B

Reference: Troubleshooting AWS CloudFormation


Q5: You want to receive an email whenever a user pushes code to CodeCommit repository, how can you configure this?

  • A. Create a new SNS topic and configure it to poll for CodeCommit eveents. Ask all users to subscribe to the topic to receive notifications
  • B. Configure a CloudWatch Events rule to send a message to SES which will trigger an email to be sent whenever a user pushes code to the repository.
  • C. Configure Notifications in the console, this will create a CloudWatch events rule to send a notification to a SNS topic which will trigger an email to be sent to the user.
  • D. Configure a CloudWatch Events rule to send a message to SQS which will trigger an email to be sent whenever a user pushes code to the repository.

Answer: C

Reference: Getting Started with Amazon SNS


Q6: Which AWS service can be used to centrally store and version control your application source code, binaries and libraries

  • A. CodeCommit
  • B. CodeBuild
  • C. CodePipeline
  • D. ElasticFileSystem

Answer: A

Reference: AWS CodeCommit


Q7: You are using CloudFormation to create a new S3 bucket,
which of the following sections would you use to define the properties of your bucket?

  • A. Conditions
  • B. Parameters
  • C. Outputs
  • D. Resources

Answer: D

Reference: Resources


Q8: You are deploying a number of EC2 and RDS instances using CloudFormation. Which section of the CloudFormation template
would you use to define these?

  • A. Transforms
  • B. Outputs
  • C. Resources
  • D. Instances

Answer: C.
The Resources section defines your resources you are provisioning. Outputs is used to output user defines data relating to the resources you have built and can also used as input to another CloudFormation stack. Transforms is used to reference code located in S3.

Reference: Resources


Q9: Which AWS service can be used to fully automate your entire release process?

  • A. CodeDeploy
  • B. CodePipeline
  • C. CodeCommit
  • D. CodeBuild

Answer: B.
AWS CodePipeline is a fully managed continuous delivery service that helps you automate your release pipelines for fast and reliable application and infrastructure updates

Reference: AWS CodePipeline


Q10: You want to use the output of your CloudFormation stack as input to another CloudFormation stack. Which sections of the CloudFormation template would you use to help you configure this?

  • A. Outputs
  • B. Transforms
  • C. Resources
  • D. Exports

Answer: A.
Outputs is used to output user defines data relating to the resources you have built and can also used as input to another CloudFormation stack.

Reference: CloudFormation Outputs


Q11: You have some code located in an S3 bucket that you want to reference in your CloudFormation template. Which section of the template can you use to define this?

  • A. Inputs
  • B. Resources
  • C. Transforms
  • D. Files

Answer: C.
Transforms is used to reference code located in S3 and also specifying the use of the Serverless Application Model (SAM)
for Lambda deployments.
Name: ‘AWS::Include’
Location: ‘s3://MyAmazonS3BucketName/MyFileName.yaml’

Reference: Transforms


Q12: You are deploying an application to a number of Ec2 instances using CodeDeploy. What is the name of the file
used to specify source files and lifecycle hooks?

  • A. buildspec.yml
  • B. appspec.json
  • C. appspec.yml
  • D. buildspec.json

Answer: C.

Reference: CodeDeploy AppSpec File Reference


Q13: Which of the following approaches allows you to re-use pieces of CloudFormation code in multiple templates, for common use cases like provisioning a load balancer or web server?

  • A. Share the code using an EBS volume
  • B. Copy and paste the code into the template each time you need to use it
  • C. Use a cloudformation nested stack
  • D. Store the code you want to re-use in an AMI and reference the AMI from within your CloudFormation template.

Answer: C.

Reference: Working with Nested Stacks


Q14: In the CodeDeploy AppSpec file, what are hooks used for?

  • A. To reference AWS resources that will be used during the deployment
  • B. Hooks are reserved for future use
  • C. To specify files you want to copy during the deployment.
  • D. To specify, scripts or function that you want to run at set points in the deployment lifecycle

Answer: D.
The ‘hooks’ section for an EC2/On-Premises deployment contains mappings that link deployment lifecycle event hooks to one or more scripts.

Reference: AppSpec ‘hooks’ Section


Q15:You need to setup a RESTful API service in AWS that would be serviced via the following url Which of the following combination of services can be used for development and hosting of the RESTful service? Choose 2 answers from the options below

  • A. AWS Lambda and AWS API gateway
  • B. AWS S3 and Cloudfront
  • C. AWS EC2 and AWS Elastic Load Balancer
  • D. AWS SQS and Cloudfront

Answer: A and C
AWS Lambda can be used to host the code and the API gateway can be used to access the API’s which point to AWS Lambda Alternatively you can create your own API service , host it on an EC2 Instance and then use the AWS Application Load balancer to do path based routing.
Reference: Build a Serverless Web Application with AWS Lambda, Amazon API Gateway, Amazon S3, Amazon DynamoDB, and Amazon Cognito


Q16: As a developer, you have created a Lambda function that is used to work with a bucket in Amazon S3. The Lambda function is not working as expected. You need to debug the issue and understand what’s the underlying issue. How can you accomplish this in an easily understandable way?

