CyberSecurity 101 and Top 25 AWS Certified Security Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps

AWS Certified Security – Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps

In this blog, we cover the Top 25 AWS Certified Security Specialty Questions and Answers Dump and all latest and relevant information about CyberSecurity.

I- The AWS Certified Security – Specialty (SCS-C01) examination is intended for  individuals who perform a security role. This exam validates an examinee’s ability to effectively demonstrate knowledge about securing the AWS platform.

It validates an examinee’s ability to demonstrate:

An understanding of specialized data classifications and AWS data protection mechanisms.

An understanding of data-encryption methods and AWS mechanisms to implement them.

An understanding of secure Internet protocols and AWS mechanisms to implement them.

A working knowledge of AWS security services and features of services to provide a secure production environment.

Competency gained from two or more years of production deployment experience using AWS security services and features.

The ability to make tradeoff decisions with regard to cost, security, and deployment complexity given a set of application requirements.

AWS Certified Security Specialty
AWS Certified Security Specialty

An understanding of security operations and risks.

Below are the Top 25 AWS Certified Specialty  Exam Practice Quiz including Questions and Answers and References -:

Question 1:  When requested through an STS API call, credentials are returned with what three components?

A)  Security Token, Access Key ID, Signed URL
B) Security Token, Access Key ID, Secret Access Key
C) Signed URL, Security Token, Username
D) Security Token, Secret Access Key, Personal Pin Code

ANSWER1:

B

Notes/Hint1:

Security Token, Access Key ID, Secret Access Key

Reference1: Security Token, Access Key ID, Secret Access Key

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 2: A company has AWS workloads in multiple geographical locations. A Developer has created an Amazon Aurora database in the us-west-1 Region. The database is encrypted using a customer-managed AWS KMS key. Now the Developer wants to create the same encrypted database in the us-east-1 Region. Which approach should the Developer take to accomplish this task?

A) Create a snapshot of the database in the us-west-1 Region. Copy the snapshot to the us-east-1 Region and specify a KMS key in the us-east-1 Region. Restore the database from the copied snapshot.
B) Create an unencrypted snapshot of the database in the us-west-1 Region. Copy the snapshot to the useast-1 Region. Restore the database from the copied snapshot and enable encryption using the KMS key from the us-east-1 Region
C) Disable encryption on the database. Create a snapshot of the database in the us-west-1 Region. Copy the snapshot to the us-east-1 Region. Restore the database from the copied snapshot.
D) In the us-east-1 Region, choose to restore the latest automated backup of the database from the us-west1 Region. Enable encryption using a KMS key in the us-east-1 Region

ANSWER2:

A

Notes/Hint1: 

If a user copies an encrypted snapshot, the copy of the snapshot must also be encrypted. If a user copies an encrypted snapshot across Regions, users cannot use the same AWS KMS encryption key for the copy as used for the source snapshot, because KMS keys are Region specific. Instead, users must specify a KMS key that is valid in the destination Region

Reference2: copies an encrypted snapshot, KMS Keys are Region-specific

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 3: A corporate cloud security policy states that communication between the company’s VPC and KMS must travel entirely within the AWS network and not use public service endpoints. Which combination of the following actions MOST satisfies this requirement? (Select TWO.) 

A) Add the aws:sourceVpce condition to the AWS KMS key policy referencing the company’s VPC endpoint ID.
B) Remove the VPC internet gateway from the VPC and add a virtual private gateway to the VPC to prevent direct, public internet connectivity.
C) Create a VPC endpoint for AWS KMS with private DNS enabled.
D) Use the KMS Import Key feature to securely transfer the AWS KMS key over a VPN. E) Add the following condition to the AWS KMS key policy: “aws:SourceIp”: “10.0.0.0/16“.

ANSWER3:

A and C

Notes/Hint3: 

An IAM policy can deny access to AWS KMS except through your VPC endpoint with the following condition statement: 
“Condition”:  {
     “StringNotEquals”: { 
             “aws:sourceVpce”: “vpce-0295a3caf8414c94a” 
                 } 
}
 If you select the Enable Private DNS Name option, the standard AWS KMS DNS hostname resolves to your VPC endpoint.

Reference3: AWS KMS

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 4: An application team is designing a solution with two applications. The security team wants the applications’ logs to be captured in two different places, because one of the applications produces logs with sensitive data. Which solution meets the requirement with the LEAST risk and effort? 

A) Use Amazon CloudWatch Logs to capture all logs, write an AWS Lambda function that parses the log file, and move sensitive data to a different log.
B) Use Amazon CloudWatch Logs with two log groups, with one for each application, and use an AWS IAM policy to control access to the log groups, as required.
C) Aggregate logs into one file, then use Amazon CloudWatch Logs, and then design two CloudWatch metric filters to filter sensitive data from the logs.
 D) Add logic to the application that saves sensitive data logs on the Amazon EC2 instances’ local storage, and write a batch script that logs into the Amazon EC2 instances and moves sensitive logs to a secure location.

ANSWER4:

B

Notes/Hint4: 

Each application's log can be configured to send the log to a specific Amazon CloudWatch Logs log group.

Reference4: Amazon CloudWatch Logs log group.

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 5: A security engineer must set up security group rules for a three-tier application: 

  • Presentation tier – Accessed by users over the web, protected by the security group presentation-sg
  • Logic tier – RESTful API accessed from the presentation tier through HTTPS, protected by the security group logic-sg
  • Data tier – SQL Server database accessed over port 1433 from the logic tier, protected by the security group data-sg
Which combination of the following security group rules will allow the application to be secure and functional? (Select THREE.)
A) presentation-sg: Allow ports 80 and 443 from 0.0.0.0/0
B) data-sg: Allow port 1433 from presentation-sg
C) data-sg: Allow port 1433 from logic-sg
D) presentation-sg: Allow port 1433 from data-sg
 E) logic-sg: Allow port 443 from presentation-sg
F) logic-sg: Allow port 443 from 0.0.0.0/0

ANSWER5:

A C and E

Notes/Hint5: 

In an n-tier architecture, each tier’s security group allows traffic from the security group sending it traffic only. The presentation tier opens traffic for HTTP and HTTPS from the internet. Since security groups are stateful, only inbound rules are required.

Reference5: n-tier architecture

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 6: A security engineer is working with a product team building a web application on AWS. The application uses Amazon S3 to host the static content, Amazon API Gateway to provide RESTful services, and Amazon DynamoDB as the backend data store. The users already exist in a directory that is exposed through a SAML identity provider. Which combination of the following actions should the engineer take to enable users to be authenticated into the web application and call APIs? (Select THREE). 

A) Create a custom authorization service using AWS Lambda.
B) Configure a SAML identity provider in Amazon Cognito to map attributes to the Amazon Cognito user pool attributes.
C) Configure the SAML identity provider to add the Amazon Cognito user pool as a relying party.
D) Configure an Amazon Cognito identity pool to integrate with social login providers.
E) Update DynamoDB to store the user email addresses and passwords.
F) Update API Gateway to use an Amazon Cognito user pool authorizer.

ANSWER6:

B, C and F

Notes/Hint6: 

When Amazon Cognito receives a SAML assertion, it needs to be able to map SAML attributes to user pool attributes. When configuring Amazon Cognito to receive SAML assertions from an identity provider, you need ensure that the identity provider is configured to have Amazon Cognito as a relying party. Amazon API Gateway will need to be able to understand the authorization being passed from Amazon Cognito, which is a configuration step.

Reference6: user pool attributes Amazon API Gateway 

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 7: A company is hosting a web application on AWS and is using an Amazon S3 bucket to store images. Users should have the ability to read objects in the bucket. A security engineer has written the following bucket policy to grant public read access:

Attempts to read an object, however, receive the error: “Action does not apply to any resource(s) in statement.” What should the engineer do to fix the error? 
A) Change the IAM permissions by applying PutBucketPolicy permissions.
B) Verify that the policy has the same name as the bucket name. If not, make it the same.
C) Change the resource section to “arn:aws:s3:::appbucket/*”.
D) Add an s3:ListBucket action.

ANSWER7:

C

Notes/Hint7: 

The resource section should match with the type of operation. Change the ARN to include /* at the end, as it is an object operation.

Reference7: IAM Policy – Access to S3 bucket

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 8: A company decides to place database hosts in its own VPC, and to set up VPC peering to different VPCs containing the application and web tiers. The application servers are unable to connect to the database. Which network troubleshooting steps should be taken to resolve the issue? (Select TWO.)

 A) Check to see if the application servers are in a private subnet or public subnet.
B) Check the route tables for the application server subnets for routes to the VPC peering connection.
C) Check the NACLs for the database subnets for rules that allow traffic from the internet.
D) Check the database security groups for rules that allow traffic from the application servers.
E) Check to see if the database VPC has an internet gateway.

ANSWER8:

B and D

Notes/Hint8: 

You must configure the route tables in each VPC to route to each other through the peering connection. You also must add rules to the security group for the databases to accept requests from the application server security group in the other VPC. 

Reference8: route tables ,  rules to the security groupsecurity group in the other VPC

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 9: A company is building a data lake on Amazon S3. The data consists of millions of small files containing sensitive information. The security team has the following requirements for the architecture: 

  • Data must be encrypted in transit. 
  • Data must be encrypted at rest. 
  • The bucket must be private, but if the bucket is accidentally made public, the data must remain confidential. 
Which combination of steps would meet the requirements? (Select TWO.) 
A) Enable AES-256 encryption using server-side encryption with Amazon S3-managed encryption keys (SSE-S3) on the S3 bucket.
B) Enable default encryption with server-side encryption with AWS KMS-managed keys (SSE-KMS) on the S3 bucket.
C) Add a bucket policy that includes a deny if a PutObject request does not include aws:SecureTransport.
D) Add a bucket policy with aws:SourceIp to allow uploads and downloads from the corporate intranet only.
E) Enable Amazon Macie to monitor and act on changes to the data lake’s S3 bucket.

ANSWER9:

B and C

Notes/Hint9: 

Bucket encryption using KMS will protect both in case disks are stolen as well as if the bucket is public. This is because the AWS KMS key would need to have privileges granted to it for users outside of AWS. HTTPS will protect data in transit.

Reference9: Bucket encryption using KMS, privileges granted data in transit

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 10: A security engineer must ensure that all API calls are collected across all company accounts, and that they are preserved online and are instantly available for analysis for 90 days. For compliance reasons, this data must be restorable for 7 years. Which steps must be taken to meet the retention needs in a scalable, cost-effective way? 

A) Enable AWS CloudTrail logging across all accounts to a centralized Amazon S3 bucket with versioning enabled. Set a lifecycle policy to move the data to Amazon Glacier daily, and expire the data after 90 days.
B) Enable AWS CloudTrail logging across all accounts to S3 buckets. Set a lifecycle policy to expire the data in each bucket after 7 years.
C) Enable AWS CloudTrail logging across all accounts to Amazon Glacier. Set a lifecycle policy to expire the data after 7 years.
D) Enable AWS CloudTrail logging across all accounts to a centralized Amazon S3 bucket. Set a lifecycle policy to move the data to Amazon Glacier after 90 days, and expire the data after 7 years.

ANSWER10:

D

Notes/Hint10: 

Meets all requirements and is cost effective by using lifecycle policies to transition to Amazon Glacier.

Reference10: lifecycle policies

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 11: A security engineer has been informed that a user’s access key has been found on GitHub. The engineer must ensure that this access key cannot continue to be used, and must assess whether the access key was used to perform any unauthorized activities. Which steps must be taken to perform these tasks? 

A) Review the user’s IAM permissions and delete any unrecognized or unauthorized resources.
B) Delete the user, review Amazon CloudWatch Logs in all regions, and report the abuse.
C) Delete or rotate the user’s key, review the AWS CloudTrail logs in all regions, and delete any unrecognized or unauthorized resources.
D) Instruct the user to remove the key from the GitHub submission, rotate keys, and re-deploy any instances that were launched.

ANSWER11:

C

Notes/Hint11: 

 Removes keys and audits the environment for malicious activities.

Reference11: malicious activities

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 12: You have a CloudFront distribution configured with the following path patterns: When users request objects that start with ‘static2/’, they are receiving 404 response codes. What might be the problem?

A) CloudFront distributions cannot have multiple different origin types

B) The ‘*’ path pattern must appear after the ‘static2/*’ path

C) CloudFront distributions cannot have origins in different AWS regions
D) The ‘*’ path pattern must appear before ‘static1/*’ path
        

ANSWER12:

C

Notes/Hint12: 

CloudFront distributions cannot have origins in different AWS regions

Reference12: CloudFront

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 13: An application running on EC2 instances processes sensitive information stored on Amazon S3. The information is accessed over the Internet. The security team is concerned that the Internet connectivity to Amazon S3 is a security risk. Which solution will resolve the security concern?

A) Access the data through an Internet Gateway.”,
B) Access the data through a VPN connection.”,
C) Access the data through a NAT Gateway.”,
D) Access the data through a VPC endpoint for Amazon S3″,

ANSWER13:

D

Notes/Hint13: 

VPC endpoints for Amazon S3 provide secure connections to S3 buckets that do not require a gateway or NAT instances. NAT Gateways and Internet Gateways still route traffic over the Internet to the public endpoint for Amazon S3. There is no way to connect to Amazon S3 via VPN.

Reference13: S3 VPC Endpoints

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 14: An organization is building an Amazon Redshift cluster in their shared services VPC. The cluster will host sensitive data.How can the organization control which networks can access the cluster?

A) Run the cluster in a different VPC and connect through VPC peering
B) Create a database user inside the Amazon Redshift cluster only for users on the network
 C) Define a cluster security group for the cluster that allows access from the allowed networks
  D) Only allow access to networks that connect with the shared services network via VPN

ANSWER14:

C

Notes/Hint14: 

A security group can grant access to traffic from the allowed networks via the CIDR range for each network. VPC peering and VPN are connectivity services and cannot control traffic for security. Amazon Redshift user accounts address authentication and authorization at the user level and have no control over network traffic

Reference14: AWS Security best practice

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 15: From a security perspective, what is a principal?

A) An identity
B) An anonymous user
C) An authenticated user
D) A resource

ANSWER15:

B and C

Notes/Hint15: 

An anonymous user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an anonymous user acting on a system.  An authenticated user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an authenticated user acting on a system

Reference15: IAM

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 16: A company is storing an access key (access key ID and secret access key) in a text file on a custom AMI. The company uses the access key to access DynamoDB tables from instances created from the AMI. The security team has mandated a more secure solution. Which solution will meet the security team’s mandate?

A) Put the access key in an S3 bucket, and retrieve the access key on boot from the instance.
B) Pass the access key to the instances through instance user data.
C) Obtain the access key from a key server launched in a private subnet
D) Create an IAM role with permissions to access the table, and launch all instances with the new role

ANSWER16:

D

Notes/Hint16: 

IAM roles for EC2 instances allow applications running on the instance to access AWS resources without having to create and store any access keys. Any solution involving the creation of an access key then introduces the complexity of managing that secret

Reference16: IAM Roles for EC2

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 17: While signing in REST/ Query requests, for additional security, you should transmit your requests using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) by using ____.”,

A) HTTP
B) Internet Protocol Security(IPsec)
C) TLS (Transport Layer Security)
D) HTTPS

ANSWER17:

D

Notes/Hint17: 

REST/ Query requests should use HTTPS

Reference17: Rest API

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 18: You are using AWS Envelope Encryption for encrypting all sensitive data. Which of the followings is True with regards to Envelope Encryption?

A) Data is encrypted be encrypting Data key which is further encrypted using encrypted Master Key.
B) Data is encrypted by plaintext Data key which is further encrypted using encrypted Master Key.
C) Data is encrypted by encrypted Data key which is further encrypted using plaintext Master Key.
D) Data is encrypted by plaintext Data key which is further encrypted using plaintext Master Key.”,

ANSWER18:

D

Notes/Hint18:

With Envelope Encryption, unencrypted data is encrypted using plaintext Data key. This Data is further encrypted using plaintext Master key. This plaintext Master key is securely stored in AWS KMS & known as Customer Master Keys.

Reference18: KMS

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 19: Your company has developed a web application and is hosting it in an Amazon S3 bucket configured for static website hosting. The users can log in to this app using their Google/Facebook login accounts. The application is using the AWS SDK for JavaScript in the browser to access data stored in an Amazon DynamoDB table. How can you ensure that API keys for access to your data in DynamoDB are kept secure?

A) Create an Amazon S3 role in IAM with access to the specific DynamoDB tables, and assign it to the bucket hosting your website
B) Configure S3 bucket tags with your AWS access keys for your bucket hosting your website so that the application can query them for access.
C) Configure a web identity federation role within IAM to enable access to the correct DynamoDB resources and retrieve temporary credentials
D) Store AWS keys in global variables within your application and configure the application to use these credentials when making requests.

