CyberSecurity 101 and Top 25 AWS Certified Security Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps

AWS Certified Security – Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps

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CyberSecurity 101 and Top 25 AWS Certified Security Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps

Almost 4.57 billion people were active internet users as of July 2020, encompassing 59 percent of the global population.  94% of enterprises use cloud. 77% of organizations worldwide have at least one application running on the cloud. This results in an exponential growth of cyber attacks. Therefore, CyberSecurity is one  the biggest challenge to individuals and organizations worldwide:  158,727 cyber attacks per hour, 2,645 per minute and 44 every second of every day.  

In this blog, we cover the Top 25 AWS Certified Security Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps and all latest and relevant information about CyberSecurity including:

I- The AWS Certified Security – Specialty (SCS-C01) examination is intended for  individuals who perform a security role. This exam validates an examinee’s ability to effectively demonstrate knowledge about securing the AWS platform.

It validates an examinee’s ability to demonstrate:

An understanding of specialized data classifications and AWS data protection mechanisms.

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An understanding of data-encryption methods and AWS mechanisms to implement them.

An understanding of secure Internet protocols and AWS mechanisms to implement them.

A working knowledge of AWS security services and features of services to provide a secure production environment.


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Competency gained from two or more years of production deployment experience using AWS security services and features.

The ability to make tradeoff decisions with regard to cost, security, and deployment complexity given a set of application requirements.

CyberSecurity 101 and Top 25  AWS Certified Security Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps
AWS Certified Security Specialty

An understanding of security operations and risks.

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Below are the Top 25 AWS Certified Security Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps including Notes, Hint and References:

Question 1:  When requested through an STS API call, credentials are returned with what three components?

A)  Security Token, Access Key ID, Signed URL
B) Security Token, Access Key ID, Secret Access Key
C) Signed URL, Security Token, Username
D) Security Token, Secret Access Key, Personal Pin Code
 

ANSWER1:

B

Notes/Hint1:

Reference1: Security Token, Access Key ID, Secret Access Key

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Question 2: A company has AWS workloads in multiple geographical locations. A Developer has created an Amazon Aurora database in the us-west-1 Region. The database is encrypted using a customer-managed AWS KMS key. Now the Developer wants to create the same encrypted database in the us-east-1 Region. Which approach should the Developer take to accomplish this task?

A) Create a snapshot of the database in the us-west-1 Region. Copy the snapshot to the us-east-1 Region and specify a KMS key in the us-east-1 Region. Restore the database from the copied snapshot.
B) Create an unencrypted snapshot of the database in the us-west-1 Region. Copy the snapshot to the useast-1 Region. Restore the database from the copied snapshot and enable encryption using the KMS key from the us-east-1 Region
C) Disable encryption on the database. Create a snapshot of the database in the us-west-1 Region. Copy the snapshot to the us-east-1 Region. Restore the database from the copied snapshot.
D) In the us-east-1 Region, choose to restore the latest automated backup of the database from the us-west1 Region. Enable encryption using a KMS key in the us-east-1 Region
 

ANSWER2:

A

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Notes/Hint2:

If a user copies an encrypted snapshot, the copy of the snapshot must also be encrypted. If a user copies an encrypted snapshot across Regions, users cannot use the same AWS KMS encryption key for the copy as used for the source snapshot, because KMS keys are Region specific. Instead, users must specify a KMS key that is valid in the destination Region

Reference2: copies an encrypted snapshot, KMS Keys are Region-specific

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Question 3: A corporate cloud security policy states that communication between the company’s VPC and KMS must travel entirely within the AWS network and not use public service endpoints. Which combination of the following actions MOST satisfies this requirement? (Select TWO.) 

A) Add the aws:sourceVpce condition to the AWS KMS key policy referencing the company’s VPC endpoint ID.
 
B) Remove the VPC internet gateway from the VPC and add a virtual private gateway to the VPC to prevent direct, public internet connectivity.
 
C) Create a VPC endpoint for AWS KMS with private DNS enabled.
 
D) Use the KMS Import Key feature to securely transfer the AWS KMS key over a VPN. E) Add the following condition to the AWS KMS key policy: “aws:SourceIp”: “10.0.0.0/16“.
 

ANSWER3:

A and C

Notes/Hint3: 

An IAM policy can deny access to AWS KMS except through your VPC endpoint with the following condition statement: 
“Condition”:  {
     “StringNotEquals”: { 
             “aws:sourceVpce”: “vpce-0295a3caf8414c94a” 
                 } 
}
 If you select the Enable Private DNS Name option, the standard AWS KMS DNS hostname resolves to your VPC endpoint.

Reference3: AWS KMS

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Question 4: An application team is designing a solution with two applications. The security team wants the applications’ logs to be captured in two different places, because one of the applications produces logs with sensitive data. Which solution meets the requirement with the LEAST risk and effort? 

A) Use Amazon CloudWatch Logs to capture all logs, write an AWS Lambda function that parses the log file, and move sensitive data to a different log.
 
B) Use Amazon CloudWatch Logs with two log groups, with one for each application, and use an AWS IAM policy to control access to the log groups, as required.
 
C) Aggregate logs into one file, then use Amazon CloudWatch Logs, and then design two CloudWatch metric filters to filter sensitive data from the logs.
 
 D) Add logic to the application that saves sensitive data logs on the Amazon EC2 instances’ local storage, and write a batch script that logs into the Amazon EC2 instances and moves sensitive logs to a secure location.
 

ANSWER4:

B

Notes/Hint4: 

Each application’s log can be configured to send the log to a specific Amazon CloudWatch Logs log group.

Reference4: Amazon CloudWatch Logs log group.

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Question 5: A security engineer must set up security group rules for a three-tier application: 

  • Presentation tier – Accessed by users over the web, protected by the security group presentation-sg
  • Logic tier – RESTful API accessed from the presentation tier through HTTPS, protected by the security group logic-sg
  • Data tier – SQL Server database accessed over port 1433 from the logic tier, protected by the security group data-sg
Which combination of the following security group rules will allow the application to be secure and functional? (Select THREE.)
 
A) presentation-sg: Allow ports 80 and 443 from 0.0.0.0/0
B) data-sg: Allow port 1433 from presentation-sg
C) data-sg: Allow port 1433 from logic-sg
D) presentation-sg: Allow port 1433 from data-sg
 E) logic-sg: Allow port 443 from presentation-sg
F) logic-sg: Allow port 443 from 0.0.0.0/0
 

ANSWER5:

A C and E

Notes/Hint5: 

In an n-tier architecture, each tier’s security group allows traffic from the security group sending it traffic only. The presentation tier opens traffic for HTTP and HTTPS from the internet. Since security groups are stateful, only inbound rules are required.

Reference5: n-tier architecture

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Question 6: A security engineer is working with a product team building a web application on AWS. The application uses Amazon S3 to host the static content, Amazon API Gateway to provide RESTful services, and Amazon DynamoDB as the backend data store. The users already exist in a directory that is exposed through a SAML identity provider. Which combination of the following actions should the engineer take to enable users to be authenticated into the web application and call APIs? (Select THREE). 

A) Create a custom authorization service using AWS Lambda.
 
B) Configure a SAML identity provider in Amazon Cognito to map attributes to the Amazon Cognito user pool attributes.
 
C) Configure the SAML identity provider to add the Amazon Cognito user pool as a relying party.
 
D) Configure an Amazon Cognito identity pool to integrate with social login providers.
 
E) Update DynamoDB to store the user email addresses and passwords.
 
F) Update API Gateway to use an Amazon Cognito user pool authorizer.

ANSWER6:

B, C and F

Notes/Hint6: 

When Amazon Cognito receives a SAML assertion, it needs to be able to map SAML attributes to user pool attributes. When configuring Amazon Cognito to receive SAML assertions from an identity provider, you need ensure that the identity provider is configured to have Amazon Cognito as a relying party. Amazon API Gateway will need to be able to understand the authorization being passed from Amazon Cognito, which is a configuration step.

Reference6: user pool attributes Amazon API Gateway 

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Question 7: A company is hosting a web application on AWS and is using an Amazon S3 bucket to store images. Users should have the ability to read objects in the bucket. A security engineer has written the following bucket policy to grant public read access:

Attempts to read an object, however, receive the error: “Action does not apply to any resource(s) in statement.” What should the engineer do to fix the error? 
 
A) Change the IAM permissions by applying PutBucketPolicy permissions.
 
B) Verify that the policy has the same name as the bucket name. If not, make it the same.
 
C) Change the resource section to “arn:aws:s3:::appbucket/*”.
 
D) Add an s3:ListBucket action.
 

ANSWER7:

C

Notes/Hint7: 

The resource section should match with the type of operation. Change the ARN to include /* at the end, as it is an object operation.

Reference7: IAM Policy – Access to S3 bucket

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Question 8: A company decides to place database hosts in its own VPC, and to set up VPC peering to different VPCs containing the application and web tiers. The application servers are unable to connect to the database. Which network troubleshooting steps should be taken to resolve the issue? (Select TWO.)

 A) Check to see if the application servers are in a private subnet or public subnet.
B) Check the route tables for the application server subnets for routes to the VPC peering connection.
C) Check the NACLs for the database subnets for rules that allow traffic from the internet.
D) Check the database security groups for rules that allow traffic from the application servers.
E) Check to see if the database VPC has an internet gateway.
 

ANSWER8:

B and D

Notes/Hint8: 

You must configure the route tables in each VPC to route to each other through the peering connection. You also must add rules to the security group for the databases to accept requests from the application server security group in the other VPC. 

Reference8: route tables ,  rules to the security groupsecurity group in the other VPC

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Question 9: A company is building a data lake on Amazon S3. The data consists of millions of small files containing sensitive information. The security team has the following requirements for the architecture: 

  • Data must be encrypted in transit. 
  • Data must be encrypted at rest. 
  • The bucket must be private, but if the bucket is accidentally made public, the data must remain confidential. 
Which combination of steps would meet the requirements? (Select TWO.) 
 
A) Enable AES-256 encryption using server-side encryption with Amazon S3-managed encryption keys (SSE-S3) on the S3 bucket.
 
B) Enable default encryption with server-side encryption with AWS KMS-managed keys (SSE-KMS) on the S3 bucket.
 
C) Add a bucket policy that includes a deny if a PutObject request does not include aws:SecureTransport.
 
D) Add a bucket policy with aws:SourceIp to allow uploads and downloads from the corporate intranet only.
 
E) Enable Amazon Macie to monitor and act on changes to the data lake’s S3 bucket.

ANSWER9:

B and C

Notes/Hint9: 

Bucket encryption using KMS will protect both in case disks are stolen as well as if the bucket is public. This is because the AWS KMS key would need to have privileges granted to it for users outside of AWS. HTTPS will protect data in transit.

Reference9: Bucket encryption using KMS, privileges granted data in transit

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Question 10: A security engineer must ensure that all API calls are collected across all company accounts, and that they are preserved online and are instantly available for analysis for 90 days. For compliance reasons, this data must be restorable for 7 years. Which steps must be taken to meet the retention needs in a scalable, cost-effective way? 

A) Enable AWS CloudTrail logging across all accounts to a centralized Amazon S3 bucket with versioning enabled. Set a lifecycle policy to move the data to Amazon Glacier daily, and expire the data after 90 days.
 
B) Enable AWS CloudTrail logging across all accounts to S3 buckets. Set a lifecycle policy to expire the data in each bucket after 7 years.
 
C) Enable AWS CloudTrail logging across all accounts to Amazon Glacier. Set a lifecycle policy to expire the data after 7 years.
 
D) Enable AWS CloudTrail logging across all accounts to a centralized Amazon S3 bucket. Set a lifecycle policy to move the data to Amazon Glacier after 90 days, and expire the data after 7 years.
 

ANSWER10:

D

Notes/Hint10: 

Meets all requirements and is cost effective by using lifecycle policies to transition to Amazon Glacier.

Reference10: lifecycle policies

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Question 11: A security engineer has been informed that a user’s access key has been found on GitHub. The engineer must ensure that this access key cannot continue to be used, and must assess whether the access key was used to perform any unauthorized activities. Which steps must be taken to perform these tasks? 

A) Review the user’s IAM permissions and delete any unrecognized or unauthorized resources.
B) Delete the user, review Amazon CloudWatch Logs in all regions, and report the abuse.
C) Delete or rotate the user’s key, review the AWS CloudTrail logs in all regions, and delete any unrecognized or unauthorized resources.
D) Instruct the user to remove the key from the GitHub submission, rotate keys, and re-deploy any instances that were launched.
 

ANSWER11:

C

Notes/Hint11: 

 Removes keys and audits the environment for malicious activities.

Reference11: malicious activities

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Question 12: You have a CloudFront distribution configured with the following path patterns: When users request objects that start with ‘static2/’, they are receiving 404 response codes. What might be the problem?

A) CloudFront distributions cannot have multiple different origin types

B) The ‘*’ path pattern must appear after the ‘static2/*’ path

C) CloudFront distributions cannot have origins in different AWS regions
 
D) The ‘*’ path pattern must appear before ‘static1/*’ path
        

ANSWER12:

C

Notes/Hint12: 

CloudFront distributions cannot have origins in different AWS regions

Reference12: CloudFront

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Question 13: An application running on EC2 instances processes sensitive information stored on Amazon S3. The information is accessed over the Internet. The security team is concerned that the Internet connectivity to Amazon S3 is a security risk. Which solution will resolve the security concern?

A) Access the data through an Internet Gateway.”,
B) Access the data through a VPN connection.”,
C) Access the data through a NAT Gateway.”,
D) Access the data through a VPC endpoint for Amazon S3″,
 

ANSWER13:

D

Notes/Hint13: 

VPC endpoints for Amazon S3 provide secure connections to S3 buckets that do not require a gateway or NAT instances. NAT Gateways and Internet Gateways still route traffic over the Internet to the public endpoint for Amazon S3. There is no way to connect to Amazon S3 via VPN.