  • A. Use AWS Cloudwatch metrics
  • B. Put logging statements in your code
  • C. Set the Lambda function debugging level to verbose
  • D. Use AWS Cloudtrail logs

Answer: B
You can insert logging statements into your code to help you validate that your code is working as expected. Lambda automatically integrates with Amazon CloudWatch Logs and pushes all logs from your code to a CloudWatch Logs group associated with a Lambda function (/aws/lambda/).
Reference: Using Amazon CloudWatch


Q17: You have a lambda function that is processed asynchronously. You need a way to check and debug issues if the function fails? How could you accomplish this?

  • A. Use AWS Cloudwatch metrics
  • B. Assign a dead letter queue
  • C. Congure SNS notications
  • D. Use AWS Cloudtrail logs

Answer: B
Any Lambda function invoked asynchronously is retried twice before the event is discarded. If the retries fail and you’re unsure why, use Dead Letter Queues (DLQ) to direct unprocessed events to an Amazon SQS queue or an Amazon SNS topic to analyze the failure.
Reference: AWS Lambda Function Dead Letter Queues


Q18: You are developing an application that is going to make use of Amazon Kinesis. Due to the high throughput , you decide to have multiple shards for the streams. Which of the following is TRUE when it comes to processing data across multiple shards?

  • A. You cannot guarantee the order of data across multiple shards. Its possible only within a shard
  • B. Order of data is possible across all shards in a streams
  • C. Order of data is not possible at all in Kinesis streams
  • D. You need to use Kinesis firehose to guarantee the order of data

Answer: A
Kinesis Data Streams lets you order records and read and replay records in the same order to many Kinesis Data Streams applications. To enable write ordering, Kinesis Data Streams expects you to call the PutRecord API to write serially to a shard while using the sequenceNumberForOrdering parameter. Setting this parameter guarantees strictly increasing sequence numbers for puts from the same client and to the same partition key.
Option A is correct as it cannot guarantee the ordering of records across multiple shards.
Reference: How to perform ordered data replication between applications by using Amazon DynamoDB Streams


Q19: You’ve developed a Lambda function and are now in the process of debugging it. You add the necessary print statements in the code to assist in the debugging. You go to Cloudwatch logs , but you see no logs for the lambda function. Which of the following could be the underlying issue for this?

  • A. You’ve not enabled versioning for the Lambda function
  • B. The IAM Role assigned to the Lambda function does not have the necessary permission to create Logs
  • C. There is not enough memory assigned to the function
  • D. There is not enough time assigned to the function

Answer: B
“If your Lambda function code is executing, but you don’t see any log data being generated after several minutes, this could mean your execution role for the Lambda function did not grant permissions to write log data to CloudWatch Logs. For information about how to make sure that you have set up the execution role correctly to grant these permissions, see Manage Permissions: Using an IAM Role (Execution Role)”.

Reference: Using Amazon CloudWatch


Q20: Your application is developed to pick up metrics from several servers and push them off to Cloudwatch. At times , the application gets client 429 errors. Which of the following can be done from the programming side to resolve such errors?

  • A. Use the AWS CLI instead of the SDK to push the metrics
  • B. Ensure that all metrics have a timestamp before sending them across
  • C. Use exponential backoff in your request
  • D. Enable encryption for the requests

Answer: C.
The main reason for such errors is that throttling is occurring when many requests are sent via API calls. The best way to mitigate this is to stagger the rate at which you make the API calls.
In addition to simple retries, each AWS SDK implements exponential backoff algorithm for better flow control. The idea behind exponential backoff is to use progressively longer waits between retries for consecutive error responses. You should implement a maximum delay interval, as well as a maximum number of retries. The maximum delay interval and maximum number of retries are not necessarily fixed values and should be set based on the operation being performed, as well as other local factors, such as network latency.
Reference: Error Retries and Exponential Backoff in AWS

Q21: You have been instructed to use the CodePipeline service for the CI/CD automation in your company. Due to security reasons , the resources that would be part of the deployment are placed in another account. Which of the following steps need to be carried out to accomplish this deployment? Choose 2 answers from the options given below

  • A. Dene a customer master key in KMS
  • B. Create a reference Code Pipeline instance in the other account
  • C. Add a cross account role
  • D. Embed the access keys in the codepipeline process

Answer: A. and C.
You might want to create a pipeline that uses resources created or managed by another AWS account. For example, you might want to use one account for your pipeline and another for your AWS CodeDeploy resources. To do so, you must create a AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) key to use, add the key to the pipeline, and set up account policies and roles to enable cross-account access.
Reference: Create a Pipeline in CodePipeline That Uses Resources from Another AWS Account


Q22: You are planning on deploying an application to the worker role in Elastic Beanstalk. Moreover, this worker application is going to run the periodic tasks. Which of the following is a must have as part of the deployment?