ANSWER2:

C

Notes/Hint19: 

With web identity federation, you don't need to create custom sign-in code or manage your own user identities. Instead, users of your app can sign in using a well-known identity provider (IdP) —such as Login with Amazon, Facebook, Google, or any other OpenID Connect (OIDC)-compatible IdP, receive an authentication token, and then exchange that token for temporary security credentials in AWS that map to an IAM role with permissions to use the resources in your AWS account. Using an IdP helps you keep your AWS account secure, because you don't have to embed and distribute long-term security credentials with your application. Option A is invalid since Roles cannot be assigned to S3 buckets Options B and D are invalid since the AWS Access keys should not be used

Reference19: About Web Identity Federation

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 20: Your application currently makes use of AWS Cognito for managing user identities. You want to analyze the information that is stored in AWS Cognito for your application. Which of the following features of AWS Cognito should you use for this purpose?

A) Cognito Data
B) Cognito Events
C) Cognito Streams
D) Cognito Callbacks

ANSWER20:

C

Notes/Hint20: 

Amazon Cognito Streams gives developers control and insight into their data stored in Amazon Cognito. Developers can now configure a Kinesis stream to receive events as data is updated and synchronized. Amazon Cognito can push each dataset change to a Kinesis stream you own in real time. All other options are invalid since you should use Cognito Streams

Reference20: Cognito Streams

Question 21: Which of the following statements is correct in relation to kMS / (Choose 2)
A) KMS Encryption keys are regional
B) You cannot export your customer master key
C) You can export your customer master key.
D) KMS encryption Keys are global”,

ANSWER21:

A and B

Notes/Hint21:

AWS Key Management Service FAQs: You cannot export your customer master key, KMS Encryption keys are regional

Reference21: AWS Key Management Service FAQs

Question 22: Which of the following statements are correct? (Choose 2)

A) The Customer Master Key is used to encrypt and decrypt the Envelope Key or Data Key
B) The Envelope Key or Data Key is used to encrypt and decrypt plain text files.
C) The envelope Key or Data Key is used to encrypt and decrypt the Customer Master Key.
D) The Customer MasterKey is used to encrypt and decrypt plain text files.

ANSWER22:

A and B

Notes/Hint22:

AWS Key Management Service Concepts: The Customer Master Key is used to encrypt and decrypt the Envelope Key or Data Key, The Envelope Key or Data Key is used to encrypt and decrypt plain text files.

Reference22: KMS

Question 23: Which of the following is an encrypted key used by KMS to encrypt your data
A) Customer Managed Key
 B) Encryption Key
C) Envelope Key
D) Customer Master Key

ANSWER23:

C

Notes/Hint23:

Your Data key also known as the Enveloppe key is encrypted using the master key.This approach is known as Envelope encryption.Envelope encryption is the practice of encrypting plaintext data with a data key, and then encrypting the data key under another key

Reference23: Envelope encryption

Question 24: Which command can you use to encrypt a plain text file using CMK?

A) aws kms-encrypt
B) aws iam encrypt
C) aws kms encrypt
D) aws encrypt

ANSWER24:

C

Notes/Hint24:

aws kms encrypt –key-id 1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab —plaintext fileb://ExamplePlaintextFile –output text –query CiphertextBlob > C:\\Temp\\ExampleEncryptedFile.base64

Reference24: AWS CLI Encrypt

Question 25: If an EC2 instance uses an instance role, key rotation is automatic and handled by __.

A) A script containing a valid IAM username and password stored on the EC2 instance.
B) ssh-keygen on the EC2 instance
C) The EC2 service
D) IAM/STS

ANSWER25:

D

Notes/Hint25:

Instance role key rotation is handled by IAM/STS.

Reference25: IAM/STS

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

II- SOURCES:

0- Djamga Cloud Security Playlist on Youtube:

1- Developer Certified Exam Prep Pro App

2- Prepare for Your AWS Certification Exam

III- 

1- Security Key Terms:

    • Cryptography:  Practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries.
    • Hacking: catch-all term for any type of misuse of a computer to break the security of another computing system to steal data, corrupt systems or files, commandeer the environment or disrupt data-related activities in any way.
    • Cyberwarfare: Uuse of technology to attack a nation, causing comparable harm to actual warfare. There is significant debate among experts regarding the definition of cyberwarfare, and even if such a thing exists
    • Penetration testing: Colloquially known as a pen test, pentest or ethical hacking, is an authorized simulated cyberattack on a computer system, performed to evaluate the security of the system. Not to be confused with a vulnerability assessment.
    • Malwares: Any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server, client, or computer network. A wide variety of malware types exist, including computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, rogue software, and scareware.
    • VPN: A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network. Applications running across a VPN may therefore benefit from the functionality, security, and management of the private network. Encryption is a common, although not an inherent, part of a VPN connection.
    • Antivirus: Antivirus software, or anti-virus software (abbreviated to AV software), also known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent, detect, and remove malware.
    • DDos: A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is one of the most powerful weapons on the internet. When you hear about a website being “brought down by hackers,” it generally means it has become a victim of a DDoS attack.
    • Fraud Detection: Set of activities undertaken to prevent money or property from being obtained through false pretenses. Fraud detection is applied to many industries such as banking or insurance. In banking, fraud may include forging checks or using stolen credit cards.
    • Spywares: Spyware describes software with malicious behavior that aims to gather information about a person or organization and send such information to another entity in a way that harms the user; for example by violating their privacy or endangering their device's security.
    • SSL: Stands for secure sockets layer. Protocol for web browsers and servers that allows for the authentication, encryption and decryption of data sent over the Internet.
    • Intrusion detection System: Device or software application that monitors a network or systems for malicious activity or policy violations. Any intrusion activity or violation is typically reported either to an administrator or collected centrally using a security information and event management system.
    • Encryption: Encryption is the method by which information is converted into secret code that hides the information's true meaning. The science of encrypting and decrypting information is called cryptography. In computing, unencrypted data is also known as plaintext, and encrypted data is called ciphertext.
    • MFA: Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is defined as a security mechanism that requires an individual to provide two or more credentials in order to authenticate their identity. In IT, these credentials take the form of passwords, hardware tokens, numerical codes, biometrics, time, and location.
    • Vulnerabilities:vulnerability is a hole or a weakness in the application, which can be a design flaw or an implementation bug, that allows an attacker to cause harm to the stakeholders of an application. Stakeholders include the application owner, application users, and other entities that rely on the application.
    • SQL injections: SQL injection is a code injection technique, used to attack data-driven applications, in which malicious SQL statements are inserted into an entry field for execution.
    • Cyber attacks: In computers and computer networks an attack is any attempt to expose, alter, disable, destroy, steal or gain unauthorized access to or make unauthorized use of an asset.
    • Confidentiality: Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.
    • Secure channel: In cryptography, a secure channel is a way of transferring data that is resistant to overhearing and tampering. A confidential channel is a way of transferring data that is resistant to overhearing, but not necessarily resistant to tampering.
    • Tunneling: Communications protocol that allows for the movement of data from one network to another. It involves allowing private network communications to be sent across a public network through a process called encapsulation.
    • SSH: Secure Shell is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network. Typical applications include remote command-line, login, and remote command execution, but any network service can be secured with SSH.
    • SSL Certificates: SSL certificates are what enable websites to move from HTTP to HTTPS, which is more secure. An SSL certificate is a data file hosted in a website's origin server. SSL certificates make SSL/TLS encryption possible, and they contain the website's public key and the website's identity, along with related information.
    • Phishing: Phishing is a cybercrime in which a target or targets are contacted by email, telephone or text message by someone posing as a legitimate institution to lure individuals into providing sensitive data such as personally identifiable information, banking and credit card details, and passwords.
    • Cybercrime: Cybercrime, or computer-oriented crime, is a crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Cybercrime may threaten a person, company or a nation's security and financial health.
    • Backdoor: A backdoor is a means to access a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system's customary security mechanisms. A developer may create a backdoor so that an application or operating system can be accessed for troubleshooting or other purposes.
    • Salt and Hash: A cryptographic salt is made up of random bits added to each password instance before its hashing. Salts create unique passwords even in the instance of two users choosing the same passwords. Salts help us mitigate rainbow table attacks by forcing attackers to re-compute them using the salts.
    • Password: A password, sometimes called a passcode,[1] is a memorized secret, typically a string of characters, usually used to confirm the identity of a user.[2] Using the terminology of the NIST Digital Identity Guidelines,[3] the secret is memorized by a party called the claimant while the party verifying the identity of the claimant is called the verifier. When the claimant successfully demonstrates knowledge of the password to the verifier through an established authentication protocol,[4] the verifier is able to infer the claimant's identity.
    • Fingerprint: fingerprint is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. The recovery of partial fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science. Moisture and grease on a finger result in fingerprints on surfaces such as glass or metal.
    • Facial recognition: Facial recognition works better for a person as compared to fingerprint detection. It releases the person from the hassle of moving their thumb or index finger to a particular place on their mobile phone. A user would just have to bring their phone in level with their eye.
    • Asymmetric key ciphers versus symmetric key ciphers: The basic difference between these two types of encryption is that symmetric encryption uses one key for both encryption and decryption, and the asymmetric encryption uses public key for encryption and a private key for decryption.
    • Decryption: The conversion of encrypted data into its original form is called Decryption. It is generally a reverse process of encryption. It decodes the encrypted information so that an authorized user can only decrypt the data because decryption requires a secret key or password.
    • Algorithms: Finite sequence of well-defined, computer-implementable instructions, typically to solve a class of problems or to perform a computation.
    • DFIR: Digital forensic and incident response: Multidisciplinary profession that focuses on identifying, investigating, and remediating computer network exploitation. This can take varied forms and involves a wide variety of skills, kinds of attackers, an kinds of targets. We’ll discuss those more below.
    • OTP: One Time Password: A one-time password, also known as one-time PIN or dynamic password, is a password that is valid for only one login session or transaction, on a computer system or other digital device
    • Proxy Server and Reverse Proxy Server:

      proxy server is a go‑between or intermediary server that forwards requests for content from multiple clients to different servers across the Internet. A reverse proxy server is a type of proxy server that typically sits behind the firewall in a private network and directs client requests to the appropriate backend server.

    • Malware Analysis: Any .Run Malware hunting with live access to the heart of an incident https://any.run/

      Malware Analysis * VirusTotal – Analyze suspicious files and URLs to detect types of malware, automatically share them with the security community https://www.virustotal.com/gui/

IV-

V- Cybersecurity Certification roadmap

cybersecurity certification roadmap
cybersecurity certification roadmap

VI- Difference between symmetric and  Asymmetric encryption

The basic difference between symmetric and  Asymmetric encryption is that the symmetric encryption uses one key for both encryption and decryption, and the asymmetric encryption uses  public key for encryption and a private key for decryption.

VII- Wireshark Cheat Sheet

Wireshark Cheat Sheet
Wireshark Cheat Sheet

IX-

X-

Offensive * Exploit Database – The Exploit Database is maintained by Offensive Security, an information security training company that provides various Information Security Certifications as well as high end penetration testing services. https://www.exploit-db.com/

XI-

CYBERSECURITY NEWS

  • Krebs On Security In depth security news and investigation https://krebsonsecurity.com/
  • Dark Reading Cyber security's comprehensive news site is now an online community for security professionals. https://www.darkreading.com/
  • The Hacker News – The Hacker News (THN) is a leading, trusted, widely-acknowledged dedicated cybersecurity news platform, attracting over 8 million monthly readers including IT professionals, researchers, hackers, technologists, and enthusiasts. https://thehackernews.com
  • SecuriTeam – A free and independent source of vulnerability information. https://securiteam.com/
  • SANS NewsBites – “A semiweekly high-level executive summary of the most important news articles that have been published on computer security during the last week. Each news item is very briefly summarized and includes a reference on the web for detailed information, if possible.” Published for free on Tuesdays and Fridays. https://www.sans.org/newsletters/newsbites

XII-

CYBERSECURITY YOUTUBE CHANNELS

YouTube Channels

This list was originally forked/curated from here: https://wportal.xyz/collection/cybersec-yt1 on (7/29/2020) Attribution and appreciation to d4rckh

XIII-

CYBERSECURITY PODCASTS:

Podcasts

  • Risky Business Published weekly, the Risky Business podcast features news and in-depth commentary from security industry luminaries. Hosted by award-winning journalist Patrick Gray, Risky Business has become a must-listen digest for information security professionals. https://risky.biz/
  • Pauls Security Weekly This show features interviews with folks in the security community; technical segments, which are just that, very technical; and security news, which is an open discussion forum for the hosts to express their opinions about the latest security headlines, breaches, new exploits and vulnerabilities, “not” politics, “cyber” policies and more. https://securityweekly.com/category-shows/paul-security-weekly/
  • Security Now – Steve Gibson, the man who coined the term spyware and created the first anti-spyware program, creator of Spinrite and ShieldsUP, discusses the hot topics in security today with Leo Laporte. https://twit.tv/shows/security-now
  • Daily Information Security Podcast (“StormCast”) Stormcasts are daily 5-10 minute information security threat updates. The podcast is produced each work day, and typically released late in the day to be ready for your morning commute. https://isc.sans.edu/podcast.html
  • ShadowTalk Threat Intelligence Podcast by Digital Shadow_. The weekly podcast highlights key findings of primary-source research our Intelligence Team is conducting, along with guest speakers discussing the latest threat actors, campaigns, security events and industry news. https://resources.digitalshadows.com/threat-intelligence-podcast-shadowtalk
  • Don't Panic – The Unit 42 Podcast Don't Panic! is the official podcast from Unit 42 at Palo Alto Networks. We find the big issues that are frustrating cyber security practitioners and help simplify them so they don't need to panic. https://unit42.libsyn.com/
  • Recorded Future Recorded Future takes you inside the world of cyber threat intelligence. We’re sharing stories from the trenches and the operations floor as well as giving you the skinny on established and emerging adversaries. We also talk current events, technical tradecraft, and offer up insights on the big picture issues in our industry. https://www.recordedfuture.com/resources/podcast/
  • The Cybrary Podcast Listen in to the Cybrary Podcast where we discuss a range topics from DevSecOps and Ransomware attacks to diversity and how to retain of talent. Entrepreneurs at all stages of their startup companies join us to share their stories and experience, including how to get funding, hiring the best talent, driving sales, and choosing where to base your business. https://www.cybrary.it/info/cybrary-podcast/
  • Cyber Life The Cyber Life podcast is for cyber security (InfoSec) professionals, people trying to break into the industry, or business owners looking to learn how to secure their data. We will talk about many things, like how to get jobs, cover breakdowns of hot topics, and have special guest interviews with the men and women “in the trenches” of the industry. https://redcircle.com/shows/cyber-life
  • Career Notes Cybersecurity professionals share their personal career journeys and offer tips and advice in this brief, weekly podcast from The CyberWire. https://www.thecyberwire.com/podcasts/career-notes

Below podcasts Added from here: https://infosec-conferences.com/cybersecurity-podcasts/