Reference13: S3 VPC Endpoints

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Question 14: An organization is building an Amazon Redshift cluster in their shared services VPC. The cluster will host sensitive data. How can the organization control which networks can access the cluster?

A) Run the cluster in a different VPC and connect through VPC peering
B) Create a database user inside the Amazon Redshift cluster only for users on the network
 C) Define a cluster security group for the cluster that allows access from the allowed networks
  D) Only allow access to networks that connect with the shared services network via VPN
 

ANSWER14:

C

Notes/Hint14: 

A security group can grant access to traffic from the allowed networks via the CIDR range for each network. VPC peering and VPN are connectivity services and cannot control traffic for security. Amazon Redshift user accounts address authentication and authorization at the user level and have no control over network traffic

Reference14: AWS Security best practice

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Question 15: From a security perspective, what is a principal?

A) An identity
B) An anonymous user
C) An authenticated user
D) A resource
 

ANSWER15:

B and C

Notes/Hint15: 

An anonymous user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an anonymous user acting on a system.  An authenticated user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an authenticated user acting on a system

Reference15: IAM

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Question 16: A company is storing an access key (access key ID and secret access key) in a text file on a custom AMI. The company uses the access key to access DynamoDB tables from instances created from the AMI. The security team has mandated a more secure solution. Which solution will meet the security team’s mandate?

A) Put the access key in an S3 bucket, and retrieve the access key on boot from the instance.
B) Pass the access key to the instances through instance user data.
C) Obtain the access key from a key server launched in a private subnet
D) Create an IAM role with permissions to access the table, and launch all instances with the new role
 

ANSWER16:

D

Notes/Hint16: 

IAM roles for EC2 instances allow applications running on the instance to access AWS resources without having to create and store any access keys. Any solution involving the creation of an access key then introduces the complexity of managing that secret

Reference16: IAM Roles for EC2

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Question 17: While signing in REST/ Query requests, for additional security, you should transmit your requests using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) by using ____.”,

A) HTTP
B) Internet Protocol Security(IPsec)
C) TLS (Transport Layer Security)
D) HTTPS
 

ANSWER17:

D

Notes/Hint17: 

REST/ Query requests should use HTTPS

Reference17: Rest API

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Question 18: You are using AWS Envelope Encryption for encrypting all sensitive data. Which of the followings is True with regards to Envelope Encryption?

A) Data is encrypted be encrypting Data key which is further encrypted using encrypted Master Key.
B) Data is encrypted by plaintext Data key which is further encrypted using encrypted Master Key.
C) Data is encrypted by encrypted Data key which is further encrypted using plaintext Master Key.
D) Data is encrypted by plaintext Data key which is further encrypted using plaintext Master Key.”,
 

ANSWER18:

D

Notes/Hint18:

With Envelope Encryption, unencrypted data is encrypted using plaintext Data key. This Data is further encrypted using plaintext Master key. This plaintext Master key is securely stored in AWS KMS & known as Customer Master Keys.

Reference18: KMS

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Question 19: Your company has developed a web application and is hosting it in an Amazon S3 bucket configured for static website hosting. The users can log in to this app using their Google/Facebook login accounts. The application is using the AWS SDK for JavaScript in the browser to access data stored in an Amazon DynamoDB table. How can you ensure that API keys for access to your data in DynamoDB are kept secure?

A) Create an Amazon S3 role in IAM with access to the specific DynamoDB tables, and assign it to the bucket hosting your website
B) Configure S3 bucket tags with your AWS access keys for your bucket hosting your website so that the application can query them for access.
C) Configure a web identity federation role within IAM to enable access to the correct DynamoDB resources and retrieve temporary credentials
D) Store AWS keys in global variables within your application and configure the application to use these credentials when making requests.
 

ANSWER2:

C

Notes/Hint19: 

With web identity federation, you don’t need to create custom sign-in code or manage your own user identities. Instead, users of your app can sign in using a well-known identity provider (IdP) —such as Login with Amazon, Facebook, Google, or any other OpenID Connect (OIDC)-compatible IdP, receive an authentication token, and then exchange that token for temporary security credentials in AWS that map to an IAM role with permissions to use the resources in your AWS account. Using an IdP helps you keep your AWS account secure, because you don’t have to embed and distribute long-term security credentials with your application. Option A is invalid since Roles cannot be assigned to S3 buckets Options B and D are invalid since the AWS Access keys should not be used

Reference19: About Web Identity Federation

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Question 20: Your application currently makes use of AWS Cognito for managing user identities. You want to analyze the information that is stored in AWS Cognito for your application. Which of the following features of AWS Cognito should you use for this purpose?

A) Cognito Data
B) Cognito Events
C) Cognito Streams
D) Cognito Callbacks
 

ANSWER20:

C

Notes/Hint20: 

Amazon Cognito Streams gives developers control and insight into their data stored in Amazon Cognito. Developers can now configure a Kinesis stream to receive events as data is updated and synchronized. Amazon Cognito can push each dataset change to a Kinesis stream you own in real time. All other options are invalid since you should use Cognito Streams

Reference20: Cognito Streams

Question 21: Which of the following statements is correct in relation to kMS / (Choose 2)
A) KMS Encryption keys are regional
B) You cannot export your customer master key
C) You can export your customer master key.
D) KMS encryption Keys are global”,
 

ANSWER21:

A and B

Notes/Hint21:

AWS Key Management Service FAQs: You cannot export your customer master key, KMS Encryption keys are regional

Reference21: AWS Key Management Service FAQs

Question 22: Which of the following statements are correct? (Choose 2)

A) The Customer Master Key is used to encrypt and decrypt the Envelope Key or Data Key
B) The Envelope Key or Data Key is used to encrypt and decrypt plain text files.
C) The envelope Key or Data Key is used to encrypt and decrypt the Customer Master Key.
D) The Customer MasterKey is used to encrypt and decrypt plain text files.
 

ANSWER22:

A and B

Notes/Hint22:

AWS Key Management Service Concepts: The Customer Master Key is used to encrypt and decrypt the Envelope Key or Data Key, The Envelope Key or Data Key is used to encrypt and decrypt plain text files.

Reference22: KMS

Question 23: Which of the following is an encrypted key used by KMS to encrypt your data
A) Customer Managed Key
 B) Encryption Key
C) Envelope Key
D) Customer Master Key
 

ANSWER23:

C

Notes/Hint23:

Your Data key also known as the Enveloppe key is encrypted using the master key. This approach is known as Envelope encryption. Envelope encryption is the practice of encrypting plaintext data with a data key, and then encrypting the data key under another key

Reference23: Envelope encryption

Question 24: Which command can you use to encrypt a plain text file using CMK?

A) aws kms-encrypt
B) aws iam encrypt
C) aws kms encrypt
D) aws encrypt
 

ANSWER24:

C

Notes/Hint24:

aws kms encrypt –key-id 1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab —plaintext fileb://ExamplePlaintextFile –output text –query CiphertextBlob > C:\\Temp\\ExampleEncryptedFile.base64

Reference24: AWS CLI Encrypt

Question 25: If an EC2 instance uses an instance role, key rotation is automatic and handled by __.

A) A script containing a valid IAM username and password stored on the EC2 instance.
B) ssh-keygen on the EC2 instance
C) The EC2 service
D) IAM/STS
 

ANSWER25:

D

Notes/Hint25:

Instance role key rotation is handled by IAM/STS.

Reference25: IAM/STS

Question 26: A Security engineer must develop an AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) strategy for a company’s organization in AWS Organizations. The company needs to give developers autonomy to develop and test their applications on AWS, but the company also needs to implement security guardrails to help protect itself. The company creates and distributes applications with different levels of data classification and types. The solution must maximize scalability.

Which combination of steps should the security engineer take to meet these requirements? (Choose three.)

A) Create an SCP to restrict access to highly privileged or unauthorized actions to specific AM principals. Assign the SCP to the appropriate AWS accounts.

B) Create an IAM permissions boundary to allow access to specific actions and IAM principals. Assign the IAM permissions boundary to all AM principals within the organization

C) Create a delegated IAM role that has capabilities to create other IAM roles. Use the delegated IAM role to provision IAM principals by following the principle of least privilege.

D) Create OUs based on data classification and type. Add the AWS accounts to the appropriate OU. Provide developers access to the AWS accounts based on business need.

E) Create IAM groups based on data classification and type. Add only the required developers’ IAM role to the IAM groups within each AWS account.

F) Create IAM policies based on data classification and type. Add the minimum required IAM policies to the developers’ IAM role within each AWS account.

Answer:  A B and C

Notes:

If you look at the choices, there are three related to SCP, which controls services, and three related to IAM and permissions boundaries.

Limiting services doesn’t help with data classification – using boundaries, policies and roles give you the scalability and can solve the problem.

Question 27: A Network Load Balancer (NLB) target instance is not entering the InService state. A security engineer determines that health checks are failing,

Which factors could cause the health check failures? (Choose three.)

A) The target instance’s security group does not allow traffic from the NLB.

B) The target instance’s security group is not attached to the NLB

C) The NLB’s security group is not attached to the target instance.

D) The target instance’s subnet network ACL does not allow traffic from the NLB.

E) The target instance’s security group is not using IP addresses to allow traffic from the NLB.

F) The target network ACL is not attached to the NLB.

B D and E I believe. You have a one to many relationship based on L3 NLB, and it’s unreachable – well architected would put them in same security group, the traffic would have to be allowed on the port that’s sending and receiving. The host points back to NLB as default gateway. Don’t think other ones fit. Plus BDE is a preferred combo for their tests. I remember it with the acronym big dice envy.

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II- SOURCES:

0- Djamgatech Cloud Security Playlist on Youtube:

1- Developer Certified Exam Prep Pro App

2- Prepare for Your AWS Certification Exam

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CYBERSECURITY KEY TERMS

1- Security Key Terms:

    • Cryptography:  Practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries.
    • Hacking: catch-all term for any type of misuse of a computer to break the security of another computing system to steal data, corrupt systems or files, commandeer the environment or disrupt data-related activities in any way.
    • Cyberwarfare: Uuse of technology to attack a nation, causing comparable harm to actual warfare. There is significant debate among experts regarding the definition of cyberwarfare, and even if such a thing exists
    • Penetration testing: Colloquially known as a pen test, pentest or ethical hacking, is an authorized simulated cyberattack on a computer system, performed to evaluate the security of the system. Not to be confused with a vulnerability assessment.
      • Malwares: Any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server, client, or computer network. A wide variety of malware types exist, including computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, rogue software, and scareware. 
    • Malware Analysis Tool: Any .Run Malware hunting with live access to the heart of an incident https://any.run/Malware Analysis Total:  VirusTotal – Analyze suspicious files and URLs to detect types of malware, automatically share them with the security community https://www.virustotal.com/gui/
    • VPN: A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network. Applications running across a VPN may therefore benefit from the functionality, security, and management of the private network. Encryption is a common, although not an inherent, part of a VPN connection.
    • Antivirus: Antivirus software, or anti-virus software (abbreviated to AV software), also known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent, detect, and remove malware.
    • DDos: A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is one of the most powerful weapons on the internet. When you hear about a website being “brought down by hackers,” it generally means it has become a victim of a DDoS attack.
    • Fraud Detection: Set of activities undertaken to prevent money or property from being obtained through false pretenses. Fraud detection is applied to many industries such as banking or insurance. In banking, fraud may include forging checks or using stolen credit cards.
    • Spywares: Spyware describes software with malicious behavior that aims to gather information about a person or organization and send such information to another entity in a way that harms the user; for example by violating their privacy or endangering their device’s security.
    • Spoofing: Disguising a communication from an unknown source as being from a known, trusted source
    • Pharming: Malicious websites that look legitimate and are used to gather usernames and passwords.
    • Catfishing: Creating a fake profile for fraudulent or deceptive purposes
    • SSL: Stands for secure sockets layer. Protocol for web browsers and servers that allows for the authentication, encryption and decryption of data sent over the Internet.
    • Phishing emails: Disguised as trustworthy entity to lure someone into providing sensitive information
    • Intrusion detection System: Device or software application that monitors a network or systems for malicious activity or policy violations. Any intrusion activity or violation is typically reported either to an administrator or collected centrally using a security information and event management system.
    • Encryption: Encryption is the method by which information is converted into secret code that hides the information’s true meaning. The science of encrypting and decrypting information is called cryptography. In computing, unencrypted data is also known as plaintext, and encrypted data is called ciphertext.
    • MFA: Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is defined as a security mechanism that requires an individual to provide two or more credentials in order to authenticate their identity. In IT, these credentials take the form of passwords, hardware tokens, numerical codes, biometrics, time, and location.
    • Vulnerabilities:vulnerability is a hole or a weakness in the application, which can be a design flaw or an implementation bug, that allows an attacker to cause harm to the stakeholders of an application. Stakeholders include the application owner, application users, and other entities that rely on the application.
    • SQL injections: SQL injection is a code injection technique, used to attack data-driven applications, in which malicious SQL statements are inserted into an entry field for execution.
    • Cyber attacks: In computers and computer networks an attack is any attempt to expose, alter, disable, destroy, steal or gain unauthorized access to or make unauthorized use of an asset.
    • Confidentiality: Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.
    • Secure channel: In cryptography, a secure channel is a way of transferring data that is resistant to overhearing and tampering. A confidential channel is a way of transferring data that is resistant to overhearing, but not necessarily resistant to tampering.
    • Tunneling: Communications protocol that allows for the movement of data from one network to another. It involves allowing private network communications to be sent across a public network through a process called encapsulation.
    • SSH: Secure Shell is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network. Typical applications include remote command-line, login, and remote command execution, but any network service can be secured with SSH.
    • SSL Certificates: SSL certificates are what enable websites to move from HTTP to HTTPS, which is more secure. An SSL certificate is a data file hosted in a website’s origin server. SSL certificates make SSL/TLS encryption possible, and they contain the website’s public key and the website’s identity, along with related information.
    • Phishing: Phishing is a cybercrime in which a target or targets are contacted by email, telephone or text message by someone posing as a legitimate institution to lure individuals into providing sensitive data such as personally identifiable information, banking and credit card details, and passwords.
    • Cybercrime: Cybercrime, or computer-oriented crime, is a crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Cybercrime may threaten a person, company or a nation’s security and financial health.
    • Backdoor: A backdoor is a means to access a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system’s customary security mechanisms. A developer may create a backdoor so that an application or operating system can be accessed for troubleshooting or other purposes.
    • Salt and Hash: A cryptographic salt is made up of random bits added to each password instance before its hashing. Salts create unique passwords even in the instance of two users choosing the same passwords. Salts help us mitigate rainbow table attacks by forcing attackers to re-compute them using the salts.
    • Password: A password, sometimes called a passcode,[1] is a memorized secret, typically a string of characters, usually used to confirm the identity of a user.[2] Using the terminology of the NIST Digital Identity Guidelines,[3] the secret is memorized by a party called the claimant while the party verifying the identity of the claimant is called the verifier. When the claimant successfully demonstrates knowledge of the password to the verifier through an established authentication protocol,[4] the verifier is able to infer the claimant’s identity.
    • Fingerprint: fingerprint is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. The recovery of partial fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science. Moisture and grease on a finger result in fingerprints on surfaces such as glass or metal.
    • Facial recognition: Facial recognition works better for a person as compared to fingerprint detection. It releases the person from the hassle of moving their thumb or index finger to a particular place on their mobile phone. A user would just have to bring their phone in level with their eye.
    • Asymmetric key ciphers versus symmetric key ciphers (Difference between symmetric and  Asymmetric encryption): The basic difference between these two types of encryption is that symmetric encryption uses one key for both encryption and decryption, and the asymmetric encryption uses public key for encryption and a private key for decryption.
    • Decryption: The conversion of encrypted data into its original form is called Decryption. It is generally a reverse process of encryption. It decodes the encrypted information so that an authorized user can only decrypt the data because decryption requires a secret key or password.
    • Algorithms: Finite sequence of well-defined, computer-implementable instructions, typically to solve a class of problems or to perform a computation.
    • DFIR: Digital forensic and incident response: Multidisciplinary profession that focuses on identifying, investigating, and remediating computer network exploitation. This can take varied forms and involves a wide variety of skills, kinds of attackers, an kinds of targets. We’ll discuss those more below.
      • OTP: One Time Password: A one-time password, also known as one-time PIN or dynamic password, is a password that is valid for only one login session or transaction, on a computer system or other digital device
    • Proxy Server and Reverse Proxy Server:A proxy server is a go‑between or intermediary server that forwards requests for content from multiple clients to different servers across the Internet. A reverse proxy server is a type of proxy server that typically sits behind the firewall in a private network and directs client requests to the appropriate backend server.