  • A. An appspec.yaml file
  • B. A cron.yaml  file
  • C. A cron.cong file
  • D. An appspec.json file

Answer: B.
Create an Application Source Bundle
When you use the AWS Elastic Beanstalk console to deploy a new application or an application version, you’ll need to upload a source bundle. Your source bundle must meet the following requirements:
Consist of a single ZIP file or WAR file (you can include multiple WAR files inside your ZIP file)
Not exceed 512 MB
Not include a parent folder or top-level directory (subdirectories are fine)
If you want to deploy a worker application that processes periodic background tasks, your application source bundle must also include a cron.yaml file. For more information, see Periodic Tasks.

Reference: Create an Application Source Bundle


Q23: An application needs to make use of an SQS queue for working with messages. An SQS queue has been created with the default settings. The application needs 60 seconds to process each message. Which of the following step need to be carried out by the application.

  • A. Change the VisibilityTimeout for each message and then delete the message after processing is completed
  • B. Delete the message and change the visibility timeout.
  • C. Process the message , change the visibility timeout. Delete the message
  • D. Process the message and delete the message

Answer: A
If the SQS queue is created with the default settings , then the default visibility timeout is 30 seconds. And since the application needs more time for processing , you first need to change the timeout and delete the message after it is processed.
Reference: Amazon SQS Visibility Timeout


Q24: AWS CodeDeploy deployment fails to start & generate following error code, ”HEALTH_CONSTRAINTS_INVALID”, Which of the following can be used to eliminate this error?

  • A. Make sure the minimum number of healthy instances is equal to the total number of instances in the deployment group.
  • B. Increase the number of healthy instances required during deployment
  • C. Reduce number of healthy instances required during deployment
  • D. Make sure the number of healthy instances is equal to the specified minimum number of healthy instances.

Answer: C
AWS CodeDeploy generates ”HEALTH_CONSTRAINTS_INVALID” error, when a minimum number of healthy instances defined in deployment group are not available during deployment. To mitigate this error, make sure required number of healthy instances are available during deployments.
Reference: Error Codes for AWS CodeDeploy


Q25: How are the state machines in AWS Step Functions defined?

  • A. SAML
  • B. XML
  • C. YAML
  • D. JSON

Answer: D. JSON
AWS Step Functions state machines are defines in JSON files!
Reference: What Is AWS Step Functions?


Q26:How can API Gateway methods be configured to respond to requests?

  • A. Forwarded to method handlers
  • B. AWS Lambda
  • C. Integrated with other AWS Services
  • D. Existing HTTP endpoints

Answer: B. C. D.

Reference: Set up REST API Methods in API Gateway


Q27: Which of the following could be an example of an API Gateway Resource URL for a trucks resource?

  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.

Answer: C

Reference: Amazon API Gateway Concepts


Q28: API Gateway Deployments are:

  • A. A specific snapshot of your API’s methods
  • B. A specific snapshot of all of your API’s settings, resources, and methods
  • C. A specific snapshot of your API’s resources
  • D. A specific snapshot of your API’s resources and methods

Answer: D.
AWS API Gateway Deployments are a snapshot of all the resources and methods of your API and their configuration.
Reference: Deploying a REST API in Amazon API Gateway


Q29: A SWF workflow task or task execution can live up to how long?

  • A. 1 Year
  • B. 14 days
  • C. 24 hours
  • D. 3 days

Answer: A. 1 Year
Each workflow execution can run for a maximum of 1 year. Each workflow execution history can grow up to 25,000 events. If your use case requires you to go beyond these limits, you can use features Amazon SWF provides to continue executions and structure your applications using child workflow executions.
Reference: Amazon SWF FAQs


Q30: With AWS Step Functions, all the work in your state machine is done by tasks. These tasks performs work by using what types of things? (Choose the best 3 answers)

  • A. An AWS Lambda Function Integration
  • B. Passing parameters to API actions of other services
  • C. Activities
  • D. An EC2 Integration

Answer: A. B. C.



Q31: How does SWF make decisions?

  • A. A decider program that is written in the language of the developer’s choice
  • B. A visual workflow created in the SWF visual workflow editor
  • C. A JSON-defined state machine that contains states within it to select the next step to take
  • D. SWF outsources all decisions to human deciders through the AWS Mechanical Turk service.

Answer: A.
SWF allows the developer to write their own application logic to make decisions and determine how to evaluate incoming data.
Q: What programming conveniences does Amazon SWF provide to write applications? Like other AWS services, Amazon SWF provides a core SDK for the web service APIs. Additionally, Amazon SWF offers an SDK called the AWS Flow Framework that enables you to develop Amazon SWF-based applications quickly and easily. AWS Flow Framework abstracts the details of task-level coordination with familiar programming constructs. While running your program, the framework makes calls to Amazon SWF, tracks your program’s execution state using the execution history kept by Amazon SWF, and invokes the relevant portions of your code at the right times. By offering an intuitive programming framework to access Amazon SWF, AWS Flow Framework enables developers to write entire applications as asynchronous interactions structured in a workflow. For more details, please see What is the AWS Flow Framework?