  • Down the Security Rabbithole http://podcast.wh1t3rabbit.net/ Down the Security Rabbithole is hosted by Rafal Los and James Jardine who discuss, by means of interviewing or news analysis, everything about Cybersecurity which includes Cybercrime, Cyber Law, Cyber Risk, Enterprise Risk & Security and many more. If you want to hear issues that are relevant to your organization, subscribe and tune-in to this podcast.
  • The Privacy, Security, & OSINT Show https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-privacy-security-osint-show/id1165843330 The Privacy, Security, & OSINT Show, hosted by Michael Bazzell, is your weekly dose of digital security, privacy, and Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) opinion and news. This podcast will help listeners learn some ideas on how to stay secure from cyber-attacks and help them become “digitally invisible”.
  • Defensive Security Podcast https://defensivesecurity.org/ Hosted by Andrew Kalat (@lerg) and Jerry Bell (@maliciouslink), the Defensive Security Podcasts aims to look/discuss the latest security news happening around the world and pick out the lessons that can be applied to keeping organizations secured. As of today, they have more than 200 episodes and some of the topics discussed include Forensics, Penetration Testing, Incident Response, Malware Analysis, Vulnerabilities and many more.
  • Darknet Diaries https://darknetdiaries.com/episode/ Darknet Diaries Podcast is hosted and produced by Jack Rhysider that discuss topics related to information security. It also features some true stories from hackers who attacked or have been attacked. If you’re a fan of the show, you might consider buying some of their souvenirs here (https://shop.darknetdiaries.com/).
  • Brakeing Down Security https://www.brakeingsecurity.com/ Brakeing Down Security started in 2014 and is hosted by Bryan Brake, Brian Boettcher, and Amanda Berlin. This podcast discusses everything about the Cybersecurity world, Compliance, Privacy, and Regulatory issues that arise in today’s organizations. The hosts will teach concepts that Information Security Professionals need to know and discuss topics that will refresh the memories of seasoned veterans.
  • Open Source Security Podcast https://www.opensourcesecuritypodcast.com/ Open Source Security Podcast is a podcast that discusses security with an open-source slant. The show started in 2016 and is hosted by Josh Bressers and Kurt Siefried. As of this writing, they now posted around 190+ podcasts
  • Cyber Motherboard https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/cyber/id1441708044 Ben Makuch is the host of the podcast CYBER and weekly talks to Motherboard reporters Lorenzo Franceschi-Bicchierai and Joseph Cox. They tackle topics about famous hackers and researchers about the biggest news in cybersecurity. The Cyber- stuff gets complicated really fast, but Motherboard spends its time fixed in the infosec world so we don’t have to.
  • Hak5 https://shop.hak5.org/pages/videos Hak5 is a brand that is created by a group of security professionals, hardcore gamers and “IT ninjas”. Their podcast, which is mostly uploaded on YouTube discusses everything from open-source software to penetration testing and network infrastructure. Their channel currently has 590,000 subscribers and is one of the most viewed shows when you want to learn something about security networks.
  • Threatpost Podcast Series https://threatpost.com/category/podcasts/ Threatpost is an independent news site which is a leading source of information about IT and business security for hundreds of thousands of professionals worldwide. With an award-winning editorial team produces unique and high-impact content including security news, videos, feature reports and more, with their global editorial activities are driven by industry-leading journalist Tom Spring, editor-in-chief.
  • CISO-Security Vendor Relationship Podcast https://cisoseries.com Co-hosted by the creator of the CISO/Security Vendor Relationship Series, David Spark, and Mike Johnson, in 30 minutes, this weekly program challenges the co-hosts, guests, and listeners to critique, share true stories. This podcast, The CISO/Security Vendor Relationship, targets to enlighten and educate listeners on improving security buyer and seller relationships.
  • Getting Into Infosec Podcast Stories of how Infosec and Cybersecurity pros got jobs in the field so you can be inspired, motivated, and educated on your journey. – https://gettingintoinfosec.com/
  • Unsupervised Learning Weekly podcasts and biweekly newsletters as a curated summary intersection of security, technology, and humans, or a standalone idea to provoke thought, by Daniel Miessler. https://danielmiessler.com/podcast/

XIV-

SECURITY BOOKS:

XV-

CYBERSECURITY TRAINING:

Training

  • WebSecurity Academy Free online web security training from the creators of Burp Suite https://portswigger.net/web-security
  • Mosse Cyber Security Institute Introduction to cybersecurity free certification with 100+ hours of training, no expiry/renewals, https://www.mosse-institute.com/certifications/mics-introduction-to-cyber-security.html
  • BugCrowd University Free bug hunting resources and methodologies in form of webinars, education and training. https://www.bugcrowd.com/hackers/bugcrowd-university/
  • Certified Network Security Specialist Certification and training; Expires Aug 31 2020 Use coupon code #StaySafeHome during checkout to claim your free access. Offer is valid till 31/08/2020. £500.00 Value https://www.icsi.co.uk/courses/icsi-cnss-certified-network-security-specialist-covid-19
  • Metasploit Unleashed Most complete and in-depth Metasploit guide available, with contributions from the authors of the No Starch Press Metasploit Book. https://www.offensive-security.com/metasploit-unleashed/
  • AWS Cloud Certified Get skills in AWS to be more marketable. Training is quality and free. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3hLmDS179YE Have to create an AWS account, Exam is $100.
  • SANS Faculty Free Tools List of OSS developed by SANS staff. https://www.sans.org/media/free/free-faculty-tools.pdf?msc=sans-free-lp
  • “Using ATT&CK for Cyber Threat Intelligence Training” – 4 hour training The goal of this training is for students to understand the following: at: https://attack.mitre.org/resources/training/cti/
  • Coursera -“Coursera Together: Free online learning during COVID-19” Lots of different types of free training. https://blog.coursera.org/coursera-together-free-online-learning-during-covid-19/
  • Fortinet Security Appliance Training Free access to the FortiGate Essentials Training Course and Network Security Expert courses 1 and 2 https://www.fortinet.com/training/cybersecurity-professionals.html
  • Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) Workshop Training – The Chief Information Security Office (CISO) workshop contains a collection of security learnings, principles, and recommendations for modernizing security in your organization. This training workshop is a combination of experiences from Microsoft security teams and learnings from customers. – https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/security/ciso-workshop/ciso-workshop
  • CLARK Center Plan C – Free cybersecurity curriculum that is primarily video-based or provide online assignments that can be easily integrated into a virtual learning environments https://clark.center/home
  • Hack.me is a FREE, community based project powered by eLearnSecurity. The community can build, host and share vulnerable web application code for educational and research purposes. It aims to be the largest collection of “runnable” vulnerable web applications, code samples and CMS's online. The platform is available without any restriction to any party interested in Web Application Security. https://hack.me/
  • Hacker101 – Free classes for web security – https://www.hacker101.com/
  • ElasticStack – Free on-demand Elastic Stack, observability, and security courses. https://training.elastic.co/learn-from-home
  • Hoppers Roppers – Community built around a series of free courses that provide training to beginners in the security field. https://www.hoppersroppers.org/training.html
  • IBM Security Learning Academy Free technical training for IBM Security products. https://www.securitylearningacademy.com/
  • M.E. Kabay Free industry courses and course materials for students, teachers and others are welcome to use for free courses and lectures. http://www.mekabay.com/courses/index.htm
  • Open P-TECH Free digital learning on the tech skills of tomorrow. https://www.ptech.org/open-p-tech/
  • Udemy – Online learning course platform “collection from the free courses in our learning marketplace” https://www.udemy.com/courses/free/
  • Enroll Now Free: PCAP Programming Essentials in Python https://www.netacad.com/courses/programming/pcap-programming-essentials-python Python is the very versatile, object-oriented programming language used by startups and tech giants, Google, Facebook, Dropbox and IBM. Python is also recommended for aspiring young developers who are interested in pursuing careers in Security, Networking and Internet-of-Things. Once you complete this course, you are ready to take the PCAP – Certified Associate in Python programming. No prior knowledge of programming is required.
  • Packt Web Development Course Web Development Get to grips with the fundamentals of the modern web Unlock one year of free online access. https://courses.packtpub.com/pages/free?fbclid=IwAR1FtKQcYK8ycCmBMXaBGvW_7SgPVDMKMaRVwXYcSbiwvMfp75gazxRZlzY
  • Stanford University Webinar – Hacked! Security Lessons from Big Name Breaches 50 minute cyber lecture from Stanford.You Will Learn: — The root cause of key breaches and how to prevent them; How to measure your organization’s external security posture; How the attacker lifecycle should influence the way you allocate resources https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V9agUAz0DwI
  • Stanford University Webinar – Hash, Hack, Code: Emerging Trends in Cyber Security Join Professor Dan Boneh as he shares new approaches to these emerging trends and dives deeper into how you can protect networks and prevent harmful viruses and threats. 50 minute cyber lecture from Stanford. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=544rhbcDtc8
  • Kill Chain: The Cyber War on America's Elections (Documentary) (Referenced at GRIMMCON), In advance of the 2020 Presidential Election, Kill Chain: The Cyber War on America’s Elections takes a deep dive into the weaknesses of today’s election technology, an issue that is little understood by the public or even lawmakers. https://www.hbo.com/documentaries/kill-chain-the-cyber-war-on-americas-elections
  • Intro to Cybersecurity Course (15 hours) Learn how to protect your personal data and privacy online and in social media, and why more and more IT jobs require cybersecurity awareness and understanding. Receive a certificate of completion. https://www.netacad.com/portal/web/self-enroll/c/course-1003729
  • Cybersecurity Essentials (30 hours) Foundational knowledge and essential skills for all cybersecurity domains, including info security, systems sec, network sec, ethics and laws, and defense and mitigation techniques used in protecting businesses. https://www.netacad.com/portal/web/self-enroll/c/course-1003733
  • Pluralsight and Microsoft Partnership to help you become an expert in Azure. With skill assessments and over 200+ courses, 40+ Skill IQs and 8 Role IQs, you can focus your time on understanding your strengths and skill gaps and learn Azure as quickly as possible.https://www.pluralsight.com/partners/microsoft/azure
  • Blackhat Webcast Series Monthly webcast of varying cyber topics. I will post specific ones in the training section below sometimes, but this is worth bookmarking and checking back. They always have top tier speakers on relevant, current topics. https://www.blackhat.com/html/webcast/webcast-home.html
  • Federal Virtual Training Environment – US Govt sponsored free courses. There are 6 available, no login required. They are 101 Coding for the Public, 101 Critical Infrastructure Protection for the Public, Cryptocurrency for Law Enforcement for the Public, Cyber Supply Chain Risk Management for the Public, 101 Reverse Engineering for the Public, Fundamentals of Cyber Risk Management. https://fedvte.usalearning.gov/public_fedvte.php
  • Harrisburg University CyberSecurity Collection of 18 curated talks. Scroll down to CYBER SECURITY section. You will see there are 4 categories Resource Sharing, Tools & Techniques, Red Team (Offensive Security) and Blue Teaming (Defensive Security). Lot of content in here; something for everyone. https://professionaled.harrisburgu.edu/online-content/
  • OnRamp 101-Level ICS Security Workshop Starts this 4/28. 10 videos, Q&A / discussion, bonus audio, great links. Get up to speed fast on ICS security. It runs for 5 weeks. 2 videos per week. Then we keep it open for another 3 weeks for 8 in total. https://onramp-3.s4xevents.com
  • HackXOR WebApp CTF Hackxor is a realistic web application hacking game, designed to help players of all abilities develop their skills. All the missions are based on real vulnerabilities I've personally found while doing pentests, bug bounty hunting, and research. https://hackxor.net/
  • Suricata Training 5-part training module using a simulation as a backdrop to teach how to use Suricata. https://rangeforce.com/resource/suricata-challenge-reg/
  • flAWS System Through a series of levels you'll learn about common mistakes and gotchas when using Amazon Web Services (AWS). Multiple levels, “Buckets” of fun. http://flaws.cloud/
  • Stanford CS 253 Web Security A free course from Stanford providing a comprehensive overview of web security. The course begins with an introduction to the fundamentals of web security and proceeds to discuss the most common methods for web attacks and their countermeasures. The course includes video lectures, slides, and links to online reading assignments. https://web.stanford.edu/class/cs253
  • Linux Journey A free, handy guide for learning Linux. Coverage begins with the fundamentals of command line navigation and basic text manipulation. It then extends to more advanced topics, such as file systems and networking. The site is well organized and includes many examples along with code snippets. Exercises and quizzes are provided as well. https://linuxjourney.com
  • Ryan's Tutorials A collection of free, introductory tutorials on several technology topics including: Linux command line, Bash scripting, creating and styling webpages with HTML and CSS, counting and converting between different number systems, and writing regular expressions. https://ryanstutorials.net
  • The Ultimate List of SANS Cheat Sheets Massive collection of free cybersecurity cheat sheets for quick reference (login with free SANS account required for some penetration testing resources). https://www.sans.org/blog/the-ultimate-list-of-sans-cheat-sheets/
  • CYBER INTELLIGENCE ANALYTICS AND OPERATIONS Learn:The ins and outs of all stages of the intelligence cycle from collection to analysis from seasoned intel professionals. How to employ threat intelligence to conduct comprehensive defense strategies to mitigate potential compromise. How to use TI to respond to and minimize impact of cyber incidents. How to generate comprehensive and actionable reports to communicate gaps in defenses and intelligence findings to decision makers. https://www.shadowscape.io/cyber-intelligence-analytics-operat
  • Linux Command Line for Beginners 25 hours of training – In this course, you’ll learn from one of Fullstack’s top instructors, Corey Greenwald, as he guides you through learning the basics of the command line through short, digestible video lectures. Then you’ll use Fullstack’s CyberLab platform to hone your new technical skills while working through a Capture the Flag game, a special kind of cybersecurity game designed to challenge participants to solve computer security problems by solving puzzles. Finally, through a list of carefully curated resources through a series of curated resources, we’ll introduce you to some important cybersecurity topics so that you can understand some of the common language, concepts and tools used in the industry. https://prep.fullstackacademy.com/
  • Hacking 101 6 hours of free training – First, you'll take a tour of the world and watch videos of hackers in action across various platforms (including computers, smartphones, and the power grid). You may be shocked to learn what techniques the good guys are using to fight the bad guys (and which side is winning). Then you'll learn what it's like to work in this world, as we show you the different career paths open to you and the (significant) income you could make as a cybersecurity professional. https://cyber.fullstackacademy.com/prepare/hacking-101
  • Choose Your Own Cyber Adventure Series: Entry Level Cyber Jobs Explained YouTube Playlist (videos from my channel #simplyCyber) This playlist is a collection of various roles within the information security field, mostly entry level, so folks can understand what different opportunities are out there. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4Q-ttyNIRAqog96mt8C8lKWzTjW6f38F
  • NETINSTRUCT.COM Free Cybersecurity, IT and Leadership Courses – Includes OS and networking basics. Critical to any Cyber job. https://netinstruct.com/courses
  • HackerSploit – HackerSploit is the leading provider of free and open-source Infosec and cybersecurity training. https://hackersploit.org/

XVI-

CYBERSECURITY COURSES: (Multi-week w/Enrollment)

College Courses

  • Computer Science courses with video lectures Intent of this list is to act as Online bookmarks/lookup table for freely available online video courses. Focus would be to keep the list concise so that it is easy to browse. It would be easier to skim through 15 page list, find the course and start learning than having to read 60 pages of text. If you are student or from non-CS background, please try few courses to decide for yourself as to which course suits your learning curve best. https://github.com/Developer-Y/cs-video-courses?utm_campaign=meetedgar&utm_medium=social&utm_source=meetedgar.com
  • Cryptography I -offered by Stanford University – Rolling enrollment – Cryptography is an indispensable tool for protecting information in computer systems. In this course you will learn the inner workings of cryptographic systems and how to correctly use them in real-world applications. The course begins with a detailed discussion of how two parties who have a shared secret key can communicate securely when a powerful adversary eavesdrops and tampers with traffic. We will examine many deployed protocols and analyze mistakes in existing systems. The second half of the course discusses public-key techniques that let two parties generate a shared secret key. https://www.coursera.org/learn/crypto
  • Software Security Rolling enrollment -offered by University of Maryland, College Park via Coursera – This course we will explore the foundations of software security. We will consider important software vulnerabilities and attacks that exploit them — such as buffer overflows, SQL injection, and session hijacking — and we will consider defenses that prevent or mitigate these attacks, including advanced testing and program analysis techniques. Importantly, we take a “build security in” mentality, considering techniques at each phase of the development cycle that can be used to strengthen the security of software systems. https://www.coursera.org/learn/software-security
  • Intro to Information Security Georgia Institute of Technology via Udacity – Rolling Enrollment. This course provides a one-semester overview of information security. It is designed to help students with prior computer and programming knowledge — both undergraduate and graduate — understand this important priority in society today. Offered at Georgia Tech as CS 6035 https://www.udacity.com/course/intro-to-information-security–ud459
  • Cyber-Physical Systems Security Georgia Institute of Technology via Udacity – This course provides an introduction to security issues relating to various cyber-physical systems including industrial control systems and those considered critical infrastructure systems. 16 week course – Offered at Georgia Tech as CS 8803 https://www.udacity.com/course/cyber-physical-systems-security–ud279
  • Finding Your Cybersecurity Career Path – University of Washington via edX – 4 weeks long – self paced – In this course, you will focus on the pathways to cybersecurity career success. You will determine your own incoming skills, talent, and deep interests to apply toward a meaningful and informed exploration of 32 Digital Pathways of Cybersecurity. https://www.edx.org/course/finding-your-cybersecurity-career-path
  • Building a Cybersecurity Toolkit – University of Washington via edX – 4 weeks self-paced The purpose of this course is to give learners insight into these type of characteristics and skills needed for cybersecurity jobs and to provide a realistic outlook on what they really need to add to their “toolkits” – a set of skills that is constantly evolving, not all technical, but fundamentally rooted in problem-solving. https://www.edx.org/course/building-a-cybersecurity-toolkit
  • Cybersecurity: The CISO's View – University of Washington via edX – 4 weeks long self-paced – This course delves into the role that the CISO plays in cybersecurity operations. Throughout the lessons, learners will explore answers to the following questions: How does cybersecurity work across industries? What is the professionals' point of view? How do we keep information secure https://www.edx.org/course/cybersecurity-the-cisos-view
  • Introduction to Cybersecurity – University of Washington via edX – In this course, you will gain an overview of the cybersecurity landscape as well as national (USA) and international perspectives on the field. We will cover the legal environment that impacts cybersecurity as well as predominant threat actors. – https://www.edx.org/course/introduction-to-cybersecurity
  • Cyber Attack Countermeasures New York University (NYU) via Coursera – This course introduces the basics of cyber defense starting with foundational models such as Bell-LaPadula and information flow frameworks. These underlying policy enforcements mechanisms help introduce basic functional protections, starting with authentication methods. Learners will be introduced to a series of different authentication solutions and protocols, including RSA SecureID and Kerberos, in the context of a canonical schema. – https://www.coursera.org/learn/cyber-attack-countermeasures
  • Introduction to Cyber Attacks New York University (NYU) via Coursera – This course provides learners with a baseline understanding of common cyber security threats, vulnerabilities, and risks. An overview of how basic cyber attacks are constructed and applied to real systems is also included. Examples include simple Unix kernel hacks, Internet worms, and Trojan horses in software utilities. Network attacks such as distributed denial of service (DDOS) and botnet- attacks are also described and illustrated using real examples from the past couple of decades. https://www.coursera.org/learn/intro-cyber-attacks
  • Enterprise and Infrastructure Security New York University (NYU) via Coursera – This course introduces a series of advanced and current topics in cyber security, many of which are especially relevant in modern enterprise and infrastructure settings. The basics of enterprise compliance frameworks are provided with introduction to NIST and PCI. Hybrid cloud architectures are shown to provide an opportunity to fix many of the security weaknesses in modern perimeter local area networks. https://www.coursera.org/learn/enterprise-infrastructure-security
  • Network Security Georgia Institute of Technology via Udacity – This course provides an introduction to computer and network security. Students successfully completing this class will be able to evaluate works in academic and commercial security, and will have rudimentary skills in security research. The course begins with a tutorial of the basic elements of cryptography, cryptanalysis, and systems security, and continues by covering a number of seminal papers and monographs in a wide range of security areas. – https://www.udacity.com/course/network-security–ud199
  • Real-Time Cyber Threat Detection and Mitigation – New York University (NYU) via Coursera This course introduces real-time cyber security techniques and methods in the context of the TCP/IP protocol suites. Explanation of some basic TCP/IP security hacks is used to introduce the need for network security solutions such as stateless and stateful firewalls. Learners will be introduced to the techniques used to design and configure firewall solutions such as packet filters and proxies to protect enterprise assets. https://www.coursera.org/learn/real-time-cyber-threat-detection