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Offensive * Exploit Database – The Exploit Database is maintained by Offensive Security, an information security training company that provides various Information Security Certifications as well as high end penetration testing services. https://www.exploit-db.com/

CYBERSECURITY NEWS

  • Krebs On Security In depth security news and investigation https://krebsonsecurity.com/
  • Dark Reading Cyber security’s comprehensive news site is now an online community for security professionals. https://www.darkreading.com/
  • The Hacker News – The Hacker News (THN) is a leading, trusted, widely-acknowledged dedicated cybersecurity news platform, attracting over 8 million monthly readers including IT professionals, researchers, hackers, technologists, and enthusiasts. https://thehackernews.com
  • SecuriTeam – A free and independent source of vulnerability information. https://securiteam.com/
  • SANS NewsBites – “A semiweekly high-level executive summary of the most important news articles that have been published on computer security during the last week. Each news item is very briefly summarized and includes a reference on the web for detailed information, if possible.” Published for free on Tuesdays and Fridays. https://www.sans.org/newsletters/newsbites

CYBERSECURITY YOUTUBE CHANNELS

YouTube Channels

This list was originally forked/curated from here: https://wportal.xyz/collection/cybersec-yt1 on (7/29/2020) Attribution and appreciation to d4rckh

CYBERSECURITY PODCASTS:

Podcasts

  • Risky Business Published weekly, the Risky Business podcast features news and in-depth commentary from security industry luminaries. Hosted by award-winning journalist Patrick Gray, Risky Business has become a must-listen digest for information security professionals. https://risky.biz/
  • Pauls Security Weekly This show features interviews with folks in the security community; technical segments, which are just that, very technical; and security news, which is an open discussion forum for the hosts to express their opinions about the latest security headlines, breaches, new exploits and vulnerabilities, “not” politics, “cyber” policies and more. https://securityweekly.com/category-shows/paul-security-weekly/
  • Security Now – Steve Gibson, the man who coined the term spyware and created the first anti-spyware program, creator of Spinrite and ShieldsUP, discusses the hot topics in security today with Leo Laporte. https://twit.tv/shows/security-now
  • Daily Information Security Podcast (“StormCast”) Stormcasts are daily 5-10 minute information security threat updates. The podcast is produced each work day, and typically released late in the day to be ready for your morning commute. https://isc.sans.edu/podcast.html
  • ShadowTalk Threat Intelligence Podcast by Digital Shadow_. The weekly podcast highlights key findings of primary-source research our Intelligence Team is conducting, along with guest speakers discussing the latest threat actors, campaigns, security events and industry news. https://resources.digitalshadows.com/threat-intelligence-podcast-shadowtalk
  • Don’t Panic – The Unit 42 Podcast Don’t Panic! is the official podcast from Unit 42 at Palo Alto Networks. We find the big issues that are frustrating cyber security practitioners and help simplify them so they don’t need to panic. https://unit42.libsyn.com/
  • Recorded Future Recorded Future takes you inside the world of cyber threat intelligence. We’re sharing stories from the trenches and the operations floor as well as giving you the skinny on established and emerging adversaries. We also talk current events, technical tradecraft, and offer up insights on the big picture issues in our industry. https://www.recordedfuture.com/resources/podcast/
  • The Cybrary Podcast Listen in to the Cybrary Podcast where we discuss a range topics from DevSecOps and Ransomware attacks to diversity and how to retain of talent. Entrepreneurs at all stages of their startup companies join us to share their stories and experience, including how to get funding, hiring the best talent, driving sales, and choosing where to base your business. https://www.cybrary.it/info/cybrary-podcast/
  • Cyber Life The Cyber Life podcast is for cyber security (InfoSec) professionals, people trying to break into the industry, or business owners looking to learn how to secure their data. We will talk about many things, like how to get jobs, cover breakdowns of hot topics, and have special guest interviews with the men and women “in the trenches” of the industry. https://redcircle.com/shows/cyber-life
  • Career Notes Cybersecurity professionals share their personal career journeys and offer tips and advice in this brief, weekly podcast from The CyberWire. https://www.thecyberwire.com/podcasts/career-notes

Below podcasts Added from here: https://infosec-conferences.com/cybersecurity-podcasts/

  • Down the Security Rabbithole http://podcast.wh1t3rabbit.net/ Down the Security Rabbithole is hosted by Rafal Los and James Jardine who discuss, by means of interviewing or news analysis, everything about Cybersecurity which includes Cybercrime, Cyber Law, Cyber Risk, Enterprise Risk & Security and many more. If you want to hear issues that are relevant to your organization, subscribe and tune-in to this podcast.
  • The Privacy, Security, & OSINT Show https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-privacy-security-osint-show/id1165843330 The Privacy, Security, & OSINT Show, hosted by Michael Bazzell, is your weekly dose of digital security, privacy, and Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) opinion and news. This podcast will help listeners learn some ideas on how to stay secure from cyber-attacks and help them become “digitally invisible”.
  • Defensive Security Podcast https://defensivesecurity.org/ Hosted by Andrew Kalat (@lerg) and Jerry Bell (@maliciouslink), the Defensive Security Podcasts aims to look/discuss the latest security news happening around the world and pick out the lessons that can be applied to keeping organizations secured. As of today, they have more than 200 episodes and some of the topics discussed include Forensics, Penetration Testing, Incident Response, Malware Analysis, Vulnerabilities and many more.
  • Darknet Diaries https://darknetdiaries.com/episode/ Darknet Diaries Podcast is hosted and produced by Jack Rhysider that discuss topics related to information security. It also features some true stories from hackers who attacked or have been attacked. If you’re a fan of the show, you might consider buying some of their souvenirs here (https://shop.darknetdiaries.com/).
  • Brakeing Down Security https://www.brakeingsecurity.com/ Brakeing Down Security started in 2014 and is hosted by Bryan Brake, Brian Boettcher, and Amanda Berlin. This podcast discusses everything about the Cybersecurity world, Compliance, Privacy, and Regulatory issues that arise in today’s organizations. The hosts will teach concepts that Information Security Professionals need to know and discuss topics that will refresh the memories of seasoned veterans.
  • Open Source Security Podcast https://www.opensourcesecuritypodcast.com/ Open Source Security Podcast is a podcast that discusses security with an open-source slant. The show started in 2016 and is hosted by Josh Bressers and Kurt Siefried. As of this writing, they now posted around 190+ podcasts
  • Cyber Motherboard https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/cyber/id1441708044 Ben Makuch is the host of the podcast CYBER and weekly talks to Motherboard reporters Lorenzo Franceschi-Bicchierai and Joseph Cox. They tackle topics about famous hackers and researchers about the biggest news in cybersecurity. The Cyber- stuff gets complicated really fast, but Motherboard spends its time fixed in the infosec world so we don’t have to.
  • Hak5 https://shop.hak5.org/pages/videos Hak5 is a brand that is created by a group of security professionals, hardcore gamers and “IT ninjas”. Their podcast, which is mostly uploaded on YouTube discusses everything from open-source software to penetration testing and network infrastructure. Their channel currently has 590,000 subscribers and is one of the most viewed shows when you want to learn something about security networks.
  • Threatpost Podcast Series https://threatpost.com/category/podcasts/ Threatpost is an independent news site which is a leading source of information about IT and business security for hundreds of thousands of professionals worldwide. With an award-winning editorial team produces unique and high-impact content including security news, videos, feature reports and more, with their global editorial activities are driven by industry-leading journalist Tom Spring, editor-in-chief.
  • CISO-Security Vendor Relationship Podcast https://cisoseries.com Co-hosted by the creator of the CISO/Security Vendor Relationship Series, David Spark, and Mike Johnson, in 30 minutes, this weekly program challenges the co-hosts, guests, and listeners to critique, share true stories. This podcast, The CISO/Security Vendor Relationship, targets to enlighten and educate listeners on improving security buyer and seller relationships.
  • Getting Into Infosec Podcast Stories of how Infosec and Cybersecurity pros got jobs in the field so you can be inspired, motivated, and educated on your journey. – https://gettingintoinfosec.com/
  • Unsupervised Learning Weekly podcasts and biweekly newsletters as a curated summary intersection of security, technology, and humans, or a standalone idea to provoke thought, by Daniel Miessler. https://danielmiessler.com/podcast/

SECURITY BOOKS:

CYBERSECURITY TRAINING:

Training

  • WebSecurity Academy Free online web security training from the creators of Burp Suite https://portswigger.net/web-security
  • Mosse Cyber Security Institute Introduction to cybersecurity free certification with 100+ hours of training, no expiry/renewals, https://www.mosse-institute.com/certifications/mics-introduction-to-cyber-security.html
  • BugCrowd University Free bug hunting resources and methodologies in form of webinars, education and training. https://www.bugcrowd.com/hackers/bugcrowd-university/
  • Certified Network Security Specialist Certification and training; Expires Aug 31 2020 Use coupon code #StaySafeHome during checkout to claim your free access. Offer is valid till 31/08/2020. £500.00 Value https://www.icsi.co.uk/courses/icsi-cnss-certified-network-security-specialist-covid-19
  • Metasploit Unleashed Most complete and in-depth Metasploit guide available, with contributions from the authors of the No Starch Press Metasploit Book. https://www.offensive-security.com/metasploit-unleashed/
  • AWS Cloud Certified Get skills in AWS to be more marketable. Training is quality and free. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3hLmDS179YE Have to create an AWS account, Exam is $100.
  • SANS Faculty Free Tools List of OSS developed by SANS staff. https://www.sans.org/media/free/free-faculty-tools.pdf?msc=sans-free-lp
  • “Using ATT&CK for Cyber Threat Intelligence Training” – 4 hour training The goal of this training is for students to understand the following: at: https://attack.mitre.org/resources/training/cti/
  • Coursera -“Coursera Together: Free online learning during COVID-19” Lots of different types of free training. https://blog.coursera.org/coursera-together-free-online-learning-during-covid-19/
  • Fortinet Security Appliance Training Free access to the FortiGate Essentials Training Course and Network Security Expert courses 1 and 2 https://www.fortinet.com/training/cybersecurity-professionals.html
  • Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) Workshop Training – The Chief Information Security Office (CISO) workshop contains a collection of security learnings, principles, and recommendations for modernizing security in your organization. This training workshop is a combination of experiences from Microsoft security teams and learnings from customers. – https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/security/ciso-workshop/ciso-workshop
  • CLARK Center Plan C – Free cybersecurity curriculum that is primarily video-based or provide online assignments that can be easily integrated into a virtual learning environments https://clark.center/home
  • Hack.me is a FREE, community based project powered by eLearnSecurity. The community can build, host and share vulnerable web application code for educational and research purposes. It aims to be the largest collection of “runnable” vulnerable web applications, code samples and CMS’s online. The platform is available without any restriction to any party interested in Web Application Security. https://hack.me/
  • Hacker101 – Free classes for web security – https://www.hacker101.com/
  • ElasticStack – Free on-demand Elastic Stack, observability, and security courses. https://training.elastic.co/learn-from-home
  • Hoppers Roppers – Community built around a series of free courses that provide training to beginners in the security field. https://www.hoppersroppers.org/training.html
  • IBM Security Learning Academy Free technical training for IBM Security products. https://www.securitylearningacademy.com/
  • M.E. Kabay Free industry courses and course materials for students, teachers and others are welcome to use for free courses and lectures. http://www.mekabay.com/courses/index.htm
  • Open P-TECH Free digital learning on the tech skills of tomorrow. https://www.ptech.org/open-p-tech/
  • Udemy – Online learning course platform “collection from the free courses in our learning marketplace” https://www.udemy.com/courses/free/
  • Enroll Now Free: PCAP Programming Essentials in Python https://www.netacad.com/courses/programming/pcap-programming-essentials-python Python is the very versatile, object-oriented programming language used by startups and tech giants, Google, Facebook, Dropbox and IBM. Python is also recommended for aspiring young developers who are interested in pursuing careers in Security, Networking and Internet-of-Things. Once you complete this course, you are ready to take the PCAP – Certified Associate in Python programming. No prior knowledge of programming is required.
  • Packt Web Development Course Web Development Get to grips with the fundamentals of the modern web Unlock one year of free online access. https://courses.packtpub.com/pages/free?fbclid=IwAR1FtKQcYK8ycCmBMXaBGvW_7SgPVDMKMaRVwXYcSbiwvMfp75gazxRZlzY
  • Stanford University Webinar – Hacked! Security Lessons from Big Name Breaches 50 minute cyber lecture from Stanford.You Will Learn: — The root cause of key breaches and how to prevent them; How to measure your organization’s external security posture; How the attacker lifecycle should influence the way you allocate resources https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V9agUAz0DwI
  • Stanford University Webinar – Hash, Hack, Code: Emerging Trends in Cyber Security Join Professor Dan Boneh as he shares new approaches to these emerging trends and dives deeper into how you can protect networks and prevent harmful viruses and threats. 50 minute cyber lecture from Stanford. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=544rhbcDtc8
  • Kill Chain: The Cyber War on America’s Elections (Documentary) (Referenced at GRIMMCON), In advance of the 2020 Presidential Election, Kill Chain: The Cyber War on America’s Elections takes a deep dive into the weaknesses of today’s election technology, an issue that is little understood by the public or even lawmakers. https://www.hbo.com/documentaries/kill-chain-the-cyber-war-on-americas-elections
  • Intro to Cybersecurity Course (15 hours) Learn how to protect your personal data and privacy online and in social media, and why more and more IT jobs require cybersecurity awareness and understanding. Receive a certificate of completion. https://www.netacad.com/portal/web/self-enroll/c/course-1003729
  • Cybersecurity Essentials (30 hours) Foundational knowledge and essential skills for all cybersecurity domains, including info security, systems sec, network sec, ethics and laws, and defense and mitigation techniques used in protecting businesses. https://www.netacad.com/portal/web/self-enroll/c/course-1003733
  • Pluralsight and Microsoft Partnership to help you become an expert in Azure. With skill assessments and over 200+ courses, 40+ Skill IQs and 8 Role IQs, you can focus your time on understanding your strengths and skill gaps and learn Azure as quickly as possible.https://www.pluralsight.com/partners/microsoft/azure
  • Blackhat Webcast Series Monthly webcast of varying cyber topics. I will post specific ones in the training section below sometimes, but this is worth bookmarking and checking back. They always have top tier speakers on relevant, current topics. https://www.blackhat.com/html/webcast/webcast-home.html
  • Federal Virtual Training Environment – US Govt sponsored free courses. There are 6 available, no login required. They are 101 Coding for the Public, 101 Critical Infrastructure Protection for the Public, Cryptocurrency for Law Enforcement for the Public, Cyber Supply Chain Risk Management for the Public, 101 Reverse Engineering for the Public, Fundamentals of Cyber Risk Management. https://fedvte.usalearning.gov/public_fedvte.php
  • Harrisburg University CyberSecurity Collection of 18 curated talks. Scroll down to CYBER SECURITY section. You will see there are 4 categories Resource Sharing, Tools & Techniques, Red Team (Offensive Security) and Blue Teaming (Defensive Security). Lot of content in here; something for everyone. https://professionaled.harrisburgu.edu/online-content/
  • OnRamp 101-Level ICS Security Workshop Starts this 4/28. 10 videos, Q&A / discussion, bonus audio, great links. Get up to speed fast on ICS security. It runs for 5 weeks. 2 videos per week. Then we keep it open for another 3 weeks for 8 in total. https://onramp-3.s4xevents.com
  • HackXOR WebApp CTF Hackxor is a realistic web application hacking game, designed to help players of all abilities develop their skills. All the missions are based on real vulnerabilities I’ve personally found while doing pentests, bug bounty hunting, and research. https://hackxor.net/
  • Suricata Training 5-part training module using a simulation as a backdrop to teach how to use Suricata. https://rangeforce.com/resource/suricata-challenge-reg/
  • flAWS System Through a series of levels you’ll learn about common mistakes and gotchas when using Amazon Web Services (AWS). Multiple levels, “Buckets” of fun. http://flaws.cloud/
  • Stanford CS 253 Web Security A free course from Stanford providing a comprehensive overview of web security. The course begins with an introduction to the fundamentals of web security and proceeds to discuss the most common methods for web attacks and their countermeasures. The course includes video lectures, slides, and links to online reading assignments. https://web.stanford.edu/class/cs253
  • Linux Journey A free, handy guide for learning Linux. Coverage begins with the fundamentals of command line navigation and basic text manipulation. It then extends to more advanced topics, such as file systems and networking. The site is well organized and includes many examples along with code snippets. Exercises and quizzes are provided as well. https://linuxjourney.com
  • Ryan’s Tutorials A collection of free, introductory tutorials on several technology topics including: Linux command line, Bash scripting, creating and styling webpages with HTML and CSS, counting and converting between different number systems, and writing regular expressions. https://ryanstutorials.net
  • The Ultimate List of SANS Cheat Sheets Massive collection of free cybersecurity cheat sheets for quick reference (login with free SANS account required for some penetration testing resources). https://www.sans.org/blog/the-ultimate-list-of-sans-cheat-sheets/
  • CYBER INTELLIGENCE ANALYTICS AND OPERATIONS Learn:The ins and outs of all stages of the intelligence cycle from collection to analysis from seasoned intel professionals. How to employ threat intelligence to conduct comprehensive defense strategies to mitigate potential compromise. How to use TI to respond to and minimize impact of cyber incidents. How to generate comprehensive and actionable reports to communicate gaps in defenses and intelligence findings to decision makers. https://www.shadowscape.io/cyber-intelligence-analytics-operat
  • Linux Command Line for Beginners 25 hours of training – In this course, you’ll learn from one of Fullstack’s top instructors, Corey Greenwald, as he guides you through learning the basics of the command line through short, digestible video lectures. Then you’ll use Fullstack’s CyberLab platform to hone your new technical skills while working through a Capture the Flag game, a special kind of cybersecurity game designed to challenge participants to solve computer security problems by solving puzzles. Finally, through a list of carefully curated resources through a series of curated resources, we’ll introduce you to some important cybersecurity topics so that you can understand some of the common language, concepts and tools used in the industry. https://prep.fullstackacademy.com/
  • Hacking 101 6 hours of free training – First, you’ll take a tour of the world and watch videos of hackers in action across various platforms (including computers, smartphones, and the power grid). You may be shocked to learn what techniques the good guys are using to fight the bad guys (and which side is winning). Then you’ll learn what it’s like to work in this world, as we show you the different career paths open to you and the (significant) income you could make as a cybersecurity professional. https://cyber.fullstackacademy.com/prepare/hacking-101
  • Choose Your Own Cyber Adventure Series: Entry Level Cyber Jobs Explained YouTube Playlist (videos from my channel #simplyCyber) This playlist is a collection of various roles within the information security field, mostly entry level, so folks can understand what different opportunities are out there. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4Q-ttyNIRAqog96mt8C8lKWzTjW6f38F
  • NETINSTRUCT.COM Free Cybersecurity, IT and Leadership Courses – Includes OS and networking basics. Critical to any Cyber job. https://netinstruct.com/courses
  • HackerSploit – HackerSploit is the leading provider of free and open-source Infosec and cybersecurity training. https://hackersploit.org/
  • Resources for getting started (Free and Paid)Practice
    • DetectionLab (Free)
    • LetsDefend.io (Free/Paid)
    • DetectionLabELK (Free)

    Log Analysis

    Network Monitoring

    Linux Distributions

    Memory Analysis Tools

    Professional Training

    • FOR578: Cyber Threat Intelligence (Paid)
    • SEC511: Continuous Monitoring & Security Operations (Paid)
    • SEC445: SIEM Design & Implementation (Paid)
    • AEGIS Certification (Paid)

    Conferences

CYBERSECURITY COURSES: (Multi-week w/Enrollment)

College Courses

  • Computer Science courses with video lectures Intent of this list is to act as Online bookmarks/lookup table for freely available online video courses. Focus would be to keep the list concise so that it is easy to browse. It would be easier to skim through 15 page list, find the course and start learning than having to read 60 pages of text. If you are student or from non-CS background, please try few courses to decide for yourself as to which course suits your learning curve best. https://github.com/Developer-Y/cs-video-courses?utm_campaign=meetedgar&utm_medium=social&utm_source=meetedgar.com
  • Cryptography I -offered by Stanford University – Rolling enrollment – Cryptography is an indispensable tool for protecting information in computer systems. In this course you will learn the inner workings of cryptographic systems and how to correctly use them in real-world applications. The course begins with a detailed discussion of how two parties who have a shared secret key can communicate securely when a powerful adversary eavesdrops and tampers with traffic. We will examine many deployed protocols and analyze mistakes in existing systems. The second half of the course discusses public-key techniques that let two parties generate a shared secret key. https://www.coursera.org/learn/crypto
  • Software Security Rolling enrollment -offered by University of Maryland, College Park via Coursera – This course we will explore the foundations of software security. We will consider important software vulnerabilities and attacks that exploit them — such as buffer overflows, SQL injection, and session hijacking — and we will consider defenses that prevent or mitigate these attacks, including advanced testing and program analysis techniques. Importantly, we take a “build security in” mentality, considering techniques at each phase of the development cycle that can be used to strengthen the security of software systems. https://www.coursera.org/learn/software-security
  • Intro to Information Security Georgia Institute of Technology via Udacity – Rolling Enrollment. This course provides a one-semester overview of information security. It is designed to help students with prior computer and programming knowledge — both undergraduate and graduate — understand this important priority in society today. Offered at Georgia Tech as CS 6035 https://www.udacity.com/course/intro-to-information-security–ud459
  • Cyber-Physical Systems Security Georgia Institute of Technology via Udacity – This course provides an introduction to security issues relating to various cyber-physical systems including industrial control systems and those considered critical infrastructure systems. 16 week course – Offered at Georgia Tech as CS 8803 https://www.udacity.com/course/cyber-physical-systems-security–ud279
  • Finding Your Cybersecurity Career Path – University of Washington via edX – 4 weeks long – self paced – In this course, you will focus on the pathways to cybersecurity career success. You will determine your own incoming skills, talent, and deep interests to apply toward a meaningful and informed exploration of 32 Digital Pathways of Cybersecurity. https://www.edx.org/course/finding-your-cybersecurity-career-path
  • Building a Cybersecurity Toolkit – University of Washington via edX – 4 weeks self-paced The purpose of this course is to give learners insight into these type of characteristics and skills needed for cybersecurity jobs and to provide a realistic outlook on what they really need to add to their “toolkits” – a set of skills that is constantly evolving, not all technical, but fundamentally rooted in problem-solving. https://www.edx.org/course/building-a-cybersecurity-toolkit
  • Cybersecurity: The CISO’s View – University of Washington via edX – 4 weeks long self-paced – This course delves into the role that the CISO plays in cybersecurity operations. Throughout the lessons, learners will explore answers to the following questions: How does cybersecurity work across industries? What is the professionals’ point of view? How do we keep information secure https://www.edx.org/course/cybersecurity-the-cisos-view
  • Introduction to Cybersecurity – University of Washington via edX – In this course, you will gain an overview of the cybersecurity landscape as well as national (USA) and international perspectives on the field. We will cover the legal environment that impacts cybersecurity as well as predominant threat actors. – https://www.edx.org/course/introduction-to-cybersecurity
  • Cyber Attack Countermeasures New York University (NYU) via Coursera – This course introduces the basics of cyber defense starting with foundational models such as Bell-LaPadula and information flow frameworks. These underlying policy enforcements mechanisms help introduce basic functional protections, starting with authentication methods. Learners will be introduced to a series of different authentication solutions and protocols, including RSA SecureID and Kerberos, in the context of a canonical schema. – https://www.coursera.org/learn/cyber-attack-countermeasures
  • Introduction to Cyber Attacks New York University (NYU) via Coursera – This course provides learners with a baseline understanding of common cyber security threats, vulnerabilities, and risks. An overview of how basic cyber attacks are constructed and applied to real systems is also included. Examples include simple Unix kernel hacks, Internet worms, and Trojan horses in software utilities. Network attacks such as distributed denial of service (DDOS) and botnet- attacks are also described and illustrated using real examples from the past couple of decades. https://www.coursera.org/learn/intro-cyber-attacks
  • Enterprise and Infrastructure Security New York University (NYU) via Coursera – This course introduces a series of advanced and current topics in cyber security, many of which are especially relevant in modern enterprise and infrastructure settings. The basics of enterprise compliance frameworks are provided with introduction to NIST and PCI. Hybrid cloud architectures are shown to provide an opportunity to fix many of the security weaknesses in modern perimeter local area networks. https://www.coursera.org/learn/enterprise-infrastructure-security
  • Network Security Georgia Institute of Technology via Udacity – This course provides an introduction to computer and network security. Students successfully completing this class will be able to evaluate works in academic and commercial security, and will have rudimentary skills in security research. The course begins with a tutorial of the basic elements of cryptography, cryptanalysis, and systems security, and continues by covering a number of seminal papers and monographs in a wide range of security areas. – https://www.udacity.com/course/network-security–ud199
  • Real-Time Cyber Threat Detection and Mitigation – New York University (NYU) via Coursera This course introduces real-time cyber security techniques and methods in the context of the TCP/IP protocol suites. Explanation of some basic TCP/IP security hacks is used to introduce the need for network security solutions such as stateless and stateful firewalls. Learners will be introduced to the techniques used to design and configure firewall solutions such as packet filters and proxies to protect enterprise assets. https://www.coursera.org/learn/real-time-cyber-threat-detection

CYBERSECURITY JOBS:

 CYBERSECURITY Cheat sheets

SANS Massive List of Cheat Sheets Curated from here: https://www.sans.org/blog/the-ultimate-list-of-sans-cheat-sheets/

General IT Security * Windows and Linux Terminals & Command Lines https://assets.contentstack.io/v3/assets/blt36c2e63521272fdc/bltea7de5267932e94b/5eb08aafcf88d36e47cf0644/Cheatsheet_SEC301-401_R7.pdf

Digital Forensics and Incident Response

Penetration Testing * Swiss Army Knife collection of PenTesting Cheatsheets https://github.com/swisskyrepo/PayloadsAllTheThings

Cloud Security Cheat sheets

CYBERSECURITY Q&A

 

‎AWS Certified Developer A. PRO

Source: What is the best cheap Wi-Fi cracking/hacking adapter?