Q32: In order to effectively build and test your code, AWS CodeBuild allows you to:

  • A. Select and use some 3rd party providers to run tests against your code
  • B. Select a pre-configured environment
  • C. Provide your own custom AMI
  • D. Provide your own custom container image

Answer:A. B. and D.

Reference: AWS CodeBuild FAQs


Q33: X-Ray Filter Expressions allow you to search through request information using characteristics like:

  • A. URL Paths
  • B. Metadata
  • C. Trace ID
  • D. Annotations


Q34: CodePipeline pipelines are workflows that deal with stages, actions, transitions, and artifacts. Which of the following statements is true about these concepts?

  • A. Stages contain at least two actions
  • B. Artifacts are never modified or iterated on when used inside of CodePipeline
  • C. Stages contain at least one action
  • D. Actions will have a deployment artifact as either an input an output or both

Answer: B. C. D.



Q35: When deploying a simple Python web application with Elastic Beanstalk which of the following AWS resources will be created and managed for you by Elastic Beanstalk?

  • A. An Elastic Load Balancer
  • B. An S3 Bucket
  • C. A Lambda Function
  • D. An EC2 instance

Answer: A. B. and D.
AWS Elastic Beanstalk uses proven AWS features and services, such as Amazon EC2, Amazon RDS, Elastic Load Balancing, Auto Scaling, Amazon S3, and Amazon SNS, to create an environment that runs your application. The current version of AWS Elastic Beanstalk uses the Amazon Linux AMI or the Windows Server 2012 R2 AMI.
Reference: AWS Elastic Beanstalk FAQs


Q36: Elastic Beanstalk is used to:

  • A. Deploy and scale web applications and services developed with a supported platform
  • B. Deploy and scale serverless applications
  • C. Deploy and scale applications based purely on EC2 instances
  • D. Manage the deployment of all AWS infrastructure resources of your AWS applications

Answer: A.
Who should use AWS Elastic Beanstalk?
Those who want to deploy and manage their applications within minutes in the AWS Cloud. You don’t need experience with cloud computing to get started. AWS Elastic Beanstalk supports Java, .NET, PHP, Node.js, Python, Ruby, Go, and Docker web applications.


Q35: How can AWS X-Ray determine what data to collect?

  • A. X-Ray applies a sampling algorithm by default
  • B. X-Ray collects data on all requests by default
  • C. You can implement your own sampling frequencies for data collection
  • D. X-Ray collects data on all requests for services enabled with it

Answer: A. and C.

Reference: AWS X-Ray FAQs


Q37: Which API call is used to list all resources that belong to a CloudFormation Stack?

  • A. DescribeStacks
  • B. GetTemplate
  • C. DescribeStackResources
  • D. ListStackResources

Answer: D.

Reference: ListStackResources


Q38: What is the default behaviour of a CloudFormation stack if the creation of one resource fails?

  • A. Rollback
  • B. The stack continues creating and the failed resource is ignored
  • C. Delete
  • D. Undo

Answer: A. Rollback

Reference: AWS CloudFormation FAQs


Q39: Which AWS CLI command lists all current stacks in your CloudFormation service?

  • A. aws cloudformation describe-stacks
  • B. aws cloudformation list-stacks
  • C. aws cloudformation create-stack
  • D. aws cloudformation describe-stack-resources

Answer: A. and B.

Reference: list-stacks


Which API call is used to list all resources that belong to a CloudFormation Stack?

  • A. DescribeStacks
  • B. GetTemplate
  • C. ListStackResources
  • D. DescribeStackResources

Answer: C.

Reference: list-stack-resources


Q41: How does using ElastiCache help to improve database performance?

  • A. It can store petabytes of data
  • B. It provides faster internet speeds
  • C. It can store the results of frequent or highly-taxing queries
  • D. It uses read replicas

Answer: C.
With ElastiCache, customers get all of the benefits of a high-performance, in-memory cache with less of the administrative burden involved in launching and managing a distributed cache. The service makes setup, scaling, and cluster failure handling much simpler than in a self-managed cache deployment.
Reference: Amazon ElastiCache


Q42: Which of the following best describes the Lazy Loading caching strategy?

  • A. Every time the underlying database is written to or updated the cache is updated with the new information.
  • B. Every miss to the cache is counted and when a specific number is reached a full copy of the database is migrated to the cache
  • C. A specific amount of time is set before the data in the cache is marked as expired. After expiration, a request for expired data will be made through to the backing database.
  • D. Data is added to the cache when a cache miss occurs (when there is no data in the cache and the request must go to the database for that data)

Answer: D.
Amazon ElastiCache is an in-memory key/value store that sits between your application and the data store (database) that it accesses. Whenever your application requests data, it first makes the request to the ElastiCache cache. If the data exists in the cache and is current, ElastiCache returns the data to your application. If the data does not exist in the cache, or the data in the cache has expired, your application requests the data from your data store which returns the data to your application. Your application then writes the data received from the store to the cache so it can be more quickly retrieved next time it is requested.
Reference: Lazy Loading


Q43: What are two benefits of using RDS read replicas?