XVIII-

XIX- CyberSecurity  Cheat sheets

SANS Massive List of Cheat Sheets Curated from here: https://www.sans.org/blog/the-ultimate-list-of-sans-cheat-sheets/

General IT Security * Windows and Linux Terminals & Command Lines https://assets.contentstack.io/v3/assets/blt36c2e63521272fdc/bltea7de5267932e94b/5eb08aafcf88d36e47cf0644/Cheatsheet_SEC301-401_R7.pdf

Digital Forensics and Incident Response

Penetration Testing * Swiss Army Knife collection of PenTesting Cheatsheets https://github.com/swisskyrepo/PayloadsAllTheThings

XX- Cloud Security Cheat sheets


Top 20 AWS Certified Data Analytics – Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps

AWS Certified Security – Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps

The AWS Certified Data Analytics – Specialty (DAS-C01) examination is intended for individuals who perform in a data analytics-focused role. This exam validates an examinee’s comprehensive understanding of using AWS services to design, build, secure, and maintain analytics solutions that provide insight from data.

aws big data analytics certification specialty questions and answers dump
aws big data analytics certification specialty questions and answers dump

The AWS Certified Data Analytics – Specialty (DAS-C01) covers the following domains:

Domain 1: Collection 18%

Domain 2: Storage and Data Management 22%

Domain 3: Processing 24%

Domain 4: Analysis and Visualization 18%

Domain 5: Security 18%

data analytics specialty
data analytics specialty

Below are the Top 20 AWS Certified Data Analytics – Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps and References –

Question1: What combination of services do you need for the following requirements: accelerate petabyte-scale data transfers, load streaming data, and the ability to create scalable, private connections. Select the correct answer order.

A) Snowball, Kinesis Firehose, Direct Connect

B) Data Migration Services, Kinesis Firehose, Direct Connect

C) Snowball, Data Migration Services, Direct Connect

D) Snowball, Direct Connection, Kinesis Firehose

ANSWER1:

A

Notes/Hint1:

AWS has many options to help get data into the cloud, including secure devices like AWS Import/Export Snowball to accelerate petabyte-scale data transfers, Amazon Kinesis Firehose to load streaming data, and scalable private connections through AWS Direct Connect.

Reference1: Big Data Analytics Options 

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

ANSWER2:

C

Notes/Hint1: 

Reference1: Relationalize PySpark

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 3: There is a five-day car rally race across Europe. The race coordinators are using a Kinesis stream and IoT sensors to monitor the movement of the cars. Each car has a sensor and data is getting back to the stream with the default stream settings. On the last day of the rally, data is sent to S3. When you go to interpret the data in S3, there is only data for the last day and nothing for the first 4 days. Which of the following is the most probable cause of this?

A) You did not have versioning enabled and would need to create individual buckets to prevent the data from being overwritten.

B) Data records are only accessible for a default of 24 hours from the time they are added to a stream.

C) One of the sensors failed, so there was no data to record.

D) You needed to use EMR to send the data to S3; Kinesis Streams are only compatible with DynamoDB.

ANSWER3:

B

Notes/Hint3: 

Streams support changes to the data record retention period of your stream. An Amazon Kinesis stream is an ordered sequence of data records, meant to be written to and read from in real-time. Data records are therefore stored in shards in your stream temporarily. The period from when a record is added to when it is no longer accessible is called the retention period. An Amazon Kinesis stream stores records for 24 hours by default, up to 168 hours.

Reference3: Kinesis Extended Reading

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 4:  A publisher website captures user activity and sends clickstream data to Amazon Kinesis Data Streams. The publisher wants to design a cost-effective solution to process the data to create a timeline of user activity within a session. The solution must be able to scale depending on the number of active sessions.
Which solution meets these requirements?

A) Include a variable in the clickstream data from the publisher website to maintain a counter for the number of active user sessions. Use a timestamp for the partition key for the stream. Configure the consumer application to read the data from the stream and change the number of processor threads based upon the counter. Deploy the consumer application on Amazon EC2 instances in an EC2 Auto Scaling group.

B) Include a variable in the clickstream to maintain a counter for each user action during their session. Use the action type as the partition key for the stream. Use the Kinesis Client Library (KCL) in the consumer application to retrieve the data from the stream and perform the processing. Configure the consumer application to read the data from the stream and change the number of processor threads based upon the
counter. Deploy the consumer application on AWS Lambda.

C) Include a session identifier in the clickstream data from the publisher website and use as the partition key for the stream. Use the Kinesis Client Library (KCL) in the consumer application to retrieve the data from the stream and perform the processing. Deploy the consumer application on Amazon EC2 instances in an
EC2 Auto Scaling group. Use an AWS Lambda function to reshard the stream based upon Amazon CloudWatch alarms.

D) Include a variable in the clickstream data from the publisher website to maintain a counter for the number of active user sessions. Use a timestamp for the partition key for the stream. Configure the consumer application to read the data from the stream and change the number of processor threads based upon the counter. Deploy the consumer application on AWS Lambda.

ANSWER4:

C

Notes/Hint4: 

Partitioning by the session ID will allow a single processor to process all the actions for a user session in order. An AWS Lambda function can call the UpdateShardCount API action to change the number of shards in the stream. The KCL will automatically manage the number of processors to match the number of shards. Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling will assure the correct number of instances are running to meet the processing load.

Reference4: UpdateShardCount API

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 5: Your company has two batch processing applications that consume financial data about the day’s stock transactions. Each transaction needs to be stored durably and guarantee that a record of each application is delivered so the audit and billing batch processing applications can process the data. However, the two applications run separately and several hours apart and need access to the same transaction information. After reviewing the transaction information for the day, the information no longer needs to be stored. What is the best way to architect this application?

A) Use SQS for storing the transaction messages; when the billing batch process performs first and consumes the message, write the code in a way that does not remove the message after consumed, so it is available for the audit application several hours later. The audit application can consume the SQS message and remove it from the queue when completed.

B)  Use Kinesis to store the transaction information. The billing application will consume data from the stream and the audit application can consume the same data several hours later.

C) Store the transaction information in a DynamoDB table. The billing application can read the rows while the audit application will read the rows then remove the data.

D) Use SQS for storing the transaction messages. When the billing batch process consumes each message, have the application create an identical message and place it in a different SQS for the audit application to use several hours later.

SQS would make this more difficult because the data does not need to persist after a full day.

ANSWER5:

B

Notes/Hint5: 

Kinesis appears to be the best solution that allows multiple consumers to easily interact with the records.

Reference5: Amazon Kinesis

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 6: A company is currently using Amazon DynamoDB as the database for a user support application. The company is developing a new version of the application that will store a PDF file for each support case ranging in size from 1–10 MB. The file should be retrievable whenever the case is accessed in the application.
How can the company store the file in the MOST cost-effective manner?

A) Store the file in Amazon DocumentDB and the document ID as an attribute in the DynamoDB table.

B) Store the file in Amazon S3 and the object key as an attribute in the DynamoDB table.

C) Split the file into smaller parts and store the parts as multiple items in a separate DynamoDB table.

D) Store the file as an attribute in the DynamoDB table using Base64 encoding.

ANSWER6:

B

Notes/Hint6: 

Use Amazon S3 to store large attribute values that cannot fit in an Amazon DynamoDB item. Store each file as an object in Amazon S3 and then store the object path in the DynamoDB item.

Reference6: S3 Storage Cost –  DynamODB Storage Cost

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 7: Your client has a web app that emits multiple events to Amazon Kinesis Streams for reporting purposes. Critical events need to be immediately captured before processing can continue, but informational events do not need to delay processing. What solution should your client use to record these types of events without unnecessarily slowing the application?

A) Log all events using the Kinesis Producer Library.

B) Log critical events using the Kinesis Producer Library, and log informational events using the PutRecords API method.

C) Log critical events using the PutRecords API method, and log informational events using the Kinesis Producer Library.

D) Log all events using the PutRecords API method.

ANSWER2:

C

Notes/Hint7: 

The PutRecords API can be used in code to be synchronous; it will wait for the API request to complete before the application continues. This means you can use it when you need to wait for the critical events to finish logging before continuing. The Kinesis Producer Library is asynchronous and can send many messages without needing to slow down your application. This makes the KPL ideal for the sending of many non-critical alerts asynchronously.

Reference7: PutRecords API

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 8: You work for a start-up that tracks commercial delivery trucks via GPS. You receive coordinates that are transmitted from each delivery truck once every 6 seconds. You need to process these coordinates in near real-time from multiple sources and load them into Elasticsearch without significant technical overhead to maintain. Which tool should you use to digest the data?

A) Amazon SQS

B) Amazon EMR

C) AWS Data Pipeline

D) Amazon Kinesis Firehose

ANSWER8:

D

Notes/Hint8: 

Amazon Kinesis Firehose is the easiest way to load streaming data into AWS. It can capture, transform, and load streaming data into Amazon S3, Amazon Redshift, and Amazon Elasticsearch Service, enabling near real-time analytics with existing business intelligence tools and dashboards.

Reference8: Amazon Kinesis Firehose

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 9: A company needs to implement a near-real-time fraud prevention feature for its ecommerce site. User and order details need to be delivered to an Amazon SageMaker endpoint to flag suspected fraud. The amount of input data needed for the inference could be as much as 1.5 MB.
Which solution meets the requirements with the LOWEST overall latency?

A) Create an Amazon Managed Streaming for Kafka cluster and ingest the data for each order into a topic. Use a Kafka consumer running on Amazon EC2 instances to read these messages and invoke the Amazon SageMaker endpoint.

B) Create an Amazon Kinesis Data Streams stream and ingest the data for each order into the stream. Create an AWS Lambda function to read these messages and invoke the Amazon SageMaker endpoint.

C) Create an Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose delivery stream and ingest the data for each order into the stream. Configure Kinesis Data Firehose to deliver the data to an Amazon S3 bucket. Trigger an AWS Lambda function with an S3 event notification to read the data and invoke the Amazon SageMaker endpoint.

D) Create an Amazon SNS topic and publish the data for each order to the topic. Subscribe the Amazon SageMaker endpoint to the SNS topic.


ANSWER9:

A

Notes/Hint9: 

An Amazon Managed Streaming for Kafka cluster can be used to deliver the messages with very low latency. It has a configurable message size that can handle the 1.5 MB payload.

Reference9: Amazon Managed Streaming for Kafka cluster

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 10: You need to filter and transform incoming messages coming from a smart sensor you have connected with AWS. Once messages are received, you need to store them as time series data in DynamoDB. Which AWS service can you use?

A) IoT Device Shadow Service

B) Redshift

C) Kinesis

D) IoT Rules Engine

ANSWER10:

D

Notes/Hint10: 

The IoT rules engine will allow you to send sensor data over to AWS services like DynamoDB

Reference10: The IoT rules engine

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 11: A media company is migrating its on-premises legacy Hadoop cluster with its associated data processing scripts and workflow to an Amazon EMR environment running the latest Hadoop release. The developers want to reuse the Java code that was written for data processing jobs for the on-premises cluster.
Which approach meets these requirements?

A) Deploy the existing Oracle Java Archive as a custom bootstrap action and run the job on the EMR cluster.

B) Compile the Java program for the desired Hadoop version and run it using a CUSTOM_JAR step on the EMR cluster.

C) Submit the Java program as an Apache Hive or Apache Spark step for the EMR cluster.

D) Use SSH to connect the master node of the EMR cluster and submit the Java program using the AWS CLI.


ANSWER11:

B

Notes/Hint11: 

A CUSTOM JAR step can be configured to download a JAR file from an Amazon S3 bucket and execute it. Since the Hadoop versions are different, the Java application has to be recompiled.

Reference11:  Automating analytics workflows on EMR

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 12: You currently have databases running on-site and in another data center off-site. What service allows you to consolidate to one database in Amazon?

A) AWS Kinesis

B) AWS Database Migration Service

C) AWS Data Pipeline

D) AWS RDS Aurora

ANSWER12:

B

Notes/Hint12: 

AWS Database Migration Service can migrate your data to and from most of the widely used commercial and open source databases. It supports homogeneous migrations such as Oracle to Oracle, as well as heterogeneous migrations between different database platforms, such as Oracle to Amazon Aurora. Migrations can be from on-premises databases to Amazon RDS or Amazon EC2, databases running on EC2 to RDS, or vice versa, as well as from one RDS database to another RDS database.

Reference12: DMS

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 13:  An online retail company wants to perform analytics on data in large Amazon S3 objects using Amazon EMR. An Apache Spark job repeatedly queries the same data to populate an analytics dashboard. The analytics team wants to minimize the time to load the data and create the dashboard.
Which approaches could improve the performance? (Select TWO.)
A) Copy the source data into Amazon Redshift and rewrite the Apache Spark code to create analytical reports by querying Amazon Redshift.

B) Copy the source data from Amazon S3 into Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) using s3distcp.

C) Load the data into Spark DataFrames.

D) Stream the data into Amazon Kinesis and use the Kinesis Connector Library (KCL) in multiple Spark jobs to perform analytical jobs.

E) Use Amazon S3 Select to retrieve the data necessary for the dashboards from the S3 objects.

ANSWER13:

C and E

Notes/Hint13: 

One of the speed advantages of Apache Spark comes from loading data into immutable dataframes, which can be accessed repeatedly in memory. Spark DataFrames organizes distributed data into columns. This makes summaries and aggregates much quicker to calculate. Also, instead of loading an entire large Amazon S3 object, load only what is needed using Amazon S3 Select. Keeping the data in Amazon S3 avoids loading the large dataset into HDFS.

Reference13: Spark DataFrames 

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 14: You have been hired as a consultant to provide a solution to integrate a client’s on-premises data center to AWS. The customer requires a 300 Mbps dedicated, private connection to their VPC. Which AWS tool do you need?

A) VPC peering

B) Data Pipeline

C) Direct Connect

D) EMR

ANSWER14:

C

Notes/Hint14: 

Direct Connect will provide a dedicated and private connection to an AWS VPC.

Reference14: Direct Connect

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 15: Your organization has a variety of different services deployed on EC2 and needs to efficiently send application logs over to a central system for processing and analysis. They’ve determined it is best to use a managed AWS service to transfer their data from the EC2 instances into Amazon S3 and they’ve decided to use a solution that will do what?