Hey everyone, I’ve started getting into hacking, and would like to know the cheapest but best Wi-Fi cracking/deauthing/hacking adapter. I’m on a fairly tight budget of 20AUD and am willing to compromise if needed. Priority is a card with monitor mode, then cracking capabilities, then deauthing, etc. Thank you guys! By the way, if there are any beginner tips you are willing to give, please let me know!

 

 

How SSL Certificates Work

  • A browser or server attempts to connect to a website (i.e. a web server) secured with SSL. The browser/server requests that the web server identify itself.
  • The web server sends the browser/server a copy of its SSL certificate.
  • The browser/server checks to see whether or not it trusts the SSL certificate. If so, it sends a message to the web server.
  • The web server sends back a digitally signed acknowledgement to start an SSL encrypted session.
  • Encrypted data is shared between the browser/server and the web server.

diagram of how ssl certificates work

There are many benefits to using SSL certificates. Namely, SSL customers can:

  • Utilize HTTPs, which elicits a stronger Google ranking
  • Create safer experiences for your customers
  • Build customer trust and improve conversions
  • Protect both customer and internal data
  • Encrypt browser-to-server and server-to-server communication
  • Increase security of your mobile and cloud apps

Penetration Testing Terms

Penetration Testing Terms to know:

  • Authentication — The process of checking if a user is allowed to gain access to a system. eg. Login forms with username and password.
  • Authorization — Checking if the authenticated user has access to perform an action. eg. user, admin, super admin roles.
  • Audit — Conduct a complete inspection of an organization’s network to find vulnerable endpoints or malicious software.
  • Access Control List — A list that contains users and their level of access to a system.
  • Aircrack-ng — Wifi penetration testing software suite. Contains sniffing, password cracking, and general wireless attacking tools.
  • Backdoor — A piece of code that lets hackers get into the system easily after it has been compromised.
  • Burp Suite — Web application security software, helps test web apps for vulnerabilities. Used in bug bounty hunting.
  • Banner Grabbing — Capturing basic information about a server like the type of web server software (eg. apache) and services running on it.
  • Botnet — A network of computers controlled by a hacker to perform attacks such as Distributed Denial of Service.
  • Brute-Force Attack — An attack where the hacker tries different login combinations to gain access. eg. trying to crack a 9 -digit numeric password by trying all the numbers from 000000000 to 999999999
  • Buffer Overflow — When a program tries to store more information than it is allowed to, it overflows into other buffers (memory partitions) corrupting existing data.
  • Cache — Storing the response to a particular operation in temporary high-speed storage is to serve other incoming requests better. eg. you can store a database request in a cache till it is updated to reduce calling the database again for the same query.
  • Cipher — Cryptographic algorithm for encrypting and decrypting data.
  • Code Injection — Injecting malicious code into a system by exploiting a bug or vulnerability.
  • Cross-Site Scripting — Executing a script on the client-side through a legitimate website. This can be prevented if the website sanitizes user input.
  • Compliance — A set of rules defined by the government or other authorities on how to protect your customer’s data. Common ones include HIPAA, PCI-DSS, and FISMA.
  • Dictionary Attack — Attacking a system with a pre-defined list of usernames and passwords. eg. admin/admin is a common username/password combination used by amateur sysadmins.
  • Dumpster Diving — Looking into a company’s trash cans for useful information.
  • Denial of Service & Distributed Denial of Service — Exhausting a server’s resources by sending too many requests is Denial of Service. If a botnet is used to do the same, its called Distributed Denial of Service.
  • DevSecOps — Combination of development and operations by considering security as a key ingredient from the initial system design.
  • Directory Traversal — Vulnerability that lets attackers list al the files and folders within a server. This can include system configuration and password files.
  • Domain Name System (DNS) — Helps convert domain names into server IP addresses. eg. Google.com -> 216.58.200.142
  • DNS Spoofing — Trikcnig a system’s DNS to point to a malicious server. eg. when you enter ‘facebook.com’, you might be redirected to the attacker’s website that looks like Facebook.
  • Encryption — Encoding a message with a key so that only the parties with the key can read the message.
  • Exploit — A piece of code that takes advantage of a vulnerability in the target system. eg. Buffer overflow exploits can get you to root access to a system.
  • Enumeration — Mapping out all the components of a network by gaining access to a single system.
  • Footprinting — Gathering information about a target using active methods such as scanning and enumeration.
  • Flooding — Sending too many packets of data to a target system to exhaust its resources and cause a Denial of Service or similar attacks.
  • Firewall — A software or hardware filter that can be configured to prevent common types of attacks.
  • Fork Bomb — Forking a process indefinitely to exhaust system resources. Related to a Denial of Service attack.
  • Fuzzing — Sending automated random input to a software program to test its exception handling capacity.
  • Hardening — Securing a system from attacks like closing unused ports. Usually done using scripts for servers.
  • Hash Function — Mapping a piece of data into a fixed value string. Hashes are used to confirm data integrity.
  • Honey Pot — An intentionally vulnerable system used to lure attackers. This is then used to understand the attacker’s strategies.
  • HIPAA — The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. If you are working with healthcare data, you need to make sure you are HIPAA compliant. This is to protect the customer’s privacy.
  • Input Validation — Checking user inputs before sending them to the database. eg. sanitizing form input to prevent SQL injection attacks.
  • Integrity — Making sure the data that was sent from the server is the same that was received by the client. This ensures there was no tampering and integrity is achieved usually by hashing and encryption.
  • Intrusion Detection System — A software similar to a firewall but with advanced features. Helps in defending against Nmap scans, DDoS attacks, etc.
  • IP Spoofing — Changing the source IP address of a packet to fool the target into thinking a request is coming from a legitimate server.
  • John The Ripper — Brilliant password cracking tool, runs on all major platforms.
  • Kerberos — Default authorization software used by Microsoft, uses a stronger encryption system.
  • KeyLogger — A software program that captures all keystrokes that a user performs on the system.
  • Logic Bombs — A piece of code (usually malicious) that runs when a condition is satisfied.
  • Light Weight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) — Lightweight client-server protocol on Windows, central place for authentication. Stores usernames and passwords to validate users on a network.
  • Malware — Short for “Malicious Software”. Everything from viruses to backdoors is malware.
  • MAC Address — Unique address assigned to a Network Interface Card and is used as an identifier for local area networks. Easy to spoof.
  • Multi-factor Authentication — Using more than one method of authentication to access a service. eg. username/password with mobile OTP to access a bank account (two-factor authentication)
  • MD5 — Widely used hashing algorithm. Once a favorite, it has many vulnerabilities.
  • Metasploit — All in one penetration testing framework that helps to successfully exploit vulnerabilities and gain access to target systems.
  • Meterpreter — An advanced Metasploit payload that lives in memory and hard to trace.
  • Null-Byte Injection — An older exploit, uses null bytes (i.e. %00, or 0x00 in hexadecimal) to URLs. This makes web servers return random/unwanted data which might be useful for the attacker. Easily prevented by doing sanity checks.
  • Network Interface Card(NIC) — Hardware that helps a device connect to a network.
  • Network Address Translation — Utility that translates your local IP address into a global IP address. eg. your local IP might be 192.168.1.4 but to access the internet, you need a global IP address (from your router).
  • Nmap — Popular network scanning tool that gives information about systems, open ports, services, and operating system versions.
  • Netcat — Simple but powerful tool that can view and record data on a TCP or UDP network connections. Since it is not actively maintained, NCat is preferred.
  • Nikto — A popular web application scanner, helps to find over 6700 vulnerabilities including server configurations and installed web server software.
  • Nessus — Commercial alternative to NMap, provides a detailed list of vulnerabilities based on scan results.
  • Packet — Data is sent and received by systems via packets. Contains information like source IP, destination IP, protocol, and other information.
  • Password Cracking — Cracking an encrypted password using tools like John the Ripper when you don’t have access to the key.
  • Password Sniffing — Performing man-in-the-middle attacks using tools like Wireshark to find password hashes.
  • Patch — A software update released by a vendor to fix a bug or vulnerability in a software system.
  • Phishing — Building fake web sites that look remarkably similar to legitimate websites (like Facebook) to capture sensitive information.
  • Ping Sweep — A technique that tries to ping a system to see if it is alive on the network.
  • Public Key Cryptography — Encryption mechanism that users a pair of keys, one private and one public. The sender will encrypt a message using your public key which then you can decrypt using your private key.
  • Public Key Infrastructure — A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a system to create, store, and distribute digital certificates. This helps sysadmins verify that a particular public key belongs to a certain authorized entity.
  • Personally Identifiable Information (PII) — Any information that identified a user. eg. Address, Phone number, etc.
  • Payload — A piece of code (usually malicious) that performs a specific function. eg. Keylogger.
  • PCI-DSS — Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard. If you are working with customer credit cards, you should be PCI-DSS compliant.
  • Ransomware — Malware that locks your system using encryption and asks you to pay a price to get the key to unlock it.
  • Rainbow Table — Pre calculated password hashes that will help you crack password hashes of the target easily.
  • Reconnaissance — Finding data about the target using methods such as google search, social media, and other publicly available information.
  • Reverse Engineering — Rebuilding a piece of software based on its functions.
  • Role-Based Access — Providing a set of authorizations for a role other than a user. eg. “Managers” role will have a set of permissions while the “developers” role will have a different set of permissions.
  • Rootkit — A rootkit is a malware that provides unauthorized users admin privileges. Rootkits include keyloggers, password sniffers, etc.
  • Scanning — Sending packets to a system and gaining information about the target system using the packets received. This involved the 3-way-handshake.
  • Secure Shell (SSH) — Protocol that establishes an encrypted communication channel between a client and a server. You can use ssh to login to remote servers and perform system administration.
  • Session — A session is a duration in which a communication channel is open between a client and a server. eg. the time between logging into a website and logging out is a session.
  • Session Hijacking — Taking over someone else’s session by pretending to the client. This is achieved by stealing cookies and session tokens. eg. after you authenticate with your bank, an attacker can steal your session to perform financial transactions on your behalf.
  • Social Engineering — The art of tricking people into making them do something that is not in their best interest. eg. convincing someone to provide their password over the phone.
  • Secure Hashing Algorithm (SHA) — Widely used family of encryption algorithms. SHA256 is considered highly secure compared to earlier versions like SHA 1. It is also a one-way algorithm, unlike an encryption algorithm that you can decrypt. Once you hash a message, you can only compare with another hash, you cannot re-hash it to its earlier format.
  • Sniffing — performing man-in-the-middle attacks on networks. Includes wired and wireless networks.
  • Spam — Unwanted digital communication, including email, social media messages, etc. Usually tries to get you into a malicious website.
  • Syslog — System logging protocol, used by system administrators to capture all activity on a server. Usually stored on a separate server to retain logs in the event of an attack.
  • Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) — Establishes an encrypted tunnel between the client and server. eg. when you submit passwords on Facebook, only the encrypted text will be visible for sniffers and not your original password.
  • Snort — Lightweight open-source Intrusion Detection System for Windows and Linux.
  • SQL Injection — A type of attack that can be performed on web applications using SQL databases. Happens when the site does not validate user input.
  • Trojan — A malware hidden within useful software. eg. a pirated version of MS office can contain trojans that will execute when you install and run the software.
  • Traceroute — Tool that maps the route a packet takes between the source and destination.
  • Tunnel — Creating a private encrypted channel between two or more computers. Only allowed devices on the network can communicate through this tunnel.
  • Virtual Private Network — A subnetwork created within a network, mainly to encrypt traffic. eg. connecting to a VPN to access a blocked third-party site.
  • Virus — A piece of code that is created to perform a specific action on the target systems. A virus has to be triggered to execute eg. autoplaying a USB drive.
  • Vulnerability — A point of attack that is caused by a bug / poor system design. eg. lack of input validation causes attackers to perform SQL injection attacks on a website.
  • War Driving — Travelling through a neighborhood looking for unprotected wifi networks to attack.
  • WHOIS — Helps to find information about IP addresses, its owners, DNS records, etc.
  • Wireshark — Open source program to analyze network traffic and filter requests and responses for network debugging.
  • Worm — A malware program capable of replicating itself and spreading to other connected systems. eg. a worm to built a botnet. Unlike Viruses, Worms don’t need a trigger.
  • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) — Protocol that helps mobile devices connect to the internet.
  • Web Application Firewall (WAF) — Firewalls for web applications that help with cross-site scripting, Denial of Service, etc.
  • Zero-Day — A newly discovered vulnerability in a system for which there is no patch yet. Zero-day vulnerabilities are the most dangerous type of vulnerabilities since there is no possible way to protect against one.
  • Zombie — A compromised computer, controlled by an attacker. A group of zombies is called a Botnet.

CyberSecurity Post COVID-19

How does Covid19 affect cyber risk?