  • A. You can add/remove read replicas based on demand, so it creates elasticity for RDS.
  • B. Improves performance of the primary database by taking workload from it
  • C. Automatic failover in the case of Availability Zone service failures
  • D. Allows both reads and writes

Answer: A. and B.

Reference: Amazon RDS Read Replicas


Q44: What is the simplest way to enable an S3 bucket to be able to send messages to your SNS topic?

  • A. Attach an IAM role to the S3 bucket to send messages to SNS.
  • B. Activate the S3 pipeline feature to send notifications to another AWS service – in this case select SNS.
  • C. Add a resource-based access control policy on the SNS topic.
  • D. Use AWS Lambda to receive events from the S3 bucket and then use the Publish API action to send them to the SNS topic.

Answer: C.

Reference: Access Control List (ACL) Overview


Q45: You have just set up a push notification service to send a message to an app installed on a device with the Apple Push Notification Service. It seems to work fine. You now want to send a message to an app installed on devices for multiple platforms, those being the Apple Push Notification Service(APNS) and Google Cloud Messaging for Android (GCM). What do you need to do first for this to be successful?

  • A. Request Credentials from Mobile Platforms, so that each device has the correct access control policies to access the SNS publisher
  • B. Create a Platform Application Object which will connect all of the mobile devices with your app to the correct SNS topic.
  • C. Request a Token from Mobile Platforms, so that each device has the correct access control policies to access the SNS publisher.
  • D. Get a set of credentials in order to be able to connect to the push notification service you are trying to setup.

Answer: D.
To use Amazon SNS mobile push notifications, you need to establish a connection with a supported push notification service. This connection is established using a set of credentials.
Reference: Add Device Tokens or Registration IDs


Q46: SNS message can be sent to different kinds of endpoints. Which of these is NOT currently a supported endpoint?

  • A. Slack Messages
  • B. SMS (text message)
  • D. AWS Lambda

Answer: A.
Slack messages are not directly integrated with SNS, though theoretically, you could write a service to push messages to slack from SNS.


Q47: Company B provides an online image recognition service and utilizes SQS to decouple system components for scalability. The SQS consumers poll the imaging queue as often as possible to keep end-to-end throughput as high as possible. However, Company B is realizing that polling in tight loops is burning CPU cycles and increasing costs with empty responses. How can Company B reduce the number empty responses?

  • A. Set the imaging queue VisibilityTimeout attribute to 20 seconds
  • B. Set the imaging queue MessageRetentionPeriod attribute to 20 seconds
  • C. Set the imaging queue ReceiveMessageWaitTimeSeconds Attribute to 20 seconds
  • D. Set the DelaySeconds parameter of a message to 20 seconds

Answer: C.
Enabling long polling reduces the amount of false and empty responses from SQS service. It also reduces the number of calls that need to be made to a queue by staying connected to the queue until all messages have been received or until timeout. In order to enable long polling the ReceiveMessageWaitTimeSeconds attribute needs to be set to a number greater than 0. If it is set to 0 then short polling is enabled.
Reference: Amazon SQS Long Polling


Q48: Which of the following statements about SQS standard queues are true?

  • A. Message order can be indeterminate – you’re not guaranteed to get messages in the same order they were sent in
  • B. Messages will be delivered exactly once and messages will be delivered in First in, First out order
  • C. Messages will be delivered exactly once and message delivery order is indeterminate
  • D. Messages can be delivered one or more times

Answer: A. and D.
A standard queue makes a best effort to preserve the order of messages, but more than one copy of a message might be delivered out of order. If your system requires that order be preserved, we recommend using a FIFO (First-In-First-Out) queue or adding sequencing information in each message so you can reorder the messages when they’re received.
Reference: Amazon SQS Standard Queues


Q49: Which of the following is true if long polling is enabled?

  • A. If long polling is enabled, then each poll only polls a subset of SQS servers; in order for all messages to be received, polling must continuously occur
  • B. The reader will listen to the queue until timeout
  • C. Increases costs because each request lasts longer
  • D. The reader will listen to the queue until a message is available or until timeout

Answer: D.

Reference: Amazon SQS Long Polling


Q50: When dealing with session state in EC2-based applications using Elastic load balancers which option is generally thought of as the best practice for managing user sessions?

  • A. Having the ELB distribute traffic to all EC2 instances and then having the instance check a caching solution like ElastiCache running Redis or Memcached for session information
  • B. Permanently assigning users to specific instances and always routing their traffic to those instances
  • C. Using Application-generated cookies to tie a user session to a particular instance for the cookie duration
  • D. Using Elastic Load Balancer generated cookies to tie a user session to a particular instance

Answer: A.

Reference: Distributed Session Management


Q51: When requested through an STS API call, credentials are returned with what three components?