A) Installs the AWS Direct Connect client on all EC2 instances and uses it to stream the data directly to S3.

B) Leverages the Kinesis Agent to send data to Kinesis Data Streams and output that data in S3.

C) Ingests the data directly from S3 by configuring regular Amazon Snowball transactions.

D) Leverages the Kinesis Agent to send data to Kinesis Firehose and output that data in S3.

ANSWER15:

D

Notes/Hint15: 

Kinesis Firehose is a managed solution, and log files can be sent from EC2 to Firehose to S3 using the Kinesis agent.

Reference15: Kinesis Firehose

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 16: A data engineer needs to create a dashboard to display social media trends during the last hour of a large company event. The dashboard needs to display the associated metrics with a latency of less than 1 minute.
Which solution meets these requirements?

A) Publish the raw social media data to an Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose delivery stream. Use Kinesis Data Analytics for SQL Applications to perform a sliding window analysis to compute the metrics and output the results to a Kinesis Data Streams data stream. Configure an AWS Lambda function to save the stream data to an Amazon DynamoDB table. Deploy a real-time dashboard hosted in an Amazon S3 bucket to read and display the metrics data stored in the DynamoDB table.

B) Publish the raw social media data to an Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose delivery stream. Configure the stream to deliver the data to an Amazon Elasticsearch Service cluster with a buffer interval of 0 seconds. Use Kibana to perform the analysis and display the results.

C) Publish the raw social media data to an Amazon Kinesis Data Streams data stream. Configure an AWS Lambda function to compute the metrics on the stream data and save the results in an Amazon S3 bucket. Configure a dashboard in Amazon QuickSight to query the data using Amazon Athena and display the results.

D) Publish the raw social media data to an Amazon SNS topic. Subscribe an Amazon SQS queue to the topic. Configure Amazon EC2 instances as workers to poll the queue, compute the metrics, and save the results to an Amazon Aurora MySQL database. Configure a dashboard in Amazon QuickSight to query the data in Aurora and display the results.


ANSWER16:

A

Notes/Hint16: 

Amazon Kinesis Data Analytics can query data in a Kinesis Data Firehose delivery stream in near-real time using SQL. A sliding window analysis is appropriate for determining trends in the stream. Amazon S3 can host a static webpage that includes JavaScript that reads the data in Amazon DynamoDB and refreshes the dashboard.

Reference16: Amazon Kinesis Data Analytics can query data in a Kinesis Data Firehose delivery stream in near-real time using SQL

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 17: A real estate company is receiving new property listing data from its agents through .csv files every day and storing these files in Amazon S3. The data analytics team created an Amazon QuickSight visualization report that uses a dataset imported from the S3 files. The data analytics team wants the visualization report to reflect the current data up to the previous day. How can a data analyst meet these requirements?

A) Schedule an AWS Lambda function to drop and re-create the dataset daily.

B) Configure the visualization to query the data in Amazon S3 directly without loading the data into SPICE.

C) Schedule the dataset to refresh daily.

D) Close and open the Amazon QuickSight visualization.

ANSWER17:

B

Notes/Hint17:

Datasets created using Amazon S3 as the data source are automatically imported into SPICE. The Amazon QuickSight console allows for the refresh of SPICE data on a schedule.

Reference17: Amazon QuickSight and SPICE

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 18: You need to migrate data to AWS. It is estimated that the data transfer will take over a month via the current AWS Direct Connect connection your company has set up. Which AWS tool should you use?

A) Establish additional Direct Connect connections.

B) Use Data Pipeline to migrate the data in bulk to S3.

C) Use Kinesis Firehose to stream all new and existing data into S3.

D) Snowball

ANSWER18:

D

Notes/Hint18:

As a general rule, if it takes more than one week to upload your data to AWS using the spare capacity of your existing Internet connection, then you should consider using Snowball. For example, if you have a 100 Mb connection that you can solely dedicate to transferring your data and need to transfer 100 TB of data, it takes more than 100 days to complete a data transfer over that connection. You can make the same transfer by using multiple Snowballs in about a week.

Reference18: Snowball

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 19: You currently have an on-premises Oracle database and have decided to leverage AWS and use Aurora. You need to do this as quickly as possible. How do you achieve this?

A) It is not possible to migrate an on-premises database to AWS at this time.

B) Use AWS Data Pipeline to create a target database, migrate the database schema, set up the data replication process, initiate the full load and a subsequent change data capture and apply, and conclude with a switchover of your production environment to the new database once the target database is caught up with the source database.

C) Use AWS Database Migration Services and create a target database, migrate the database schema, set up the data replication process, initiate the full load and a subsequent change data capture and apply, and conclude with a switch-over of your production environment to the new database once the target database is caught up with the source database.

D) Use AWS Glue to crawl the on-premises database schemas and then migrate them into AWS with Data Pipeline jobs.

https://aws.amazon.com/dms/faqs/

ANSWER2:

C

Notes/Hint19: 

DMS can efficiently support this sort of migration using the steps outlined. While AWS Glue can help you crawl schemas and store metadata on them inside of Glue for later use, it isn't the best tool for actually transitioning a database over to AWS itself. Similarly, while Data Pipeline is great for ETL and ELT jobs, it isn't the best option to migrate a database over to AWS.

Reference19: DMS

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 20: A financial company uses Amazon EMR for its analytics workloads. During the company’s annual security audit, the security team determined that none of the EMR clusters’ root volumes are encrypted. The security team recommends the company encrypt its EMR clusters’ root volume as soon as possible.
Which solution would meet these requirements?

A) Enable at-rest encryption for EMR File System (EMRFS) data in Amazon S3 in a security configuration. Re-create the cluster using the newly created security configuration.

B) Specify local disk encryption in a security configuration. Re-create the cluster using the newly created security configuration.

C) Detach the Amazon EBS volumes from the master node. Encrypt the EBS volume and attach it back to the master node.

D) Re-create the EMR cluster with LZO encryption enabled on all volumes.

ANSWER20:

B

Notes/Hint20: 

Local disk encryption can be enabled as part of a security configuration to encrypt root and storage volumes.

Reference20: EMR Cluster Local disk encryption

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

I- SOURCE:

1- Djamga Big Data – Data Analytics Youtube Playlist

2- Prepare for Your AWS Certification Exam

3- LinuxAcademy

Big Data – Data Analytics- Data Science Latest News

Top 20 AWS Certified Advanced Networking Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps

Advanced Networking - Specialty

The AWS Certified Advanced Networking – Specialty (ANS-C00) examination is intended for individuals who perform complex networking tasks. This examination validates advanced technical skills and experience in designing and implementing AWS and hybrid IT network architectures at scale.

The exam covers the following domains:

Domain 1: Design and Implement Hybrid IT Network Architectures at Scale – 23%

Domain 2: Design and Implement AWS Networks – 29%

Domain 3: Automate AWS Tasks – 8%

Domain 4: Configure Network Integration with Application Services – 15%

Domain 5: Design and Implement for Security and Compliance  – 12%

Domain 6: Manage, Optimize, and Troubleshoot the Network – 13%

Below are the top 20 Top 20 AWS Certified Advanced Networking – Specialty  Practice Quiz including Questions and Answers and References

Question 1: What is the relationship between private IPv4 addresses and Elastic IP addresses?

ANSWER1:

C

Notes/Hint1: 

The relationship between private IPv4 addresses and Elastic IP addresses is one-to-one.

Reference1: IPv4 and Elastic IP

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 2: A company’s on-premises network has an IP address range of 11.11.0.0/16. Only IPs within this network range can be used for inter-server communication. The IP address range 11.11.253.0/24 has been allocated for the cloud. A network engineer needs to design a VPC on AWS. The servers within the VPC should be able to communicate with hosts both on the internet and on-premises through a VPN connection. Which combination of configuration steps meet these requirements? (Select TWO.)

A) Set up the VPC with an IP address range of 11.11.253.0/24.

B) Set up the VPC with an RFC 1918 private IP address range (for example, 10.10.10.0/24). Set up a NAT gateway to do translation between 10.10.10.0/24 and 11.11.253.0/24 for all outbound traffic.

C) Set up a VPN connection between a virtual private gateway and an on-premises router. Set the virtual private gateway as the default gateway for all traffic. Configure the on-premises router to forward traffic to the internet.

D) Set up a VPN connection between a virtual private gateway and an on-premises router. Set the virtual private gateway as the default gateway for traffic destined to 11.11.0.0/24. Add a VPC subnet route to point the default gateway to an internet gateway for internet traffic.

E) Set up the VPC with an RFC 1918 private IP address range (for example, 10.10.10.0/24). Set the virtual private gateway to do a source IP translation of all outbound packets to 11.11.0.0/16.

ANSWER2:

A and C

Notes/Hint1:

The VPC needs to use a CIDR block in the assigned range (and be non-overlapping with the data center). All traffic not destined for the VPC is routed to the virtual private gateway (that route is assumed) and must then be forwarded to the internet when it arrives on-premises. B and E are incorrect because they are not in the assigned range (non-RFC 1918 addresses can be used in a VPC). D is incorrect because it directs traffic to the internet through the internet gateway.

Reference1: CIDR block 

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 3: Tasks running on Amazon EC2 Container Service (Amazon ECS) can use which mode for container networking (allocating an elastic networking interface to each running task, providing a dynamic private IP address and internal DNS name)?

ANSWER3:

A

Notes/Hint3:

Tasks running an Amazon EC2 Container Service can use awsvpc for container networking.

Reference3: Task Networking with the awsvpc Network Mode

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 4: A network engineer needs to design a solution for an application running on an Amazon EC2 instance to connect to a publicly accessible Amazon RDS Multi-AZ DB instance in a different VPC and Region. Security requirements mandate that the traffic not traverse the internet. Which configuration will ensure that the instances communicate privately without routing traffic over the internet?

A) Create a peering connection between the VPCs and update the routing tables to route traffic between the VPCs. Enable DNS resolution support for the VPC peering connection. Configure the application to connect to the DNS endpoint of the DB instance.

B) Create a gateway endpoint to the DB instance. Update the routing tables in the application VPC to route traffic to the gateway endpoint.

C) Configure a transit VPC to route traffic between the VPCs privately. Configure the application to connect to the DNS endpoint of the DB instance.

D) Create a NAT gateway in the same subnet as the EC2 instances. Update the routing tables in the application VPC to route traffic through the NAT gateway to the DNS endpoint of the DB instance.

ANSWER4:

A

Notes/Hint4:

Configuring DNS resolution on the VPC peering connection will allow queries from the application VPC to resolve to the private IP of the DB instance and prevent routing over the internet. B is incorrect because Amazon RDS is not supported by gateway endpoints. C and D are incorrect because the database endpoint will resolve to a public IP and the traffic will go over the internet.

Reference4: DNS Resolution on the VPC Peering connection

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 5: Management has decided that your firm will implement an AWS hybrid architecture. Given that decision, which of the following is a petabyte-scale data transport solution that uses secure appliances to transfer large amounts of data into and out of the AWS Cloud?

ANSWER5:

B

Notes/Hint5:

AWS Snowball is a petabyte-scale data transport solution that uses secure appliances to transfer large amounts of data into and out of the AWS Cloud.

Reference5: AWS Snowball 

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 6: A company has implemented a critical environment on AWS. For compliance purposes, a network engineer needs to verify that the Amazon EC2 instances are using a specific approved security group and belong to a specific VPC. The configuration history of the instances should be recorded and, in the event of any compliance issues, the instances should be automatically stopped. What should be done to meet these requirements?

A) Enable AWS CloudTrail and create a custom Amazon CloudWatch alarm to perform the required checks. When the CloudWatch alarm is in a failed state, trigger the stop this instance action to stop the noncompliant EC2 instance.

B) Configure a scheduled event with AWS CloudWatch Events to invoke an AWS Lambda function to perform the required checks. In the event of a noncompliant resource, invoke another Lambda function to stop the EC2 instance.

C) Configure an event with AWS CloudWatch Events for an EC2 instance state-change notification that triggers an AWS Lambda function to perform the required checks. In the event of a noncompliant resource, invoke another Lambda function to stop the EC2 instance.

D) Enable AWS Config and create custom AWS Config rules to perform the required checks. In the event of a noncompliant resource, use a remediation action to execute an AWS Systems Manager document to stop the EC2 instance.

ANSWER6:

D

Notes/Hint6:

AWS Config provides a detailed view of the configuration of AWS resources in a user’s AWS account. Using AWS Config rules with AWS Systems Manager Automation documents can automatically remediate noncompliant resources

Reference6: AwS Config

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 7: A previous administrator configured an inbound security group rule for port 80 (TCP) of 0.0.0.0/0 on the web server. What does this allow?

ANSWER7:

C

Notes/Hint7:

This rule allows all inbound traffic to port 80.

Reference7: Inbound Traffic

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 8: A company is extending its on-premises data center to AWS. Peak traffic is expected to range between 1 Gbps and 2 Gbps. A network engineer must ensure that there is sufficient bandwidth between AWS and the data center to handle peak traffic. The solution should be highly available and cost effective. What should be implemented to address these needs?

A) Deploy a 10 Gbps AWS Direct Connect connection with an IPsec VPN backup.

B) Deploy two 1 Gbps AWS Direct Connect connections in a link aggregation group.

C) Deploy two 1 Gbps AWS Direct Connect connections in a link aggregation group to two different Direct Connect locations.

D) Deploy a 10 Gbps AWS Direct Connect connection to two different Direct Connect locations.

ANSWER8:

C

Notes/Hint8:

Two AWS Direct Connect connections with link aggregation groups in two different Direct Connect locations are required to provide sufficient bandwidth with high availability. If one Direct Connect location experiences a failure, the two Direct Connect connections in the second Direct Connect location will provide backup. All of the other options would be unable to handle the peak traffic if a connection was lost.

Reference8: Direct Connect connections with link aggregation

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 9: Which of the following DNS record types is not supported by Amazon Route 53?

E) AAAA

F) SRV

ANSWER9:

A

Notes/Hint9:

DNAME is not supported by Amazon Route 53.

Reference9: Route53 record types

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 10: A network engineer needs to limit access to the company’s Amazon S3 bucket to specific source networks. What should the network engineer do to accomplish this?

A) Create an ACL on the S3 bucket, limiting access to the CIDR blocks of the specified networks.

B) Create a bucket policy on the S3 bucket, limiting access to the CIDR blocks of the specified networks using a condition statement.

C) Create a security group allowing inbound access to the CIDR blocks of the specified networks and apply the security group to the S3 bucket.

D) Create a security group allowing inbound access to the CIDR blocks of the specified networks, create a S3 VPC endpoint, and apply the security group to the VPC endpoint.

ANSWER10:

B

Notes/Hint10:

An Amazon S3 bucket policy that uses a condition statement will support restricting access if the request originates from a specific range of IP addresses. A is incorrect because an S3 ACL does not support IP restrictions. C is incorrect because security groups cannot be applied to S3 buckets. D is incorrect because security groups cannot be applied to an S3 VPC endpoint.

Reference10: S3 Bucket Policy

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 11: AWS Direct Connect has two separate billable charges: port-hours and data transfer. Pricing is per port-hour consumed for each port type. How are partial port-hours handled?

ANSWER11:

A

Notes/Hint11:

Partial port-hours are billed as full hours.

Reference11: AWS Direct Connect billing

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 12: A company’s compliance requirements specify that web application logs must be collected and analyzed to identify any malicious activity. A network engineer also needs to monitor for remote attempts to change the network interface of web instances. Which services and configurations will meet these requirements?

A) Install the Amazon CloudWatch Logs agent on the web instances to collect application logs. Use VPC Flow Logs to send data to CloudWatch Logs. Use CloudWatch Logs metric filters to define the patterns to look for in the log data.

B) Configure AWS CloudTrail to log all management and data events to a custom Amazon S3 bucket and Amazon CloudWatch Logs. Use VPC Flow Logs to send data to CloudWatch Logs. Use CloudWatch Logs metric filters to define the patterns to look for in the log data.

C) Configure AWS CloudTrail to log all management events to a custom Amazon S3 bucket and Amazon CloudWatch Logs. Install the Amazon CloudWatch Logs agent on the web instances to collect application logs. Use CloudWatch Logs Insights to define the patterns to look for in the log data.

D) Enable AWS Config to record all configuration changes to the web instances. Configure AWS CloudTrail to log all management and data events to a custom Amazon S3 bucket. Use Amazon Athena to define the patterns to look for in the log data stored in Amazon S3.

ANSWER12:

C

Notes/Hint12:

Web application logs are internal to the operating system, and Amazon CloudWatch Logs Insights can be used to collect and analyze the logs using the CloudWatch agent. AWS CloudTrail monitors all AWS API activity and can be used to monitor particular API calls to identify remote attempts to change the network interface of web instances.