  1. Increased distributed working: With organizations embracing work from home, incremental risks have been observed due to a surge in Bring Your Own Device (BYOD), Virtual Private Network (VPN), Software As A Service (SaaS), O365 and Shadow IT, as it could be exploited by various Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack vectors.
  2. Reimagine Business Models: Envisioning new business opportunities, modes of working, and renewed investment priorities. With reduced workforce capability, compounded with skill shortages, staff who are focusing on business as usual tasks can be victimized, via social engineering.
  3. Digital Transformation and new digital infrastructure: With the change in nature for organizations across the industrial and supply chain sector – security is deprioritized. Hardening of the industrial systems and cloud based infrastructure is crucial as cyber threats exploit these challenges via vulnerability available for unpatched systems.
  4. With an extreme volume of digital communication, security awareness is lowered with increased susceptibility. Malicious actors are using phishing techniques to exploit such situations.

Re-evaluate your approach to cyber

    • Which cyber scenarios your organization appears to be preparing for or is prepared?
    •  Is there a security scenario that your organization is currently ignoring – but shouldn’t be?
    • What would your organization need to do differently in order to win, in each of the identified cyber scenarios?
  • What capabilities, cyber security partnerships, and workforce strategies do you need to strengthen?

The organizations should reflect the following scenarios at a minimum and consider:

    • Which cyber scenarios your organization appears to be preparing for or is prepared?
    •  Is there a security scenario that your organization is currently ignoring – but shouldn’t be?
    • What would your organization need to do differently in order to win, in each of the identified cyber scenarios?
    • What capabilities, cyber security partnerships, and workforce strategies do you need to strengthen?
  • To tackle the outcome from the above scenarios, the following measures are the key:

Inoculation through education: Educate and / or remind your employees about –

    • Your organization’s defense – remote work cyber security policies and best practices
    • Potential threats to your organization and how will it attack – with a specific focus on social engineering scams and identifying COVID-19 phishing campaigns
  • Assisting remote employees with enabling MFA across the organization assets

Adjust your defenses: Gather cyber threat intelligence and execute a patching sprint:

    • Set intelligence collection priorities
    • Share threat intelligence with other organizations
    • Use intelligence to move at the speed of the threat
  • Focus on known tactics, such as phishing and C-suite fraud.
  • Prioritize unpatched critical systems and common vulnerabilities.

Enterprise recovery: If the worst happens and an attack is successful, follow a staged approach to recovering critical business operations which may include tactical items such as:

    • Protect key systems through isolation
    • Fully understand and contain the incident
    • Eradicate any malware
    • Implement appropriate protection measures to improve overall system posture
    • Identify and prioritize the recovery of key business processes to deliver operations
  • Implement a prioritized recovery plan

Cyber Preparedness and Response: It is critical to optimize the detection capability thus, re-evaluation of the detection strategy aligned with the changing landscape is crucial. Some key trends include:

    • Secure and monitor your cloud environments and remote working applications
    • Increase monitoring to identify threats from shadow IT
  • Analyze behavior patterns to improve detection content

Finding the right cyber security partner: To be ready to respond identify the right partner with experience and skillset in Social Engineering, Cyber Response, Cloud Security, and Data Security.

Critical actions to address

At this point, as the organizations are setting the direction towards the social enterprise, it is an unprecedented opportunity to lead with cyber discussions and initiatives. Organizations should immediately gain an understanding of newly introduced risks and relevant controls by:

    • Getting a seat at the table
    • Understanding the risk prioritization:
    • Remote workforce/technology performance
    • Operational and financial implications
    • Emerging insider and external threats
  • Business continuity capabilities

Assessing cyber governance and security awareness in the new operating environment

Assessing the highest areas of risk and recommend practical mitigation strategies that minimize impact to constrained resources.

Keeping leadership and the Board apprised of ever-changing risk profile

Given the complexity of the pandemic and associated cyber challenges, there is reason to believe that the recovery phase post-COVID-19 will require unprecedented levels of cyber orchestration, communication, and changing of existing configurations across the organization.

CyberSecurity: Protect Yourself on Internet

    • Use two factor authentication when possible. If not possible, use strong unique passwords that are difficult to guess or crack. This means avoiding passwords that use of common words, your birthdate, your SSN, names and birthdays of close associates, etc.
    • Make sure the devices you are using are up-to-date and have some form of reputable anti-virus/malware software installed.
    • Never open emails, attachments, programs unless they are from a trusted source (i.e., a source that can be verified). Also disregard email or web requests that ask you to share your personal or account information unless you are sure the request and requestor are legitimate.
    • Try to only use websites that are encrypted. To do this, look for either the trusted security lock symbol before the website address and/or the extra “s” at the end of http in the URL address bar.
    • Avoid using an administrator level account when using the internet.
    • Only enable cookies when absolutely required by a website.
    • Make social media accounts private or don’t use social media at all.
    • Consider using VPNs and encrypting any folders/data that contains sensitive data.
  • Stay away from using unprotected public Wi-Fi networks.
    • Social media is genetically engineered in Area 51 to harvest as much data from you as possible. Far beyond just having your name and age and photograph.

    • Never use the same username twice anywhere, or the same password twice anywhere.

    • Use Tor/Tor Browser whenever possible. It’s not perfect, but it is a decent default attempt at anonymity.

    • Use a VPN. Using VPN and Tor can be even better.

    • Search engines like DuckDuckGo offer better privacy (assuming they’re honest, which you can never be certain of) than Google which, like social media, works extremely hard to harvest every bit of data from you that they can.

    • Never give your real details anywhere. Certainly not things like your name or pictures of yourself, but even less obvious things like your age or country of origin. Even things like how you spell words and grammatical quirks can reveal where you’re from.

    • Erase your comments from websites after a few days/weeks. It might not erase them from the website’s servers, but it will at least remove them from public view. If you don’t, you can forget they exist and you never know how or when they can and will be used against you.

  • With Reddit, you can create an account fairly easily over Tor using no real information. Also, regularly nuke your accounts in case Reddit or some crazy stalker is monitoring your posts to build a profile of who you might be. Source: Reddit

 Notable Hackers

  • Adrian Lamo – gained media attention for breaking into several high-profile computer networks, including those of The New York Times, Yahoo!, and Microsoft, culminating in his 2003 arrest. Lamo was best known for reporting U.S. soldier Chelsea Manning to Army criminal investigators in 2010 for leaking hundreds of thousands of sensitive U.S. government documents to WikiLeaks.
  • Albert Gonzales – an American computer hacker and computer criminal who is accused of masterminding the combined credit card theft and subsequent reselling of more than 170 million card and ATM numbers from 2005 to 2007: the biggest such fraud in history.
  • Andrew Auernheimer (known as Weev) – Went to jail for using math against AT&T website.
  • Barnaby Jack – was a New Zealand hacker, programmer and computer security expert. He was known for his presentation at the Black Hat computer security conference in 2010, during which he exploited two ATMs and made them dispense fake paper currency on the stage. Among his other most notable works were the exploitation of various medical devices, including pacemakers and insulin pumps.
  • Benjamin Delpy – Mimikatz
  • DVD-Jon – He wrote the DeCSS software, which decodes the Content Scramble System used for DVD licensing enforcement.
  • Eric Corley (known as Emmanuel Goldstein) – 2600
  • Gary McKinnon – a Scottish systems administrator and hacker who was accused in 2002 of perpetrating the “biggest military computer hack of all time,” although McKinnon himself states that he was merely looking for evidence of free energy suppression and a cover-up of UFO activity and other technologies potentially useful to the public. 👽🛸
  • George Hotz aka geohot – “The former Facebook engineer took on the giants of the tech world by developing the first iPhone carrier-unlock techniques,” says Mark Greenwood, head of data science at Netacea, “followed a few years later by reverse engineering Sony’s PlayStation 3, clearing the way for users to run their own code on locked-down hardware. George sparked an interest in a younger generation frustrated with hardware and software restrictions being imposed on them and led to a new scene of opening up devices, ultimately leading to better security and more openness.”
  • Guccifer 2.0 – a persona which claimed to be the hacker(s) that hacked into the Democratic National Committee (DNC) computer network and then leaked its documents to the media, the website WikiLeaks, and a conference event.
  • Hector Monsegur (known as Sabu) – an American computer hacker and co-founder of the hacking group LulzSec. He Monsegur became an informant for the FBI, working with the agency for over ten months to aid them in identifying the other hackers from LulzSec and related groups.
  • Jacob Appelbaum – an American independent journalist, computer security researcher, artist, and hacker. He has been employed by the University of Washington, and was a core member of the Tor project, a free software network designed to provide online anonymity.
  • James Forshaw – one of the world’s foremost bug bounty huners
  • Jeanson James Ancheta – On May 9, 2006, Jeanson James Ancheta (born 1985) became the first person to be charged for controlling large numbers of hijacked computers or botnets.
  • Jeremy Hammond – He was convicted of computer fraud in 2013 for hacking the private intelligence firm Stratfor and releasing data to the whistle-blowing website WikiLeaks, and sentenced to 10 years in prison.
  • John Draper – also known as Captain Crunch, Crunch or Crunchman (after the Cap’n Crunch breakfast cereal mascot), is an American computer programmer and former legendary phone phreak.
  • Kevin Mitnick – Free Kevin
  • Kimberley Vanvaeck (known as Gigabyte) – a virus writer from Belgium known for a long-standing dispute which involved the internet security firm Sophos and one of its employees, Graham Cluley. Vanvaeck wrote several viruses, including Quis, Coconut and YahaSux (also called Sahay). She also created a Sharp virus (also called “Sharpei”), credited as being the first virus to be written in C#.
  • Lauri Love – a British activist charged with stealing data from United States Government computers including the United States Army, Missile Defense Agency, and NASA via computer intrusion.
  • Michael Calce (known as MafiaBoy) – a security expert from Île Bizard, Quebec who launched a series of highly publicized denial-of-service attacks in February 2000 against large commercial websites, including Yahoo!, Fifa.com, Amazon.com, Dell, Inc., E*TRADE, eBay, and CNN.
  • Mudge – Peiter C. Zatko, better known as Mudge, is a network security expert, open source programmer, writer, and a hacker. He was the most prominent member of the high-profile hacker think tank the L0pht as well as the long-lived computer and culture hacking cooperative the Cult of the Dead Cow.
  • Phineas Fisher – vigilante hacker god
  • PRAGMA – Also known as Impragma or PHOENiX, PRAGMA is the author of Snipr, one of the most prolific credential stuffing tools available online.
  • The 414s – The 414s were a group of computer hackers who broke into dozens of high-profile computer systems, including ones at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and Security Pacific Bank, in 1982 and 1983.
  • The Shadow Brokers – is a hacker group who first appeared in the summer of 2016. They published several leaks containing hacking tools from the National Security Agency (NSA), including several zero-day exploits. Specifically, these exploits and vulnerabilities targeted enterprise firewalls, antivirus software, and Microsoft products.[6] The Shadow Brokers originally attributed the leaks to the Equation Group threat actor, who have been tied to the NSA’s Tailored Access Operations unit.

Notable Viruses & Worms

History

  • The Strange History of Ransomware
    The first ransomware virus predates e-mail, even the Internet as we know it, and was distributed on floppy disk by the postal service. It sounds quaint, but in some ways this horse-and-buggy version was even more insidious than its modern descendants. Contemporary ransomware tends to bait victims using legitimate-looking email attachments — a fake invoice from UPS, or a receipt from Delta airlines. But the 20,000 disks dispatched to 90 countries in December of 1989 were masquerading as something far more evil: AIDS education software.

How to protect sensitive data for its entire lifecycle in AWS

How to protect sensitive data for its entire lifecycle in AWS
How to protect sensitive data for its entire lifecycle in AWS

You can protect data in-transit over individual communications channels using transport layer security (TLS), and at-rest in individual storage silos using volume encryption, object encryption or database table encryption. However, if you have sensitive workloads, you might need additional protection that can follow the data as it moves through the application stack. Fine-grained data protection techniques such as field-level encryption allow for the protection of sensitive data fields in larger application payloads while leaving non-sensitive fields in plaintext. This approach lets an application perform business functions on non-sensitive fields without the overhead of encryption, and allows fine-grained control over what fields can be accessed by what parts of the application. Read m ore here…

I Passed AWS Security Specialty SCS-C01 Testimonials

Passing the SCS-C01 AWS Certified Security Specialty exam

I’ve been studying for both DevOps DOP-C01 and Security Specialty SCS-C01 tests but opted to just focus on SCS-C01 since the DevOps exam seems like a tough one to pass. I’m planning to take the DevOps one next but I read that there’s a new DOP-C02 version just came out so I might postpone it until for a couple of months.

This AWS Certified Security Specialty exam is easier than the SAA exam since the main focus is all about security. The official Exam Guide has been my ultimate guide in knowing the particular AWS services to focus for the test. Once I got 90% on all my practice tests attempts from TD, I went ahead and booked my exam.

Here’s a compilation of all the helpful SCS-C01 posts that helped me:

https://www.reddit.com/r/AWSCertifications/comments/xpwtiv/aws_certified_security_specialty_pretty/

https://www.reddit.com/r/AWSCertifications/comments/x56trw/recommendations_for_preparing_to_take_aws/

https://www.reddit.com/r/AWSCertifications/comments/u1y4ik/passed_the_aws_certified_security_specialty_exam/

https://www.reddit.com/r/AWSCertifications/comments/syn0lr/aws_certified_security_specialty_scsc01_exam_pass/

The Exam Readiness: AWS Certified Security Specialty course provides a good summary of all the relevant topics that are about to be asked in the exam. Prepare to see topics in Key Management Infrastructure, IPS/IDS, network security, EKS/ECS container security and many more.