  • A. Security Token, Access Key ID, Signed URL
  • B. Security Token, Access Key ID, Secret Access Key
  • C. Signed URL, Security Token, Username
  • D. Security Token, Secret Access Key, Personal Pin Code

Answer: B.
Security Token, Access Key ID, Secret Access Key


Q52: Your application must write to an SQS queue. Your corporate security policies require that AWS credentials are always encrypted and are rotated at least once a week.
How can you securely provide credentials that allow your application to write to the queue?

  • A. Have the application fetch an access key from an Amazon S3 bucket at run time.
  • B. Launch the application’s Amazon EC2 instance with an IAM role.
  • C. Encrypt an access key in the application source code.
  • D. Enroll the instance in an Active Directory domain and use AD authentication.

Answer: B.
IAM roles are based on temporary security tokens, so they are rotated automatically. Keys in the source code cannot be rotated (and are a very bad idea). It’s impossible to retrieve credentials from an S3 bucket if you don’t already have credentials for that bucket. Active Directory authorization will not grant access to AWS resources.
Reference: AWS IAM FAQs


Q53: Your web application reads an item from your DynamoDB table, changes an attribute, and then writes the item back to the table. You need to ensure that one process doesn’t overwrite a simultaneous change from another process.
How can you ensure concurrency?

  • A. Implement optimistic concurrency by using a conditional write.
  • B. Implement pessimistic concurrency by using a conditional write.
  • C. Implement optimistic concurrency by locking the item upon read.
  • D. Implement pessimistic concurrency by locking the item upon read.

Answer: A.
Optimistic concurrency depends on checking a value upon save to ensure that it has not changed. Pessimistic concurrency prevents a value from changing by locking the item or row in the database. DynamoDB does not support item locking, and conditional writes are perfect for implementing optimistic concurrency.
Reference: Optimistic Locking With Version Number


Q54: Which statements about DynamoDB are true? Choose 2 answers

  • A. DynamoDB uses optimistic concurrency control
  • B. DynamoDB restricts item access during writes
  • C. DynamoDB uses a pessimistic locking model
  • D. DynamoDB restricts item access during reads
  • E. DynamoDB uses conditional writes for consistency


Q55: Your CloudFormation template has the following Mappings section:

Which JSON snippet will result in the value “ami-6411e20d” when a stack is launched in us-east-1?

  • A. { “Fn::FindInMap” : [ “Mappings”, { “RegionMap” : [“us-east-1”, “us-west-1”] }, “32”]}
  • B. { “Fn::FindInMap” : [ “Mappings”, { “Ref” : “AWS::Region” }, “32”]}
  • C. { “Fn::FindInMap” : [ “RegionMap”, { “Ref” : “AWS::Region” }, “32”]}
  • D. { “Fn::FindInMap” : [ “RegionMap”, { “RegionMap” : “AWS::Region” }, “32”]}

Answer: C.
The intrinsic function Fn::FindInMap returns the value corresponding to keys in a two-level map that is declared in the Mappings section.
You can use the Fn::FindInMap function to return a named value based on a specified key. The following example template contains an Amazon EC2 resource whose ImageId property is assigned by the FindInMap function. The FindInMap function specifies key as the region where the stack is created (using the AWS::Region pseudo parameter) and HVM64 as the name of the value to map to.


Q56: Your application triggers events that must be delivered to all your partners. The exact partner list is constantly changing: some partners run a highly available endpoint, and other partners’ endpoints are online only a few hours each night. Your application is mission-critical, and communication with your partners must not introduce delay in its operation. A delay in delivering the event to one partner cannot delay delivery to other partners.


What is an appropriate way to code this?

  • A. Implement an Amazon SWF task to deliver the message to each partner. Initiate an Amazon SWF workflow execution.
  • B. Send the event as an Amazon SNS message. Instruct your partners to create an HTTP. Subscribe their HTTP endpoint to the Amazon SNS topic.
  • C. Create one SQS queue per partner. Iterate through the queues and write the event to each one. Partners retrieve messages from their queue.
  • D. Send the event as an Amazon SNS message. Create one SQS queue per partner that subscribes to the Amazon SNS topic. Partners retrieve messages from their queue.

Answer: D.
There are two challenges here: the command must be “fanned out” to a variable pool of partners, and your app must be decoupled from the partners because they are not highly available.
Sending the command as an SNS message achieves the fan-out via its publication/subscribe model, and using an SQS queue for each partner decouples your app from the partners. Writing the message to each queue directly would cause more latency for your app and would require your app to monitor which partners were active. It would be difficult to write an Amazon SWF workflow for a rapidly changing set of partners.

Reference: AWS SNS Faqs


Q57: You have a three-tier web application (web, app, and data) in a single Amazon VPC. The web and app tiers each span two Availability Zones, are in separate subnets, and sit behind ELB Classic Load Balancers. The data tier is a Multi-AZ Amazon RDS MySQL database instance in database subnets.
When you call the database tier from your app tier instances, you receive a timeout error. What could be causing this?