Reference12: Amazon CloudWatch Logs insights

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 13: What is the maximum number of security groups that you can create for each VPC?

E) 500

F) 5

G) Unlimited

ANSWER13:

D

Notes/Hint13:

250 is the maximum number of security groups that you can create for each VPC.

Reference13: Quotas

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 14: A company has an application that processes confidential data. The data is currently stored in an on premises data center. A network engineer is moving workloads to AWS, and needs to ensure confidentiality and integrity of the data in transit to AWS. The company has an existing AWS Direct Connect connection. Which combination of steps should the network engineer perform to set up the most cost-effective connection between the on-premises data center and AWS? (Select TWO.)

A) Attach an internet gateway to the VPC.

B) Configure a public virtual interface on the AWS Direct Connect connection.

C) Configure a private virtual interface to the virtual private gateway.

D) Set up an IPsec tunnel between the customer gateway and a software VPN on Amazon EC2.

E) Set up a Site-to-Site VPN between the customer gateway and the virtual private gateway.

ANSWER14:

B and E

Notes/Hint14:

Setting up a VPN over an AWS Direct Connect connection will secure the data in transit. The steps to do so are: set up a public virtual interface and create the Site-to-Site VPN between the data center and the virtual private gateway using the public virtual interface. A is incorrect because it would send traffic over the public internet. C is not possible because a public virtual interface is needed to announce the VPN tunnel IPs. D is incorrect because it would not take advantage of the already existing Direct Connect connection.

Reference14: VPN over Direct Connect

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 15: A site you are helping create must use Adobe Media Server and the Adobe Real-Time Messaging Protocol (RTMP) to stream media files. When it comes to AWS, an RTMP distribution must use which of the following as the origin?

ANSWER15:

D

Notes/Hint15:

 An RTMP distribution must use S3 bucket as the origin.

Reference15: S3 Bucket as origin

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 16: A company is creating new features for its ecommerce website. These features will be deployed as microservices using different domain names for each service. The company requires the use of HTTPS for all its public-facing websites. The application requires the client’s source IP. Which combination of actions should be taken to accomplish this? (Select TWO.)

A) Use a Network Load Balancer to distribute traffic to each service.

B) Use an Application Load Balancer to distribute traffic to each service.

C) Configure the application to retrieve client IPs using the X-Forwarded-For header.

D) Configure the application to retrieve client IPs using the X-Forwarded-Host header.

E) Configure the application to retrieve client IPs using the PROXY protocol header.

ANSWER16:

B and C

Notes/Hint16:

An Application Load Balancer supports host-based routing, which is required to route traffic to different microservices based on the domain name. X-Forwarded-For is the correct request header to identify the client’s source IP address.

Reference16: Host based routing

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 17: What is the maximum number of connections you can have in a LAG (Link Aggregation Group)?

ANSWER17:

A

Notes/Hint17:

The maximum number of connections that a LAG can have is 4.

Reference17: Link Aggregation Group

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 18: A network engineer is architecting a high performance computing solution on AWS. The system consists of a cluster of Amazon EC2 instances that require low-latency communications between them. Which method will meet these requirements?

A) Launch instances into a single subnet with a size equal to the number of instances required for the cluster.

B) Create a cluster placement group. Launch Elastic Fabric Adapter (EFA)-enabled instances into the placement group.

C) Launch Amazon EC2 instances with the largest available number of cores and RAM. Attach Amazon EBS Provisioned IOPS (PIOPS) volumes. Implement a shared memory system across all instances in the cluster.

D) Choose an Amazon EC2 instance type that offers enhanced networking. Attach a 10 Gbps non-blocking elastic network interface to the instances.

ANSWER18:

B

Notes/Hint18:

Cluster placement groups and Elastic Fabric Adapters (EFAs) are recommended for high performance computing applications that benefit from low network latency, high network throughput, or both. A is incorrect because the size of a subnet has no impact on network performance. C is incorrect because an Amazon EBS volume cannot be shared between Amazon EC2 instances. D is only half the solution because the enhanced networking affects the network behaviour of an EC2 instance but not the network infrastructure between instances.

Reference18: Cluster placement groups

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 19: What is the maximum number of security groups that can be associated with each network interface?

E) 2

ANSWER2:

C

Notes/Hint19:

The default number of security groups that can be associated with each network interface is 5. The maximum is 16. This quota is enforced separately for IPv4 rules and IPv6 rules. 

Reference19: maximum number of security groups per network interface

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

Question 20: A company’s internal security team receives a request to allow Amazon S3 access from inside the corporate network. All external traffic must be explicitly allowed through the corporate firewalls. How can the security team grant this access?

A) Schedule a script to download the Amazon S3 IP prefixes from AWS developer forum announcements. Update the firewall rules accordingly.

B) Schedule a script to download and parse the Amazon S3 IP prefixes from the ip-ranges.json file. Update the firewall rules accordingly.

C) Schedule a script to perform a DNS lookup on Amazon S3 endpoints. Update the firewall rules accordingly.

D) Connect the data center to a VPC using AWS Direct Connect. Create routes that forward traffic from the data center to an Amazon S3 VPC endpoint.

ANSWER20:

B

Notes/Hint20:

The ip-ranges.json file contains the latest list of IP addresses used by AWS. AWS no longer posts IP prefixes in developer forum announcements. DNS lookups would not provide an exhaustive list of possible IP prefixes. D would require transitive routing, which is not possible.

Reference20: ip-range.json

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

I- SOURCE:

1- Djamga Cloud Networking Youtube Channel

2- Prepare for Your AWS Certification Exam

II-LATEST NETWORKING NEWS

Top 20 AWS Certified Associate SysOps Administrator Practice Quiz

AWS Certified Security – Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps

The AWS Certified SysOps Administrator – Associate (SOA-C01) examination is intended for individuals who have technical expertise in deployment, management, and operations on AWS.

The AWS Certified SysOps Administrator – Associate exam covers the following domains:

Domain 1: Monitoring and Reporting 22%

Domain 2: High Availability 8%

Domain 3: Deployment and Provisioning 14%

Domain 4: Storage and Data Management 12%

Domain 5: Security and Compliance 18%

Domain 6: Networking 14%

Domain 7: Automation and Optimization 12%

AWS Certified SysOps Administrator
AWS Certified SysOps Administrator

Below are the top 20 Top 20 AWS Certified Associate SysOps Administrator  Practice Quiz Questions and Answers and References – SOA-C01:

Question 1: Under which security model does AWS provide secure infrastructure and services, while the customer is responsible for secure operating systems, platforms, and data?

ANSWER1:

C

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT1: The Shared Responsibility Model is the security model under which AWS provides secure infrastructure and services, while the customer is responsible for secure operating systems, platforms, and data.

Question 2: Which type of testing method is used to compare a control system to a test system, with the goal of assessing whether changes applied to the test system improve a particular metric compared to the control system?

ANSWER2:

A

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT2: The side-by-side testing method is used to compare a control system to a test system, with the goal of assessing whether changes applied to the test system improve a particular metric compared to the control system.

Reference2: AWS Side by side testing 

Question 3: When BGP is used with a hardware VPN, the IPSec and the BGP connections must both be which of the following on the same user gateway device?

ANSWER3:

B

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT3: The IPSec and the BGP connections must both be terminated on the same user gateway device.

Reference3: IpSec and BGP in AWS

Question 4: Which pillar of the AWS Well-Architected Framework includes the ability to protect information, systems, and assets while delivering business value through risk assessments and mitigation strategies?

ANSWER4:

D

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT4: Security is the pillar of the AWS Well-Architected Framework that includes the ability to protect information, systems, and assets while delivering business value through risk assessments and mitigation strategies.

Reference4: AWS Well-Architected Framework: Security

Question 5: Within the realm of Amazon S3 backups, snapshots are which of the following?

ANSWER5:

A

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT: Within the realm of Amazon S3 backups, snapshots are block-based.

Reference5: Snapshots are block based

Question 6: Amazon VPC provides the option of creating a hardware VPN connection between remote customer networks and their Amazon VPC over the Internet using which encryption technology?

ANSWER6:

E

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT6: Amazon VPC provides the option of creating a hardware VPN connection between remote customer networks and their Amazon VPC over the Internet using IPsec encryption technology.

Reference6: Amazon VPC IPSec Encryption

Question 7: To make a clean backup of a database, that database should be put into what mode before making a snapshot of it?

ANSWER7:

C

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT7: To make a clean backup of a database, that database should be put into hot backup mode before making a snapshot of it.

Reference: AWS Prescriptive Backup Recovery Guide

Question 8: Which pillar of the AWS Well-Architected Framework includes the ability to use computing resources efficiently to meet system requirements, and to maintain that efficiency as demand changes and technologies evolve?

ANSWER8:

B

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT8: Performance efficiency is the pillar of the AWS Well-Architected Framework that includes the ability to use computing resources efficiently to meet system requirements, and to maintain that efficiency as demand changes and technologies evolve.

Reference8: Performance Efficiency Pillar – AWS Well-Architected Framework

Question 9: AWS Storage Gateway supports which three configurations?

ANSWER9:

C

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT9: AWS Storage Gateway supports Gateway-stored volumes, Gateway-cached volumes, and Gateway-virtual tape library.

Reference9: AWS Storage Gateway configurations

Question 10: With which of the following can you establish private connectivity between AWS and a data center, office, or co-location environment?

ANSWER10:

B

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT10: With AWS Direct Connect you can establish private connectivity between AWS and a data center, office, or co-location environment.

Reference: AWS Direct Connect

Question 11: A company is migrating a legacy web application from a single server to multiple Amazon EC2 instances behind an Application Load Balancer (ALB). After the migration, users report that they are frequently losing their sessions and are being prompted to log in again. Which action should be taken to resolve the issue reported by users?

A) Purchase Reserved Instances.
B) Submit a request for a Spot block.
C) Submit a request for all Spot Instances.
D) Use a mixture of On-Demand and Spot Instances

ANSWER11:

D

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT11: Legacy applications designed to run on a single server frequently store session data locally. When these applications are deployed on multiple instances behind a load balancer, user requests are routed to instances using the round robin routing algorithm. Session data stored on one instance would not be present on the others. By enabling sticky sessions, cookies are used to track user requests and keep subsequent requests going to the same instance.

Reference 11: Sticky Sessions

Question 12: An ecommerce company wants to lower costs on its nightly jobs that aggregate the current day’s sales and store the results in Amazon S3. The jobs run on multiple On-Demand Instances, and the jobs take just under 2 hours to complete. The jobs can run at any time during the night. If the job fails for any reason, it needs to be started from the beginning. Which solution is the MOST cost-effective based on these requirements?

A) Purchase Reserved Instances.

B) Submit a request for a Spot block.

C) Submit a request for all Spot Instances.

D) Use a mixture of On-Demand and Spot Instances.

ANSWER12:

B

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT12: The solution will take advantage of Spot pricing, but by using a Spot block instead of Spot Instances, the company can be assured the job will not be interrupted.

Reference12: Spot Block

Question 13: A sysops team checks their AWS Personal Health Dashboard every week for upcoming AWS hardware maintenance events. Recently, a team member was on vacation and the team missed an event, which resulted in an outage. The team wants a simple method to ensure that everyone is aware of upcoming events without depending on an individual team member checking the dashboard. What should be done to address this?

A) Build a web scraper to monitor the Personal Health Dashboard. When new health events are detected, send a notification to an Amazon SNS topic monitored by the entire team.

B) Create an Amazon CloudWatch Events event based off the AWS Health service and send a notification to an Amazon SNS topic monitored by the entire team.

C) Create an Amazon CloudWatch Events event that sends a notification to an Amazon SNS topic monitored by the entire team to remind the team to view the maintenance events on the Personal Health Dashboard.

D) Create an AWS Lambda function that continuously pings all EC2 instances to confirm their health. Alert the team if this check fails.

ANSWER13:

B

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT13: The AWS Health service publishes Amazon CloudWatch Events. CloudWatch Events can trigger Amazon SNS notifications. This method requires neither additional coding nor infrastructure. It automatically notifies the team of upcoming events, and does not depend upon brittle solutions like web scraping.

Reference 13: Amazon CloudWatch Events

Question14: An application running in a VPC needs to access instances owned by a different account and running in a VPC in a different AWS Region. For compliance purposes, the traffic must not traverse the public internet.
How should a sysops administrator configure network routing to meet these requirements?

A) Within each account, create a custom routing table containing routes that point to the other account’s virtual private gateway.

B) Within each account, set up a NAT gateway in a public subnet in its respective VPC. Then, using the public IP address from the NAT gateway, enable routing between the two VPCs.

C) From one account, configure a Site-to-Site VPN connection between the VPCs. Within each account, add routes in the VPC route tables that point to the CIDR block of the remote VPC.

D) From one account, create a VPC peering request. After an administrator from the other account accepts the request, add routes in the route tables for each VPC that point to the CIDR block of the peered VPC.

ANSWER14:

D

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT14: A VPC peering connection enables routing using each VPC’s private IP addresses as if they were in the same network. Traffic using inter-Region VPC peering always stays on the global AWS backbone and never traverses the public internet.

Reference14: VPC Peering

Question15: An application running on Amazon EC2 instances needs to access data stored in an Amazon DynamoDB table. Which solution will grant the application access to the table in the MOST secure manner?

A) Create an IAM group for the application and attach a permissions policy with the necessary privileges. Add the EC2 instances to the IAM group.

B) Create an IAM resource policy for the DynamoDB table that grants the necessary permissions to Amazon EC2.

C) Create an IAM role with the necessary privileges to access the DynamoDB table. Associate the role with the EC2 instances.

D) Create an IAM user for the application and attach a permissions policy with the necessary privileges. Generate an access key and embed the key in the application code.

ANSWER15:

C

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT15: An IAM role can be used to provide permissions for applications that are running on Amazon EC2 instances
to make AWS API requests using temporary credentials.

Reference15: IAM Role

Question16: A third-party service uploads objects to Amazon S3 every night. Occasionally, the service uploads an incorrectly formatted version of an object. In these cases, the sysops administrator needs to recover an older version of the object.
What is the MOST efficient way to recover the object without having to retrieve it from the remote service?

A) Configure an Amazon CloudWatch Events scheduled event that triggers an AWS Lambda function that backs up the S3 bucket prior to the nightly job. When bad objects are discovered, restore the backed up version.

B) Create an S3 event on object creation that copies the object to an Amazon Elasticsearch Service (Amazon ES) cluster. When bad objects are discovered, retrieve the previous version from Amazon ES.

C) Create an AWS Lambda function that copies the object to an S3 bucket owned by a different account. Trigger the function when new objects are created in Amazon S3. When bad objects are discovered, retrieve the previous version from the other account.

D) Enable versioning on the S3 bucket. When bad objects are discovered, access previous versions with the AWS CLI or AWS Management Console.

ANSWER16:

D

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT16: Enabling versioning is a simple solution; (A) involves writing custom code, (C) has no versioning, so the replication will overwrite the old version with the bad version if the error is not discovered quickly, and (B) will involve expensive storage that is not well suited for objects.

Reference16: Versioning

Question17: According to the AWS shared responsibility model, for which of the following Amazon EC2 activities is AWS responsible? (Select TWO.)
A) Configuring network ACLs
B) Maintaining network infrastructure
C) Monitoring memory utilization
D) Patching the guest operating system
E) Patching the hypervisor

ANSWER17:

D and E

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT17: AWS provides security of the cloud, including maintenance of the hardware and hypervisor software supporting Amazon EC2. Customers are responsible for any maintenance or monitoring within an EC2 instance, and for configuring their VPC infrastructure.

Reference17: Security of the cloud

Question18: A security and compliance team requires that all Amazon EC2 workloads use approved Amazon Machine Images (AMIs). A sysops administrator must implement a process to find EC2 instances launched from unapproved AMIs.
Which solution will meet these requirements?
A) Create a custom report using AWS Systems Manager inventory to identify unapproved AMIs.
B) Run Amazon Inspector on each EC2 instance and flag the instance if it is using unapproved AMIs.
C) Use an AWS Config rule to identify unapproved AMIs.
D) Use AWS Trusted Advisor to identify the EC2 workloads using unapproved AMIs.

ANSWER18:

C

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT18: AWS Config has a managed rule that handles this scenario.

Reference18: Managed Rule

Question19: A sysops administrator observes a large number of rogue HTTP requests on an Application Load Balancer. The requests originate from various IP addresses. These requests cause increased server load and costs.
What should the administrator do to block this traffic?
A) Install Amazon Inspector on Amazon EC2 instances to block the traffic.
B) Use Amazon GuardDuty to protect the web servers from bots and scrapers.
C) Use AWS Lambda to analyze the web server logs, detect bot traffic, and block the IP addresses in the security groups.
D) Use an AWS WAF rate-based rule to block the traffic when it exceeds a threshold.