Cybersecurity Breaking News – Top Stories

  • Trivy Maven Plugin
    by /u/netodeveloper (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 10:21 pm

    This is a Maven plugin developed to simplify the process of scanning Docker images for vulnerabilities using Trivy. https://github.com/orladigital/trivy-maven-plugin submitted by /u/netodeveloper [link] [comments]

  • Bank asking for voice recognition opt in for confirmation of identity
    by /u/Developer-01 (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 9:44 pm

    Was on the phone with a bank and one of the menu options was asking to opt in to there voice recognition things to confirm identity’s. What do you guys think about this ? submitted by /u/Developer-01 [link] [comments]

  • QSA Says we Can't Provide Public WiFi
    by /u/Longjumping-Tea-9382 (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 9:36 pm

    Our QSA is telling us that we can't have public Wi-Fi available during any events on our campus where outside vendors might be present because vendors will use it and that would "make us a service provider to them." For example, some special shop selling food or trinkets at an event. She says since we have a contract with the card brands already, this becomes our problem regardless of any relationship or contracts we develop with these vendors. The vendors would obviously be using their own equipment and merchant IDs. I'd argue this stance technically prevents all public Wi-Fi if the entity takes credit cards on site. Seems to me, the terms of service provided with the public Wi-Fi should be able to limit what "cardholder data" services we are providing for the vendor, which is none beyond the pipe to the internet and a corner to set their booth up in. The PCI DSS says that ISPs that only provide that pipe are excluded, so why aren't we? As such, we're going to have several vendors that refuse to come in the future, since we'd be requiring them to use an unreliable hotspot deep inside of buildings instead of our robust Wi-Fi infrastructure. I think this is putting us at a competitive disadvantage, and think that most places would accept this level of risk. I'm sure the QSAs have to toe the line carefully here because some place will otherwise try and find themselves a loophole. What am I missing? submitted by /u/Longjumping-Tea-9382 [link] [comments]

  • Chinese Government Poses 'Bold and Unrelenting' Threat to U.S. Critical Infrastructure, FBI Director Says | Federal Bureau of Investigation
    by /u/CEHParrot (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 9:17 pm

    submitted by /u/CEHParrot [link] [comments]

  • Frontier Communications SEC Breach Notification Filing (8-K)
    by /u/blahdidbert (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 9:16 pm

    submitted by /u/blahdidbert [link] [comments]

  • Email Incidents - best practice
    by /u/SuicidalReincarnate (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 8:45 pm

    This is a scenario that's doing my head in... Internal users either accidentally or on purpose - emailing corporate info to wrong recipients Could be an 'oopsie daisy' I clicked on the wrong contact, or, I'm about to resign, so I'll send all this to my personal account Not to interested in HR discussions here (I have a plan for thai) The typical incident response for incorrect recipient email ultimately ends with 'contact the recipient, ask them to delete email' There is always a doubt that lingers- did they male copies, forward it on etc So, what steps would you suggest to prevent emails going to wrong recipients I've thought about encryption - but I'm not sure if this is the correct option, as the mail is going to a known recipient (just the wrong one) We have dlp - but not sure what use cases would help here What would this brains-trust suggest submitted by /u/SuicidalReincarnate [link] [comments]

  • What are Attack Graph best practices? Can you share examples?
    by /u/Missing_Space_Cadet (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 7:52 pm

    I’m working on a project that needs to be accompanied by an attack graph prior to engaging. I need to include assets, attack path or kill chain, vulnerabilities/exploits (e.g. CVE, CWE, Payload details), TTPs, and other supporting information. I’m not entirely convinced that the attack graph needs all of this information and I’m curious if anyone has a format, standard, or tools they use when mapping out attack graphs. Examples where possible would be a godsend. Links or references equally appreciated. Thanks in advance. submitted by /u/Missing_Space_Cadet [link] [comments]

  • Certified Payment Security Compliance Manager (CPSCM) ?
    by /u/kilogigabyte (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 7:42 pm

    I'm seeking input from professionals on the above certification, does it have recognition among payment industry professionnels. My search on Google didn't provide any third party opinion. It looks to me as a wrapper for PCI-DSS and alike, but does it worth it ? Here is the link to the training details. Thanks inadvance for any input. submitted by /u/kilogigabyte [link] [comments]

  • What is best practice to prevent man in the middle compromising emails?
    by /u/evolooshun (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 7:20 pm

    Our office recently had a very clever email attack which was caught before any damages. Ive been directed to research possible future prevention of the same thing happening because Im pretty sure its a vulnerability outside of our organization and will start to be more common. An email communication was intercepted with an attachment that had our companies ACH info for the recipient end customer to provide a payment to. The WORD document was modified and then reforwarded to the correct recipient with a copy of the email chain but the domain names all included an "s" at the end. ie [user@reddits.com](mailto:user@reddits.com) which was very hidden at first glance and likely easy to miss. The modified document included some very clever subterfuge to change all the contact details and phone#s so there was no direct way to contact the us as the sender for questioning. After a bit of investigation, I think the point of attach is the end user is using a GoDaddy hosted account for their emails and it is likely a result of multiple breaches in 2020-2022. I have a feeling that attackers have server level access to GoDaddys hosted shared servers to view end users emails or this end user has some sort of malware on their host. It is unclear if the end user ever received our original email and just didnt respond to it. Im positive our O365 account(s) are not compromised or any of the workstations on our network. The email was a 1:1 copy of the original with the exception of the attachment contents and email address containing the domain name modification. The end user confirmed via phone that they had a similar incident 6 months prior. Is email end to end encryption the best choice here and should we use it for everything or just those that are sensitive? Any guidance is appreciated. submitted by /u/evolooshun [link] [comments]

  • High School English Teacher to Cybersecurity Engineer - A How-to Guide
    by /u/_r00d (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 7:06 pm