  • A. The IAM role associated with the app tier instances does not have rights to the MySQL database.
  • B. The security group for the Amazon RDS instance does not allow traffic on port 3306 from the app
  • C. The Amazon RDS database instance does not have a public IP address.
  • D. There is no route defined between the app tier and the database tier in the Amazon VPC.

Answer: B.
Security groups block all network traffic by default, so if a group is not correctly configured, it can lead to a timeout error. MySQL security, not IAM, controls MySQL security. All subnets in an Amazon VPC have routes to all other subnets. Internal traffic within an Amazon VPC does not require public IP addresses.

Reference: Security Groups for Your VPC


Q58: What type of block cipher does Amazon S3 offer for server side encryption?

  • A. RC5
  • B. Blowfish
  • C. Triple DES
  • D. Advanced Encryption Standard

Answer: D
Amazon S3 server-side encryption uses one of the strongest block ciphers available, 256-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-256), to encrypt your data.

Reference: Protecting Data Using Server-Side Encryption


Q59: You have written an application that uses the Elastic Load Balancing service to spread
traffic to several web servers Your users complain that they are sometimes forced to login
again in the middle of using your application, after they have already togged in. This is not
behaviour you have designed. What is a possible solution to prevent this happening?

  • A. Use instance memory to save session state.
  • B. Use instance storage to save session state.
  • C. Use EBS to save session state
  • D. Use ElastiCache to save session state.
  • E. Use Glacier to save session slate.

Answer: D.
You can cache a variety of objects using the service, from the content in persistent data stores (such as Amazon RDS, DynamoDB, or self-managed databases hosted on EC2) to dynamically generated web pages (with Nginx for example), or transient session data that may not require a persistent backing store. You can also use it to implement high-frequency counters to deploy admission control in high volume web applications.

Reference: Amazon ElastiCache FAQs


Q60: You are writing to a DynamoDB table and receive the following exception:”
ProvisionedThroughputExceededException”. though according to your Cloudwatch metrics
for the table, you are not exceeding your provisioned throughput. What could be an
explanation for this?

  • A. You haven’t provisioned enough DynamoDB storage instances
  • B. You’re exceeding your capacity on a particular Range Key
  • C. You’re exceeding your capacity on a particular Hash Key
  • D. You’re exceeding your capacity on a particular Sort Key
  • E. You haven’t configured DynamoDB Auto Scaling triggers

Answer: C.
The primary key that uniquely identifies each item in a DynamoDB table can be simple (a partition key only) or composite (a partition key combined with a sort key).
Generally speaking, you should design your application for uniform activity across all logical partition keys in the Table and its secondary indexes.
You can determine the access patterns that your application requires, and estimate the total read capacity units and write capacity units that each table and secondary Index requires.

As traffic starts to flow, DynamoDB automatically supports your access patterns using the throughput you have provisioned, as long as the traffic against a given partition key does not exceed 3000 read capacity units or 1000 write capacity units.

Reference: Best Practices for Designing and Using Partition Keys Effectively


Q61: Which DynamoDB limits can be raised by contacting AWS support?

  • A. The number of hash keys per account
  • B. The maximum storage used per account
  • C. The number of tables per account
  • D. The number of local secondary indexes per account
  • E. The number of provisioned throughput units per account

Answer: C. and E.

For any AWS account, there is an initial limit of 256 tables per region.
AWS places some default limits on the throughput you can provision.
These are the limits unless you request a higher amount.
To request a service limit increase see Limits in DynamoDB


Other AWS Facts and Summaries

Latest DevOps and SysAdmin Feed

What is DevOps in Simple English?

What is a System Administrator?

DevOps: In IT world, DevOps means Development Operations. The DevOps is the bridge between the developers, the servers and the infrastructure and his main role is to automate the process of delivering code to operations.
DevOps on wikipedia: is a software development process that emphasizes communication and collaboration between product management, software development, and operations professionals. DevOps also automates the process of software integration, testing, deployment and infrastructure changes.[1][2] It aims to establish a culture and environment where building, testing, and releasing software can happen rapidly, frequently, and more reliably.

DevOps Latest Feeds

DevOps Resources

  1. What is DevOps? Tackling some frequently asked questions
  2. Find Remote DevOps Jobs here.

Things to do to build more diverse technical teams?

What are specific Things to do to build more diverse technical teams?