ANSWER19:

D

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT19: AWS WAF has rules that can protect web applications from HTTP flood attacks.

Reference19: HTTP Flood

Question20: A sysops administrator is implementing security group policies for a web application running on AWS.
An Elastic Load Balancer connects to a fleet of Amazon EC2 instances that connect to an Amazon RDS database over port 1521. The security groups are named elbSG, ec2SG, and rdsSG, respectively.
How should these security groups be implemented?
A) elbSG: allow port 80 and 443 from 0.0.0.0/0;
ec2SG: allow port 443 from elbSG;
rdsSG: allow port 1521 from ec2SG.

B) elbSG: allow port 80 and 443 from 0.0.0.0/0;
ec2SG: allow port 80 and 443 from elbSG and rdsSG;
rdsSG: allow port 1521 from ec2SG.

C) elbSG: allow port 80 and 443 from ec2SG;
ec2SG: allow port 80 and 443 from elbSG and rdsSG;
rdsSG: allow port 1521 from ec2SG.

D) elbSG: allow port 80 and 443 from ec2SG;
ec2SG: allow port 443 from elbSG;
rdsSG: allow port 1521 from elbSG.

ANSWER20: 

A

Get mobile friendly version of the quiz @ the App Store

NOTES/HINT20: elbSG must allow all web traffic (HTTP and HTTPS) from the internet. ec2SG must allow traffic from the load balancer only, in this case identified as traffic from elbSG. The database must allow traffic from the EC2 instances only, in this case identified as traffic from ec2SG.

Reference20: Allow all traffic

I- SOURCES:

1-Djamga DevOps  Youtube Channel:

2-  Prepare for Your AWS Certification Exam

2- GoCertify

II- SYSOPS AND SYSADMIN NEWS

III- SYSADMIN – SYSOPS RESOURCES

I WANT TO BECOME A SYSADMIN

This is a common topic that has been asked multiple times.

Professional/Non-technical

Sysadmin Utilities

Security

Linux

Microsoft / Windows Server

Virtualization

MacOS (formerly OSX) and Apple iOS

Google ChromeOS

  • Coming soon

Backup and Storage

Networking

Monitoring

  • Because your network and infrastructure can’t be a black box

Business and Standards Compliance

Major Vulnerabilities

Podcasts

Documentation

RPA: How to reset Blue Prism admin password

Reset BluePrism Admin Password

Robotic Process Automation: Blue Prism v6

Issue: BluePrism admin Password forgotten or lost

Assumption – you have access to the database and you can modify tables

Solution:

This command finds the user with the username admin and resets their password back to the original admin string, but will not force a password change on the next log in.

Use SQL Server Management studio or any SQL Editor, then connect to (LocalDB)\BluePrismLocalDB Server, then write and execute the query below:

USE blueprism

UPDATE dbo.BPAPassword SET salt = ”, hash = ‘208512264222772174181102151942010236531331277169151’, type = 0
WHERE userid = (SELECT userid FROM dbo.BPAUser WHERE username = ‘admin’)

Resources:

Blue Prism v6 admin password reset
Blue Prism v6 admin password reset

Top 30 AWS Certified Developer Associate Exam Tips

AWS Certified Developer Associate Exam Prep

Top 30 AWS Certified Developer Associate Exam Tips

AWS Certified Developer Associate Exam Prep Urls

Get the free app at: android: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awscertdevassociateexampreppro.enoumen

iOs: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/aws-certified-developer-assoc/id1511211095

PRO version with mock exam android: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awscertdevassociateexampreppro.enoumen

PRO version with mock exam ios: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/aws-certified-dev-ass-dva-c01/id1506519319t

12

What to study: AMAZON CLOUDFRONT  
AWS topics for DVA-C01: AMAZON CLOUDFRONT

18

Know what instance types can be launched from which types of AMIs, and which instance types require an HVM AMI
AWS HVM AMI

19

Have a good understanding of how Route53 supports all of the different DNS record types, and when you would use certain ones over others.
Route 53 supports all of the different DNS record types

20

Know which services have native encryption at rest within the region, and which do not.
AWS Services with native Encryption at rest

21

Kinesis Sharding:
#AWS Kinesis Sharding

22

Handling SSL Certificates in ELB ( Wildcard certificate vs SNI )
#AWS Handling SSL Certificates in ELB ( Wildcard certificate vs SNI )

23

Different types of Aurora Endpoints
#AWS Different types of Aurora Endpoints

24

The Default Termination Policy for Auto Scaling Group (Oldest launch configuration vs Instance Protection)
#AWS Default Termination Policy for Auto Scaling Group

25

Use AWS Cheatsheets – I also found the cheatsheets provided by Tutorials Dojo very helpful. In my opinion, it is better than Jayendrapatil Patil’s blog since it contains more updated information that complements your review notes.
#AWS Cheat Sheet

26

Watch this exam readiness 3hr video, it very recent webinar this provides what is expected in the exam.
#AWS Exam Prep Video

27

Start off watching Ryan’s videos. Try and completely focus on the hands on. Take your time to understand what you are trying to learn and achieve in those LAB Sessions.
#AWS Exam Prep Video

28

Do not rush into completing the videos. Take your time and hone the basics. Focus and spend a lot of time for the back bone of AWS infrastructure – Compute/EC2 section, Storage (S3/EBS/EFS), Networking (Route 53/Load Balancers), RDS, VPC, Route 3. These sections are vast, with lot of concepts to go over and have loads to learn. Trust me you will need to thoroughly understand each one of them to ensure you pass the certification comfortably.
#AWS Exam Prep Video

29

Make sure you go through resources section and also AWS documentation for each components. Go over FAQs. If you have a question, please post it in the community. Trust me, each answer here helps you understand more about AWS.
#AWS Faqs

30

Like any other product/service, each AWS offering has a different flavor. I will take an example of EC2 (Spot/Reserved/Dedicated/On Demand etc.). Make sure you understand what they are, what are the pros/cons of each of these flavors. Applies for all other offerings too.
#AWS Services

31

Follow Neal K Davis on Linkedin and Read his updates about DVA-C01
#AWS Services

What is the AWS Certified Developer Associate Exam?

The AWS Certified Developer – Associate examination is intended for individuals who perform a development role and have one or more years of hands-on experience developing and maintaining an AWS-based application. It validates an examinee’s ability to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of core AWS services, uses, and basic AWS architecture best practices
  • Demonstrate proficiency in developing, deploying, and debugging cloud-based applications using AWS

There are two types of questions on the examination:

  • Multiple-choice: Has one correct response and three incorrect responses (distractors).
  • Provide implementation guidance based on best practices to the organization throughout the lifecycle of the project.

Select one or more responses that best complete the statement or answer the question. Distractors, or incorrect answers, are response options that an examinee with incomplete knowledge or skill would likely choose. However, they are generally plausible responses that fit in the content area defined by the test objective. Unanswered questions are scored as incorrect; there is no penalty for guessing.

To succeed with the real exam, do not memorize the answers below. It is very important that you understand why a question is right or wrong and the concepts behind it by carefully reading the reference documents in the answers.

Top

AWS Certified Developer Associate info and details

The AWS Certified Developer Associate Exam is a multiple choice, multiple answer exam. Here is the Exam Overview:

Top

Other AWS Facts and Summaries and Questions/Answers Dump

Top

Additional Information for reference

Below are some useful reference links that would help you to learn about AWS Practitioner Exam.

Other Relevant and Recommended AWS Certifications

AWS Certification Exams Roadmap AWS Certification Exams Roadmap[/caption]

AWS Developer Associate Exam Whitepapers:

AWS has provided whitepapers to help you understand the technical concepts. Below are the recommended whitepapers.

Top

Online Training and Labs for AWS Certified Developer Associate Exam

Top

AWS Certified Developer Associate Jobs

Top 60 AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Tips

aws certified solution architect exam prep

Top 60 AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Tips

SAA Exam Prep App urls

Solution Architect FREE version:
Google Play Store (Android)
Apple Store (iOS)
Pwa: Web
Amazon android: Amazon App Store (Android)
Microsoft/Windows10:

1

Know what instance types can be launched from which types of AMIs, and which instance types require an HVM AMI
AWS HVM AMI

2

Understand bastion hosts, and which subnet one might live on. Bastion hosts are instances that sit within your public subnet and are typically accessed using SSH or RDP. Once remote connectivity has been established with the bastion host, it then acts as a ‘jump’ server, allowing you to use SSH or RDP to login to other instances (within private subnets) deeper within your network. When properly configured through the use of security groups and Network ACLs, the bastion essentially acts as a bridge to your private instances via the Internet.”
Bastion Hosts

3

Know the difference between Directory Service’s AD Connector and Simple AD. Use Simple AD if you need an inexpensive Active Directory–compatible service with the common directory features. AD Connector lets you simply connect your existing on-premises Active Directory to AWS.
AD Connector and Simple AD

4

Know how to enable cross-account access with IAM: To delegate permission to access a resource, you create an IAM role that has two policies attached. The permissions policy grants the user of the role the needed permissions to carry out the desired tasks on the resource. The trust policy specifies which trusted accounts are allowed to grant its users permissions to assume the role. The trust policy on the role in the trusting account is one-half of the permissions. The other half is a permissions policy attached to the user in the trusted account that allows that user to switch to, or assume the role.
Enable cross-account access with IAM

5

Have a good understanding of how Route53 supports all of the different DNS record types, and when you would use certain ones over others.
Route 53 supports all of the different DNS record types

6

Know which services have native encryption at rest within the region, and which do not.
AWS Services with native Encryption at rest

7

Know which services allow you to retain full admin privileges of the underlying EC2 instances
EC2 Full admin privilege

8

Know When Elastic IPs are free or not: If you associate additional EIPs with that instance, you will be charged for each additional EIP associated with that instance per hour on a pro rata basis. Additional EIPs are only available in Amazon VPC. To ensure efficient use of Elastic IP addresses, we impose a small hourly charge when these IP addresses are not associated with a running instance or when they are associated with a stopped instance or unattached network interface.
When are AWS Elastic IPs Free or not?

9

Know what are the four high level categories of information Trusted Advisor supplies.
#AWS Trusted advisor

10

Know how to troubleshoot a connection time out error when trying to connect to an instance in your VPC. You need a security group rule that allows inbound traffic from your public IP address on the proper port, you need a route that sends all traffic destined outside the VPC (0.0.0.0/0) to the Internet gateway for the VPC, the network ACLs must allow inbound and outbound traffic from your public IP address on the proper port, etc.
#AWS Connection time out error

11

Be able to identify multiple possible use cases and eliminate non-use cases for SWF.
#AWS

12

Understand how you might set up consolidated billing and cross-account access such that individual divisions resources are isolated from each other, but corporate IT can oversee all of it.
#AWS Set up consolidated billing

13

Know how you would go about making changes to an Auto Scaling group, fully understanding what you can and can’t change. “You can only specify one launch configuration for an Auto Scaling group at a time, and you can’t modify a launch configuration after you’ve created it. Therefore, if you want to change the launch configuration for your Auto Scaling group, you must create a launch configuration and then update your Auto Scaling group with the new launch configuration. When you change the launch configuration for your Auto Scaling group, any new instances are launched using the new configuration parameters, but existing instances are not affected.
#AWS Make Change to Auto Scaling group

14

Know how you would go about making changes to an Auto Scaling group, fully understanding what you can and can’t change. “You can only specify one launch configuration for an Auto Scaling group at a time, and you can’t modify a launch configuration after you’ve created it. Therefore, if you want to change the launch configuration for your Auto Scaling group, you must create a launch configuration and then update your Auto Scaling group with the new launch configuration. When you change the launch configuration for your Auto Scaling group, any new instances are launched using the new configuration parameters, but existing instances are not affected.
#AWS Make Change to Auto Scaling group

15

Know which field you use to run a script upon launching your instance.
#AWS User data script

16

Know how DynamoDB (durable, and you can pay for strong consistency), Elasticache (great for speed, not so durable), and S3 (eventual consistency results in lower latency) compare to each other in terms of durability and low latency.
#AWS DynamoDB consistency

17

Know the difference between bucket policies, IAM policies, and ACLs for use with S3, and examples of when you would use each. “With IAM policies, companies can grant IAM users fine-grained control to their Amazon S3 bucket or objects while also retaining full control over everything the users do. With bucket policies, companies can define rules which apply broadly across all requests to their Amazon S3 resources, such as granting write privileges to a subset of Amazon S3 resources. Customers can also restrict access based on an aspect of the request, such as HTTP referrer and IP address. With ACLs, customers can grant specific permissions (i.e. READ, WRITE, FULL_CONTROL) to specific users for an individual bucket or object.
#AWS Difference between bucket policies

18

Know when and how you can encrypt snapshots.
#AWS EBS Encryption

19

Understand how you can use ELB cross-zone load balancing to ensure even distribution of traffic to EC2 instances in multiple AZs registered with a load balancer.
#AWS ELB cross-zone load balancing

20

How would you allow users to log into the AWS console using active directory integration. Here is a link to some good reference material.
#AWS og into the AWS console using active directory integration

21

Spot instances are good for cost optimization, even if it seems you might need to fall back to On-Demand instances if you wind up getting kicked off them and the timeline grows tighter. The primary (but still not only) factor seems to be whether you can gracefully handle instances that die on you–which is pretty much how you should always design everything, anyway!
#AWS Spot instances

22

The term “use case” is not the same as “function” or “capability”. A use case is something that your app/system will need to accomplish, not just behaviour that you will get from that service. In particular, a use case doesn’t require that the service be a 100% turnkey solution for that situation, just that the service plays a valuable role in enabling it.
#AWS use case

23

There might be extra, unnecessary information in some of the questions (red herrings), so try not to get thrown off by them. Understand what services can and can’t do, but don’t ignore “obvious”-but-still-correct answers in favour of super-tricky ones.
#AWS Exam Answers: Distractors

24

If you don’t know what they’re trying to ask, in a question, just move on and come back to it later (by using the helpful “mark this question” feature in the exam tool). You could easily spend way more time than you should on a single confusing question if you don’t triage and move on.
#AWS Exa: Skip Questions that are vague and come back to them later

25

Some exam questions required you to understand features and use cases of: VPC peering, cross-account access, DirectConnect, snapshotting EBS RAID arrays, DynamoDB, spot instances, Glacier, AWS/user security responsibilities, etc.
#AWS

26

The 30 Day constraint in the S3 Lifecycle Policy before transitioning to S3-IA and S3-One Zone IA storage classes
#AWS S3 lifecycle policy

27

Enabling Cross-region snapshot copy for an AWS KMS-encrypted cluster
Redis Auth / Amazon MQ / IAM DB Authentication

#AWS Cross-region snapshot copy for an AWS KMS-encrypted cluster

28

Know that FTP is using TCP and not UDP (Helpful for questions where you are asked to troubleshoot the network flow)
TCP and UDP

29

Know the Difference between S3, EBS and EFS
#AWS Difference between S3, EBS and EFS

30

Kinesis Sharding:
#AWS Kinesis Sharding

31

Handling SSL Certificates in ELB ( Wildcard certificate vs SNI )
#AWS Handling SSL Certificates in ELB ( Wildcard certificate vs SNI )

32

Difference between OAI, Signed URL (CloudFront) and Pre-signed URL (S3)
#AWS Difference between OAI, Signed URL (CloudFront) and Pre-signed URL (S3)

33

Different types of Aurora Endpoints
#AWS Different types of Aurora Endpoints

34

The Default Termination Policy for Auto Scaling Group (Oldest launch configuration vs Instance Protection)
#AWS Default Termination Policy for Auto Scaling Group

35

Watch Acloud Guru Videos Lectures while commuting / lunch break – Reschedule the exam if you are not yet ready
#AWS ACloud Guru

36

Watch Linux Academy Videos Lectures while commuting / lunch break – Reschedule the exam if you are not yet ready
#AWS Linux Academy

37

Watch Udemy Videos Lectures while commuting / lunch break – Reschedule the exam if you are not yet ready
#AWS Linux Academy

38

The Udemy practice test interface is good that it pinpoints your weak areas, so what I did was to re-watch all the videos that I got the wrong answers. Since I was able to gauge my exam readiness, I decided to reschedule my exam for 2 more weeks, to help me focus on completing the practice tests.
#AWS Udemy

39

Use AWS Cheatsheets – I also found the cheatsheets provided by Tutorials Dojo very helpful. In my opinion, it is better than Jayendrapatil Patil’s blog since it contains more updated information that complements your review notes.
#AWS Cheat Sheet

40

Watch this exam readiness 3hr video, it very recent webinar this provides what is expected in the exam.
#AWS Exam Prep Video