    Three years ago I was a high school English teacher. Today, I'm a cybersecurity engineer. This is how I did it (and what mistakes to avoid). Shameless plug (My video series: https://www.youtube.com/@Kyle.Marvin/) Cybersecurity Overview Three questions to start us off: 1. What is Information Technology and what other IT jobs besides security pay well? What is cybersecurity and what your job duties would be? And what is this about red/blue/purple teams that make up IT Security? Main IT Domains 1. Networking. Network engineers design, implement, and manage network infrastructure, such as routers, switches, and firewalls. 2. Cloud. Cloud engineers do the same, but with cloud-based infrastructure and services. System Administration. System administrators handle user account management, data backups, and system updates. 4. Help Desk. Help Desk technicians serve as the first point of contact for users seeking assistance. Cybersecurity Analyst / Engineer Job duties: Investigating security alerts, such as potential malware on a machine 2. Reviewing emails for indicators such as malicious links or attachments 3. DNS Filtering so that if a user does click a link, it doesn’t have a malicious effect 4. Conducting vulnerability assessments to find weaknesses in our infrastructure 5. Developing security policies, like Acceptable Use documents 6. Implementing security controls like MFA and EDR Incident response during a data breach 8. Training users to have a security mindset Audit for compliance to industry regulations such as HIPAA and PCI DSS 10. Identity Protection to ensure only authorized users gain access to company resources Red vs. Blue vs. Purple Blue Team: Their job is to set up a company’s defenses. Like mentioned earlier: they do email security, endpoint protection, DNS filtering, and respond to alerts. Their job is to try and keep all the bad actors out. Red Team: These folks get paid to be “ethical” or “white hat” hackers. Yes - companies pay people to try and break through the blue team’s defenses. They may use social engineering (the act of manipulating people) or they may use technical skills, such as finding exploits and vulnerabilities in defenses. Purple Team: Sometimes, the red and blue teams come together for military style exercises where the red team tries to break into something and the blue team defends. These are called purple team exercises. A few companies will even have a dedicated role for purple teamers to manage these exercises. Why Choose Cybersecurity? 1. I work more with things now than I do with people. There are people-centered security positions, but there are also positions that focus on (non-coding) tech skills. 2. Median pay is $120,000 a year Information Security Analysts : Occupational Outlook Handbook: : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (bls.gov) 3. Job growth of 32% into 2032 Cybersecurity Salary Guide: How Much Can You Earn? – Forbes Advisor 4. Cybercrime is MASSIVELY profitable. Companies need digital police. They need YOU. 2022 Cybersecurity Almanac: 100 Facts, Figures, Predictions And Statistics (cybersecurityventures.com) 5. Make a positive impact on the world by thwarting cybercrime. Security (and IT) Certifications Certification: CompTIA A+ Why: It helped me get interviews and ultimately land an entry-level IT role. Who’s it for: Folks with no background in tech looking to break into the industry. Certification: CompTIA Network+ Why: You may need more than A+ on your resume to land a job. Also, you NEED to know how networking works. Who’s it for: Folks with no background in tech looking to break into the industry. If you already have an IT job, skip the test, but study the material! (CCNA is a good alternative IF you want to do network security). Certification: CompTIA Security+ Why: Allows you to apply for secret and top secret security positions (DoD certified). Gives a good theoretical understanding of security. Who’s it for: Folks with tech background looking to break into cybersecurity. Then I would get one of the following: Certification: BTL1 Blue Team Level 1 Certification » Security Blue Team Why: Good entry-level certification to build hands-on defensive skills Certification: eJPT eJPT Certification - INE Security Why: Good entry-level certification to build hands-on offensive skills Certification: PNPT Practical Network Penetration Tester (PNPT) - TCM Security (tcm-sec.com) Why: Good entry-level certification to build hands-on offensive skills Honorable Mentions Google IT Support Professional Google IT Support Professional Certificate | Coursera Google Cybersecurity Professional Google Cybersecurity Professional Certificate | Coursera Why Honorable only? They did not help me land a job, but have excellent content. CompTIA moved the needle for me in terms of interviews of job offers. Security Projects Email Security Buy a domain and get yourself a personalized email address. Configure the DNS records (SPF, DMARC) to ensure it’s secure. You can add this address to your resume and highlight it as a skill you now have experience with! SO many companies do not have DMARC setup correctly and this is a HIGH demand skill. Email is the number 1 path for threat actors to compromise accounts. Knowing how to secure email is a must. Antivirus Find and install a free antivirus program, such as MalwareBytes on virtual machine. Look through all the configurations and see what changes you can make. While on the virtual machine, download Potentially Unwanted Programs (PUPs) and see how the AV reacts. Try downloading EICAR (European Institute for Computer Anti-Virus Research) and testing with that. See if you can block files by hash. If you can, create a .exe file with some code from ChatGPT (maybe a PowerShell script that grabs system info and writes it to a .txt file), grab its hash, block it in the AV by adding the hash, then try to execute the file. Security Awareness Training Go through your personal email, hit your spam/junk folder, and you won’t have to dig long. Find out how to determine what malicious indicators are, and then create thorough walk-throughs on a few emails, highlighting what evidence you found, and how that evidence led to your conclusion. Post these on Medium for visibility. Create a mini-course on educating users to not click on links, input their credentials, download files, verify if an email is from a trusted sender, etc. You can take this to the next level by automating portions of this process: have a python script scan the headers, pull just the info you require, and then utilize APIs to analyze that data. Network Security pfSense is an open source firewall that you can setup in your home environment. OR if you have a spare Raspberry PI, then setup OpenWRT. Either are great options. If you are not an active administrator of your home network, now is the time to start! Learning to secure your home environment will go a long way to securing an enterprise environment. Frankly you can just start off with the gear you have and see what options you can enable to increase security. DNS Filtering You can set up OpenDNS for 20$ a year or free! Download, install, setup, and test. Can you get to websites you shouldn’t? What can you block? What should you block? What should an organization block to increase productivity and security? Up your DNS filtering game by setting up multiple profiles that allow certain users access to some sites that others don’t have access to. For instance, allow Facebook for someone and block it for another user. Document this process! Create a write-up or video or podcast. Post it online and share it with the community. Password manager Managing passwords is a pain. Do you know how many accounts you have? do you know if any have been compromised? So many folks use multiple open-source PWMs, such as chrome, firefox, edge…and more. Consolidate your passwords into a single location, update them to be secure, delete old/unnecessary accounts, enable MFA where you can. Do you already pay for Nord VPN? Well they include a PWM. Or there’s a ton of options out there that are really affordable. Do some research: should you use a cloud PWM? Or should you setup an on-prem Raspberry PI PWM? Find the option that suits your needs and get it going! Bonus Projects 1. Eric Capuano wrote a 4-part blog series that details how to set up a homelab SOC Analyst style. https://blog.ecapuano.com/p/so-you-want-to-be-a-soc-analyst-intro 2. Reverse Malware Analysis by TCM Security https://academy.tcm-sec.com/ Wargames Capture-the-Flag (CTF) events are cybersecurity competitions designed to test participants' skills in various aspects of information security. They involve solving a series of challenges that simulate real-world security scenarios. Participants are often organized into teams and compete to uncover hidden flags or solve puzzles to score points. Six Reasons to Compete in a Wargame 1. CTF challenges cover a wide range of technical areas, including network security, cryptography, web security, reverse engineering, forensics, and more. 2. Participants must apply problem-solving techniques, analyze vulnerabilities, devise strategies, and explore different approaches to overcome obstacles. 3. Events often require participants to work together to solve challenges and maximize their score. The ability to work well in a team is highly valuable in real-world cybersecurity scenarios. 4. CTFs put participants under pressure to solve challenges within a limited timeframe, which helps develop time management skills, improve decision-making under pressure, and enhance your ability to prioritize tasks effectively. 5. Engaging in the CTF community allows participants to network, exchange knowledge, and build relationships that can be beneficial for career advancement and future collaborations. 6. Placing in the top 3 in a CTF is an accomplishment worth noting on your resume and demonstrates to employers that you have the previously mentioned skills. Types of Wargames Jeopardy In this type of CTF, teams are given a board that looks like jeopardy with certain categories, such as OSINT, PWN, Crypto, etc. and there are multiple tasks worth varying points, for instance, PWN for 500. Completing these tasks awards points to a team. Attack-Defense A “gameserver” is provided by the organizers and runs throughout the competition and periodically stores flags on your Vulnbox The Vulnbox is your running instance of the virtual machine given to you by the organizers. It runs all the services that the gameserver uses to store flags. Your job is to protect your flags by securing the services and ensure your VM is not exploitable (the Defense part of the game). The other teams all have their vulnboxes, and after about an hour, the network will open up so that the other teams can start exploiting (aka the Attack phase) your machine and find flags. Successfully stealing and submitting flags from the Vulnbox of other teams determines your attack score! Technical Preparation College Is college required? No. Does it help? Yes. I have a B.A. in English – not tech related at all and this was more than sufficient to get a job. Many of my coworkers do not have degrees at all. WGU has a popular program - Cybersecurity Courses Online – Bachelor’s Degree | WGU Bootcamps Required? No. Helpful? Maybe. Check out pay-what-you-can training from SANS instructors at Antisyphon https://www.antisyphontraining.com/ or Popular YouTuber and Security Engineer Josh Madakor also has a bootcamp. https://www.youtube.com/@JoshMadakor Technical Skills Development Defensive Skill Building 1. Blue Team Labs Online BTLO (blueteamlabs.online) Offensive Skill Building (ethical hacking, penetration testing, application security) 1. Hack the Box a. Academy (for beginners) Best Online Cybersecurity Courses & Certifications | HTB Academy (hackthebox.com) b. Labs (beginner to advanced) Hack The Box :: Login 2. TryHackMe TryHackMe | Cyber Security Training Podcasts Darknet Diaries – True stories from the dark side of the internet by Jack Rhysider (SO GOOD). Darknet Diaries – True stories from the dark side of the Internet. Daily Cyber Threat Brief - Do You Know How EPIC Simply Cyber Is? (Max Nitro Edition) (youtube.com) Books 1. Dark Territory: The Secret History of Cyber War by Fred Kaplan Dark Territory recounts the history of cyber warfare in the United States before the word “Cyber” was even coined. It covers a comprehensive understanding of how America began its cyber programs from the Cold War up through the Obama administration. It is less about specific cyber attacks or exploits, although it does cover many, and more about the history behind the CIA, NSA, FBI, and all the other alphabet soup of the American government. 2. You’ll See This Message When It’s Too Late by Josephine Wolff The first section recounts 3 major financially motivated cyber incidents: TXJ breach, South Carolina Department of Revenue (SCDOR) and the Zues botnet / Cryptolocker. You’ll get a good understanding of some defensive measures to thwart financial cyber crimes, along with a great history lesson. The second section deals with cyber-espionage: DigiNotar (a certificate authority), China’s PLA Unit 61398, and the breach to the US Office of Personnel Management (OPM). The defensive measures one might take to counteract these crimes has some overlap, but is interestingly more difficult to prevent. The third section highlights cyber acts of public humiliation: Spamhaus’ DDoS, Sony’s Breach (one of many), and the adulterous Ashley Madison website. These crimes are perhaps the most difficult to thwart and as the motivations and information required are different. The final section is something of a review. It focuses on potential solutions to issues, the underlying economic costs, and the legislative agenda tied to these issues. 3. Cybersecurity and Cyberwar by P.W. Singer & Allan Friedman The book delves into the history and current state of cyber warfare, providing a detailed look at the players, the technology, and the politics involved, from state-sponsored hackers to cybercrime syndicates, the authors take readers on a journey through the dark corners of the internet. It also offers practical advice on how to protect yourself and your organization from cyber-attacks. From understanding the basics of computer security to implementing advanced security measures, it’s packed with actionable tips and tricks to help you stay safe online. Defense in Depth There are four types of controls (OK – there’s actually more) that, when combined, help create a defense in depth strategy. For instance, locking your front door, installing a camera and flood light, owning a big dog, and having a silent alarm is a defense in depth strategy to keep your home safe. - The floodlight and camera are deterrents, which reduce the likelihood of being attacked. - The lock on the front door is preventative, intended to make an attack unsuccessful. - The big dog can reduce the effect of a break in, a corrective control. - The silent alarm, a detective control, can signal the cops to come investigate. Learn more here: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/3-types-security-controls-expert-explains-purple-sec/ So what? Cybersecurity has multiple domains where we implement multiple control types. Each of these can be a sub-specialty within security. Email Security According to Deloitte, 91% of all cyber attacks begin with a phishing email. Therefore, email security is a top priority. 91% of all cyber attacks begin with a phishing email to an unexpected victim | Deloitte Malaysia | Risk Advisory | Press releases As a security analyst, you’ll have two jobs: 1. Review user submitted emails to see if they are malicious, spam, or legitimate 2. Create email security policies to prevent malicious emails. Endpoint Protection As a Security Analyst, you’ll likely be responding to many AV or EDR alerts. For instance, your AV may be configured to block, quarantine, ignore, or delete files and processes. Depending on the situation, you’ll need to figure out if the file or process is malicious and how did it get to the endpoint in the first place. Did the user click a link? Did they download something they shouldn't have? Did they plug in a USB they found on the street? A company’s worst nightmare is ransomware. This is a primary tool to prevent that. Security Awareness Training Backstory before we discuss this one. Stuxnet was a computer worm that was discovered in 2010 and is believed to have been developed jointly by the United States and Israel. It was designed to target industrial control systems and specifically the centrifuges used by Iran in their nuclear program. The worm was able to infiltrate these systems by exploiting zero-day vulnerabilities and spread to other systems through removable drives and network connections. What that means is, no security controls that we as analysts could configure would have prevented this malware. The question remains, how did this malware get into their system in the first place? After all, Iran’s nuclear program was air-gapped (not connected to the internet). So how did malware get on a system if there was no network connected to it? User error. USB drives were dropped into the Iranian parking lot surrounding the nuclear facility. Users would have had to pick one up, take it inside, pass security check points, and plug it into their work computers. Now, you may think to yourself, “what idiot is dumb enough to do that?” My answer would be: it takes a very special type of tinfoil paranoia and extreme distrust to be immune to trickery. But it still begs the question, how could this have been prevented? (Hint: it’s in the section title). DNS Filtering People like to click things. Things they shouldn’t. This is why phishing emails are so successful. People are click happy. So how do we protect against happy-clickers? DNS Filtering. SIEM/SOAR The tool of all tools. The SIEM gathers logs from everywhere and generates alerts for analysts to investigate. You can extend the functionality with SOAR but automating investigations. Identity Access Management With users now working remotely and using their own devices, how do we ensure that only legitimate users gain access to the correct resources? Volunteering Need experience to get a job? Need a job to get experience? Need experience to get a…well shit. How do we hack the cycle? You can find volunteering opportunities at your local non-profits (food bank, community centers, libraries) or you can ask to work on security projects at your current company (for those of you who are currently entry-level IT, this is the best way to get experience). If you need IT experience, check out ITDRC where you can volunteer in person or remotely. https://www.itdrc.org/ Additional Resources Certifications Security Certification Roadmap https://pauljerimy.com/security-certification-roadmap/ CompTIA A+ https://www.comptia.org/certifications/a CompTIA Network+ https://www.comptia.org/certifications/network CompTIA Security+ https://www.comptia.org/certifications/security BTL1 https://www.securityblue.team/why-btl1/ eJPT https://security.ine.com/certifications/ejpt-certification/ PNPT https://certifications.tcm-sec.com/pnpt/ Google IT Support https://www.coursera.org/professional-certificates/google-it-support Google Cybersecurity https://www.coursera.org/google-certificates/cybersecurity-certificate? CompTIA Training Professor Messer https://www.youtube.com/@professormesser Mike Meyers https://www.udemy.com/courses/search/?q=mike+meyers&src=sac&kw=mike+meyers Jason Dion https://www.udemy.com/courses/search/?src=ukw&q=jason+dion Books Cybersecurity and Cyberwar https://www.amazon.com/dp/1515950247/ Dark Territory https://www.amazon.com/dp/B010MHABUY/ You’ll See This Message When It Is Too Late https://www.amazon.com/dp/0262038854/ Atomic Habits https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07RFSSYBH/ Speak to Win https://www.amazon.com/dp/B001LV3UTK/ The Compound Effect https://www.amazon.com/dp/0306924633/ Meaningful Small Talk https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07WTWBVK8/ Podcasts Darknet Diaries https://darknetdiaries.com/ SimplyCyber https://www.youtube.com/@SimplyCyber Other Podcasts https://www.sans.org/blog/cybersecurity-podcast-roundup/ Reddit Mentorship Monday https://www.reddit.com/r/cybersecurity/ Freemium Training TryHackMe https://tryhackme.com HackTheBox – Labs https://app.hackthebox.com/ HackTheBox – Academy https://academy.hackthebox.com/ Blue Team Labs Online https://blueteamlabs.online/ Over The Wire https://overthewire.org/wargames/ Projects So you want to be a SOC analyst https://blog.ecapuano.com/p/so-you-want-to-be-a-soc-analyst-intro TCM Security https://academy.tcm-sec.com/courses/ TCM Malware Analysis https://academy.tcm-sec.com/courses/enrolled/1547503 Online Degrees https://www.wgu.edu/online-it-degrees/bachelors-programs.html Bootcamps Antisyphon https://www.antisyphontraining.com/course-catalog/ Josh Madakor https://joshmadakor.tech/cyber/ YouTubers John Hammond https://www.youtube.com/@_JohnHammond The Cyber Mentor https://www.youtube.com/@TCMSecurityAcademy David Bombal https://www.youtube.com/@davidbombal Kyle Marvin (shameless plug) https://www.youtube.com/@kyle.marvin Volunteering ITDRC https://www.itdrc.org/volunteer CTFs HackTheBox – CTFs https://ctf.hackthebox.com/ PicoCTF https://www.picoctf.org/ CTF Time https://ctftime.org/event/list/upcoming Conferences DEF CON https://defcon.org/ Black Hat https://www.blackhat.com/us-24/ Wild West Hackin’ Fest https://wildwesthackinfest.com/ I created this post and YouTube channel because I see the same questions in Mentorship Monday every week. I hope to update this resource and keep it as a go-to guide for new folks looking to break into the industry. Please ask questions, recommend content to add/remove, and help make this post awesome. I appreciate y'all! submitted by /u/_r00d [link] [comments]

  • Anyone calculating per employee cost of cybersecurity?
    by /u/ranhalt (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 7:03 pm

    Talking to peers, we're comparing how much we spend on cybersec products, but they all scale by endpoint or user, so the total doesn't really help companies of different size. Is anyone calculating per employee per year/month cost to get an idea of what one employee costs a company? I'm a little over halfway through inventorying our products/services and we're over $18/mo per user already. Calculating firewall, email filter, EDR, security awareness training/testing, SIEM, password manager, endpoint patching, etc Not including our actual MS tenant and licenses for user products, only dedicated cybersec purchases. submitted by /u/ranhalt [link] [comments]

  • Just me, or is every vendor's website awful. WHAT DO YOU ACTUALLY DO?
    by /u/ByteKnight78 (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 5:29 pm

    It seems that everyone is fighting over marketing terms at this point and losing the direction of what us actual customers need - SIEM, next-gen SIEM, XDR, MDR, EDR. Just saw an article from my past MDR provider helping to understand the lines between EDR, NDR, TDR, XDR, and MDR - lining up with all of the individual packages that they offer. What are we doing here. Even the gartner leaders in these categories - their websites make it impossible to figure out what they actually do. Gone are the days of sticking to what you're good at I guess. submitted by /u/ByteKnight78 [link] [comments]

  • We have Crowdstrike for our EDR. Can we use it as our primary SIEM?
    by /u/VengefulPete (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 5:02 pm

    What are the pros and cons? Is it just cost based on number of devices? Is it any good with network device logs? I was also considering using Security Onion for non-desktop/server devices if CS is cost prohibitive or not ideal. submitted by /u/VengefulPete [link] [comments]

  • Web API Security Champion: Broken Object Level Authorization (OWASP TOP 10)
    by /u/theowni (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 4:36 pm

    submitted by /u/theowni [link] [comments]

  • Cisco Warns of Large-Scale Brute-Force Attacks on VPNs
    by /u/igiveupmakinganame (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 3:32 pm

    Been seeing this for over a year. There are recommendations on how to combat it within the links in the article. Anyone else seeing it? have any tips on how you combat it? submitted by /u/igiveupmakinganame [link] [comments]

  • LabHost phishing service with 40,000 domains disrupted, 37 arrested
    by /u/N07-2-L33T (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 2:32 pm

    https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/labhost-phishing-service-with-40-000-domains-disrupted-37-arrested/ submitted by /u/N07-2-L33T [link] [comments]

  • OfflRouter Malware Evades Detection in Ukraine for Almost a Decade
    by info@thehackernews.com (The Hacker News) (The Hacker News) on April 18, 2024 at 2:25 pm

    Select Ukrainian government networks have remained infected with a malware called OfflRouter since 2015. Cisco Talos said its findings are based on an analysis of over 100 confidential documents that were infected with the VBA macro virus and uploaded to the VirusTotal malware scanning platform since 2018. More than 20 such documents have been uploaded since 2022. "The documents contained VBA

  • Introducing Cloud Console Cartographer: An Open-Source Tool To Help Security Teams Easily Understand Log Events Generated by AWS Console Activity
    by /u/permis0 (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 1:59 pm

    submitted by /u/permis0 [link] [comments]

  • FIN7 Cybercrime Group Targeting U.S. Auto Industry with Carbanak Backdoor
    by info@thehackernews.com (The Hacker News) (The Hacker News) on April 18, 2024 at 1:58 pm

    The infamous cybercrime syndicate known as FIN7 has been linked to a spear-phishing campaign targeting the U.S. automotive industry to deliver a known backdoor called Carbanak (aka Anunak). "FIN7 identified employees at the company who worked in the IT department and had higher levels of administrative rights," the BlackBerry research and intelligence team said in a new write-up. "They

  • In a little bit of a predicament, wanted some help regarding on which career path I should go down! I have two offers one from Big4 in IT audit (Tech Risk) and another offer from a small MSSP as a SOC Analyst.
    by /u/Valuable_Grade1077 (cybersecurity) on April 18, 2024 at 1:04 pm

    Hello everyone! Looking for some valuable advice on where to move cybersecurity wise. I've heard IT audit to be a trap but the pay difference is definitely something that I've been considering. Would love to hear ya'lls opinion! Big4 IT Audit Offer: 82K MSSP SOC Offer: 45K + Remote + 4 day week + 36 hour shift submitted by /u/Valuable_Grade1077 [link] [comments]

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