  • 1. Start at the junior high school level in poor neighborhood by helping schools to teach minority kids how to code.
  • 2. Help set up computer labs in junior high school in poor neighborhoods so that kids who cannot afford the equipment can use the lab.
  • 3. Start coding challenges with prizes in those high school neighborhood and make the kids feel confident about their abilities.
  • 4. Get successful minorities entrepreneurs to host the kids and give them tours of their companies and offices and projects to inspire them.
  • 5. Give internships to minorities kids starting in high school.
  • 6. For the kids in senior high school who missed early adoption to coding, speed them up with after hours coding classes to prepare them for college.
  • 7. In college, make the minority kids feel welcome. Try to make them part of all activities ( computer related or not).
  • 8. For the kids in senior high school who missed early adoption to coding, speed them up with after hours coding classes to prepare them for college.
  • 9. In college, make the minority kids feel welcome. Try to make them part of all activities ( computer related or not). Help find internships from top IT firms (Google, Apple, IBM, etc.) for minorities.
  • 10. When minorities start working after college, welcome them in the team and trust them. Don’t just invite certain kids to dinner and golf. It makes minorities feel unappreciated and unwanted.
  • 11. Give minorities the same opportunity of advancement at work with other employees.
  • 12. Inclusion, inclusion, inclusion in every aspect of the company is the key.
  • Assess the progress of your efforts and adjust. Make sure that team leads or managers are open minded people and make it a priority for them to build diverse teams, because in the long run, it will be a win win for the company

Read more here on Quora.

How to stay healthy as a software engineer?

Tricks and Tips: How to stay healthy as a software engineer or IT professional?

I am a software engineer like you and by my second year I started feeling the unhealthy behavior of sitting down and coding for long hours.

How to stay healthy as a software engineer
How to stay healthy as a software engineer

Below are the steps that I took:

  1. Avoid sitting down for more than 1 hour without getting up for a walk.
  2. Stand up for 15 minutes every hour to code.
  3. Take multiple short walks outdoor during working hours.
  4. Avoid elevators unless you have no choice, use the stairs to go up and down if your office floor is lower than the 5th floor.
  5. Avoid drinking sweet drinks or too much coffee during work hours.
  6. Avoid eating chips or almost anything while working.
  7. Instead of spending long hours reading manuals and documents on your computer, print them out, then take a walk and read them somewhere quiet while standing.
  8. Stretch often while working (extend your legs, arms, rotate your neck).
  9. Take short breaks of 2 to 5 minutes every 2 hours to read something different from your main topic. It can be news, sports, entertainment, or anything else you like. I read or write on Quora during my breaks.
  10. Change your position frequently and don’t hesitate to stand up at your desk from time to time while working.
  11. Make sure that your chair is always comfortable. Don’t hesitate to upgrade or get a better chair if necessary.

Here are the steps that I took to stay active and healthy:

  1. I am committed, no matter what, to playing at least 2 competitive games of soccer or basketball a week, either in an amateur team league or at drop-in sports leagues. Check out one of my drop in league chapter in your city at ShowUpAndPlaySports chapters – Djamga – ShowUpAndPlaySports
  2. I volunteer to organize soccer and basketball games every week via Home – Djamga – ShowUpAndPlaySports
  3. I walk regularly at lunch time, and try to get as much sunshine as possible.
  4. I visit a chiropractor once a month to adjust my back and neck.
  5. I visit a certified massage therapist regularly to work on my neck, back, hamstrings, and feet.
  6. I visit a pedicure clinic once a month for a good pedicure and foot massage.
  7. I eat a healthy diet of mostly vegetables and fish (mostly salmon).
  8. I drastically reduced the carbs in my diet. Every morning, I take one cup of coffee or tea with no sugar or milk and a small cake. Then, I am covered until dinner time. In the evening, I have a large meal of vegetables and fish, usually salmon.
  9. I drink plenty of water.
  10. I don’t drink alcohol or smoke.
  11. It is very important to sleep well; sleep at least 6 hours per day.
    You spend about 25% of your life in your bed, there you need to invest on your mattresses, pillows, bed furnitures and upgrade them regularly.

After adopting these habits, my efficiency came back. I was able to work as hard as when I was a student . I even lost weight!

Now, I can go toe-to-toe with young players and students in their twenties on the soccer field. I easily work more than 60 hours per week and still have enough time to play with my kids and enjoy a fulfilling life with my family.

I highly recommend these life-changing habits to all IT professionals and engineers so they can remain healthy and effective as they get older and busier.

Djamga – ShowUpAndPlaySports

What is Djamga – ShowUpAndPlaySports?

Djamga - ShowUpAndPlaySports

I have been playing soccer or football ever since I could walk. I played everywhere, in the streets growing up, in High school, in college, everywhere I go, I always figure out a way to play the beautiful game.

I also work as a Software Engineer and I started ShowUpAndPlaySports in 2009 to help people play pick up games in Calgary,AB, Canada. I then recreated the experience a few years later in Edmonton, AB, Canada. I started with 3 players and I now have more than 2400 players and counting in both cities.

Hard working professionals need to play team sports to stay active, network and just enjoy the beautiful games.

I was surprised how hard it was to find a pick up games in most cities in North America. So I decided to fix it.

After creating 2 successful Organized pick up sports league in Calgary and Edmonton, I wanted to help everybody in the world to find a place to play anytime. I have therefore created the App Djamga to do just that. You can use Djamga to find the following Pick Up or Drop in games around the world:

See android version below
See iOs version below

Download Android version below:
Get it on Google Play
Download iPhone version below:

Download Djamga App on iTunes App Store.