41

Start off watching Ryan’s videos. Try and completely focus on the hands on. Take your time to understand what you are trying to learn and achieve in those LAB Sessions.
#AWS Exam Prep Video

42

Do not rush into completing the videos. Take your time and hone the basics. Focus and spend a lot of time for the back bone of AWS infrastructure – Compute/EC2 section, Storage (S3/EBS/EFS), Networking (Route 53/Load Balancers), RDS, VPC, Route 3. These sections are vast, with lot of concepts to go over and have loads to learn. Trust me you will need to thoroughly understand each one of them to ensure you pass the certification comfortably.
#AWS Exam Prep Video

43

Make sure you go through resources section and also AWS documentation for each components. Go over FAQs. If you have a question, please post it in the community. Trust me, each answer here helps you understand more about AWS.
#AWS Faqs

44

Like any other product/service, each AWS offering has a different flavor. I will take an example of EC2 (Spot/Reserved/Dedicated/On Demand etc.). Make sure you understand what they are, what are the pros/cons of each of these flavors. Applies for all other offerings too.
#AWS Services

45

Ensure to attend all quizzes after each section. Please do not treat these quizzes as your practice exams. These quizzes are designed to mostly test your knowledge on the section you just finished. The exam itself is designed to test you with scenarios and questions, where in you will need to recall and apply your knowledge of different AWS technologies/services you learn over multiple lectures.
#AWS Services

46

I, personally, do not recommend to attempt a practice exam or simulator exam until you have done all of the above. It was a little overwhelming for me. I had thoroughly gone over the videos. And understood the concepts pretty well, but once I opened exam simulator I felt the questions were pretty difficult. I also had a feeling that videos do not cover lot of topics. But later I realized, given the vastness of AWS Services and offerings it is really difficult to encompass all these services and their details in the course content. The fact that these services keep changing so often, does not help
#AWS Services

47

Go back and make a note of all topics, that you felt were unfamiliar for you. Go through the resources section and fiund links to AWS documentation. After going over them, you shoud gain at least 5-10% more knowledge on AWS. Have expectations from the online courses as a way to get thorough understanding of basics and strong foundations for your AWS knowledge. But once you are done with videos. Make sure you spend a lot of time on AWS documentation and FAQs. There are many many topics/sub topics which may not be covered in the course and you would need to know, atleast their basic functionalities, to do well in the exam.
#AWS Services

48

Once you start taking practice exams, it may seem really difficult at the beginning. So, please do not panic if you find the questions complicated or difficult. IMO they are designed or put in a way to sound complicated but they are not. Be calm and read questions very carefully. In my observation, many questions have lot of information which sometimes is not relevant to the solution you are expected to provide. Read the question slowly and read it again until you understand what is expected out of it.
#AWS Services

49

With each practice exam you will come across topics that you may need to scale your knowledge on or learn them from scratch.
#AWS Services

50

With each test and the subsequent revision, you will surely feel more confident.
There are 130 mins for questions. 2 mins for each question which is plenty of time.
At least take 8-10 practice tests. The ones on udemy/tutorialdojo are really good. If you are a acloudguru member. The exam simulator is really good.
Manage your time well. Keep patience. I saw someone mention in one of the discussions that do not under estimate the mental focus/strength needed to sit through 130 mins solving these questions. And it is really true.
Do not give away or waste any of those precious 130 mins. While answering flag/mark questions you think you are not completely sure. My advice is, even if you finish early, spend your time reviewing the answers. I could review 40 of my answers at the end of test. And I at least rectified 3 of them (which is 4-5% of total score, I think)
So in short – Put a lot of focus on making your foundations strong. Make sure you go through AWS Documentation and FAQs. Try and envision how all of the AWS components can fit together and provide an optimal solution. Keep calm.
This video gives outline about exam, must watch before or after Ryan’s course. #AWS Services

51

Walking you through how to best prepare for the AWS Certified Solutions Architect Associate SAA-C02 exam in 5 steps:
1. Understand the exam blueprint
2. Learn about the new topics included in the SAA-C02 version of the exam
3. Use the many FREE resources available to gain and deepen your knowledge
4. Enroll in our hands-on video course to learn AWS in depth
5. Use practice tests to fully prepare yourself for the exam and assess your exam readiness
AWS CERTIFIED SOLUTIONS ARCHITECT SAA-C02 : HOW TO BEST PREPARE IN 5 STEPS

52

Storage:
1. Know your different Amazon S3 storage tiers! You need to know the use cases, features and limitations, and relative costs; e.g. retrieval costs.
2. Amazon S3 lifecycle policies is also required knowledge — there are minimum storage times in certain tiers that you need to know.
3. For Glacier, you need to understand what it is, what it’s used for, and what the options are for retrieval times and fees.
4. For the Amazon Elastic File System (EFS), make sure you’re clear which operating systems you can use with it (just Linux).
5. For the Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS), make sure you know when to use the different tiers including instance stores; e.g. what would you use for a datastore that requires the highest IO and the data is distributed across multiple instances? (Good instance store use case)
6. Learn about Amazon FSx. You’ll need to know about FSx for Windows and Lustre.
7. Know how to improve Amazon S3 performance including using CloudFront, and byte-range fetches — check out this whitepaper.
8. Make sure you understand about Amazon S3 object deletion protection options including versioning and MFA delete.
AWS CERTIFIED SOLUTIONS ARCHITECT SAA-C02 : HOW TO BEST PREPARE IN 5 STEPS

53

Compute:
1. You need to have a good understanding of the options for how to scale an Auto Scaling Group using metrics such as SQS queue depth, or numbers of SNS messages.
2. Know your different Auto Scaling policies including Target Tracking Policies.
3. Read up on High Performance Computing (HPC) with AWS. You’ll need to know about Amazon FSx with HPC use cases.
4. Know your placement groups. Make sure you can differentiate between spread, cluster and partition; e.g. what would you use for lowest latency? What about if you need to support an app that’s tightly coupled? Within an AZ or cross AZ?
5. Make sure you know the difference between Elastic Network Adapters (ENAs), Elastic Network Interfaces (ENIs) and Elastic Fabric Adapters (EFAs).
6. For the Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS), make sure you understand how to assign IAM policies to ECS for providing S3 access. How can you decouple an ECS data processing process — Kinesis Firehose or SQS?
7. Make sure you’re clear on the different EC2 pricing models including Reserved Instances (RI) and the different RI options such as scheduled RIs.
8. Make sure you know the maximum execution time for AWS Lambda (it’s currently 900 seconds or 15 minutes).
AWS CERTIFIED SOLUTIONS ARCHITECT SAA-C02 : HOW TO BEST PREPARE IN 5 STEPS

54

Network
1. Understand what AWS Global Accelerator is and its use cases.
2. Understand when to use CloudFront and when to use AWS Global Accelerator.
3. Make sure you understand the different types of VPC endpoint and which require an Elastic Network Interface (ENI) and which require a route table entry.
4. You need to know how to connect multiple accounts; e.g. should you use VPC peering or a VPC endpoint?
5. Know the difference between PrivateLink and ClassicLink.
6. Know the patterns for extending a secure on-premises environment into AWS.
7. Know how to encrypt AWS Direct Connect (you can use a Virtual Private Gateway / AWS VPN).
8. Understand when to use Direct Connect vs Snowball to migrate data — lead time can be an issue with Direct Connect if you’re in a hurry.
9. Know how to prevent circumvention of Amazon CloudFront; e.g. Origin Access Identity (OAI) or signed URLs / signed cookies.
AWS CERTIFIED SOLUTIONS ARCHITECT SAA-C02 : HOW TO BEST PREPARE IN 5 STEPS

55

Databases
1. Make sure you understand Amazon Aurora and Amazon Aurora Serverless.
2. Know which RDS databases can have Read Replicas and whether you can read from a Multi-AZ standby.
3. Know the options for encrypting an existing RDS database; e.g. only at creation time otherwise you must encrypt a snapshot and create a new instance from the snapshot.
4. Know which databases are key-value stores; e.g. Amazon DynamoDB.
AWS CERTIFIED SOLUTIONS ARCHITECT SAA-C02 : HOW TO BEST PREPARE IN 5 STEPS

56

Application Integration
1. Make sure you know the use cases for the Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS), and Simple Notification Service (SNS).
2. Understand the differences between Amazon Kinesis Firehose and SQS and when you would use each service.
3. Know how to use Amazon S3 event notifications to publish events to SQS — here’s a good “How To” article.
AWS CERTIFIED SOLUTIONS ARCHITECT SAA-C02 : HOW TO BEST PREPARE IN 5 STEPS

57

Management and Governance
1. You’ll need to know about AWS Organizations; e.g. how to migrate an account between organizations.
2. For AWS Organizations, you also need to know how to restrict actions using service control policies attached to OUs.
3. Understand what AWS Resource Access Manager is.
AWS CERTIFIED SOLUTIONS ARCHITECT SAA-C02 : HOW TO BEST PREPARE IN 5 STEPS

About this App

The AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Examination reparation and Readiness Quiz App (SAA-C01, SAA-C01, SAA) Prep App helps you prepare and train for the AWS Certification Solution Architect Associate Exam with various questions and answers dumps.

This App provide updated Questions and Answers, an Intuitive Responsive Interface allowing to browse questions horizontally and browse tips and resources vertically after completing a quiz.

Features:

  • 100+ Questions and Answers updated frequently to get you AWS certified.
  • Quiz with score tracker, countdown timer, highest score saving. Vie Answers after completing the quiz for each category.
  • Can only see answers after completing the quiz.
  • Show/Hide button option for answers. Link to PRO Version to see all answers for each category
  • Ability to navigate through questions for each category using next and previous button.
  • Resource info page about the answer for each category and Top 60 Tips to succeed in the exam.
  • Prominent Cloud Evangelist latest tweets and Technology Latest News Feed
  • The app helps you study and practice from your mobile device with an intuitive interface.
  • SAA-C01 and SAA-C02 compatible
  • Resource info page about the answer for each category.
  • Helps you study and practice from your mobile device with an intuitive interface.

The questions and Answers are divided in 4 categories:

  • Design High Performing Architectures,
  • Design Cost Optimized Architectures,
  • Design Secure Applications And Architectures,
  • Design Resilient Architecture,

The questions and answers cover the following topics: AWS VPC, S3, DynamoDB, EC2, ECS, Lambda, API Gateway, CloudWatch, CloudTrail, Code Pipeline, Code Deploy, TCO Calculator, AWS S3, AWS DynamoDB, CloudWatch , AWS SES, Amazon Lex, AWS EBS, AWS ELB, AWS Autoscaling , RDS, Aurora, Route 53, Amazon CodeGuru, Amazon Bracket, AWS Billing and Pricing, AWS Simply Monthly Calculator, AWS cost calculator, Ec2 pricing on-demand, AWS Pricing, AWS Pay As You Go, AWS No Upfront Cost, Cost Explorer, AWS Organizations, Consolidated billing, Instance Scheduler, on-demand instances, Reserved instances, Spot Instances, CloudFront, Web hosting on S3, S3 storage classes, AWS Regions, AWS Availability Zones, Trusted Advisor, Various architectural Questions and Answers about AWS, AWS SDK, AWS EBS Volumes, EC2, S3, Containers, KMS, AWS read replicas, Cloudfront, API Gateway, AWS Snapshots, Auto shutdown Ec2 instances, High Availability, RDS, DynamoDB, Elasticity, AWS Virtual Machines, AWS Caching, AWS Containers, AWS Architecture, AWS Ec2, AWS S3, AWS Security, AWS Lambda, Bastion Hosts, S3 lifecycle policy, kinesis sharing, AWS KMS, Design High Performing Architectures, Design Cost Optimized Architectures, Design Secure Applications And Architectures, Design Resilient Architecture, AWS vs Azure vs Google Cloud, Resources, Questions, AWS, AWS SDK, AWS EBS Volumes, AWS read replicas, Cloudfront, API Gateway, AWS Snapshots, Auto shutdown Ec2 instances, High Availability, RDS, DynamoDB, Elasticity, AWS Virtual Machines, AWS Caching, AWS Containers, AWS Architecture, AWS Ec2, AWS S3, AWS Security, AWS Lambda, Load Balancing, DynamoDB, EBS, Multi-AZ RDS, Aurora, EFS, DynamoDB, NLB, ALB, Aurora, Auto Scaling, DynamoDB(latency), Aurora(performance), Multi-AZ RDS(high availability), Throughput Optimized EBS (highly sequential), SAA-CO1, SAA-CO2, Cloudwatch, CloudTrail, KMS, ElasticBeanstalk, OpsWorks, RPO vs RTO, HA vs FT, Undifferentiated Heavy Lifting, Access Management Basics, Shared Responsibility Model, Cloud Service Models, etc…

The resources sections cover the following areas: Certification, AWS training, Mock Exam Preparation Tips, Cloud Architect Training, Cloud Architect Knowledge, Cloud Technology, cloud certification, cloud exam preparation tips, cloud solution architect associate exam, certification practice exam, learn aws free, amazon cloud solution architect, question dumps, acloud guru links, tutorial dojo links, linuxacademy links, latest aws certification tweets, and post from reddit, quota, linkedin, medium, cloud exam preparation tips, aws cloud solution architect associate exam, aws certification practice exam, cloud exam questions, learn aws free, amazon cloud solution architect, amazon cloud certified solution architect associate exam questions, as certification dumps, google cloud, azure cloud, acloud, learn google cloud, learn azure cloud, cloud comparison, etc.

Abilities Validated by the Certification:

  • Effectively demonstrate knowledge of how to architect and deploy secure and robust applications on AWS technologies
  • Define a solution using architectural design principles based on customer requirements
  • Provide implementation guidance based on best practices to the organization throughout the life cycle of the project

Recommended Knowledge for the Certification:

  • One year of hands-on experience designing available, cost-effective, fault-tolerant, and scalable distributed systems on AWS.
  • Hands-on experience using compute, networking, storage, and database AWS services.
  • Hands-on experience with AWS deployment and management services.
  • Ability to identify and define technical requirements for an AWS-based application.
  • bility to identify which AWS services meet a given technical requirement.
  • Knowledge of recommended best practices for building secure and reliable applications on the AWS platform.
  • An understanding of the basic architectural principles of building in the AWS Cloud.
  • An understanding of the AWS global infrastructure.
  • An understanding of network technologies as they relate to AWS.
  • An understanding of security features and tools that AWS provides and how they relate to traditional services.

Note and disclaimer: We are not affiliated with AWS or Amazon or Microsoft or Google. The questions are put together based on the certification study guide and materials available online. We also receive questions and answers from anonymous users and we vet to make sure they are legitimate. The questions in this app should help you pass the exam but it is not guaranteed. We are not responsible for any exam you did not pass.

Important: To succeed with the real exam, do not memorize the answers in this app. It is very important that you understand why a question is right or wrong and the concepts behind it by carefully reading the reference documents in the answers.

Top

What is the AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam?

This exam validates an examinee’s ability to effectively demonstrate knowledge of how to architect and deploy secure and robust applications on AWS technologies. It validates an examinee’s ability to:

  • Define a solution using architectural design principles based on customer requirements.
  • Multiple-response: Has two correct responses out of five options.

There are two types of questions on the examination:

  • Multiple-choice: Has one correct response and three incorrect responses (distractors).
  • Provide implementation guidance based on best practices to the organization throughout the lifecycle of the project.

Select one or more responses that best complete the statement or answer the question. Distractors, or incorrect answers, are response options that an examinee with incomplete knowledge or skill would likely choose. However, they are generally plausible responses that fit in the content area defined by the test objective. Unanswered questions are scored as incorrect; there is no penalty for guessing.

To succeed with the real exam, do not memorize the answers below. It is very important that you understand why a question is right or wrong and the concepts behind it by carefully reading the reference documents in the answers.

Top

AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate info and details

The AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam is a multiple choice, multiple answer exam. Here is the Exam Overview:

Top

Other AWS Facts and Summaries and Questions/Answers Dump

Top

Additional Information for reference

Below are some useful reference links that would help you to learn about AWS Practitioner Exam.

Other Relevant and Recommended AWS Certifications

AWS Certification Exams Roadmap AWS Certification Exams Roadmap[/caption]

AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Whitepapers:

AWS has provided whitepapers to help you understand the technical concepts. Below are the recommended whitepapers.

Top

Online Training and Labs for AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam

Top

AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Jobs

AWS Certification and Training Apps for all platforms:

AWS Cloud practitioner FREE version:

AWS Certified Cloud practitioner for the web:pwa

AWS Certified Cloud practitioner Exam Prep App for iOS

AWS Certified Cloud practitioner Exam Prep App for Microsoft/Windows10

AWS Certified Cloud practitioner Exam Prep App for Android (Google Play Store)

AWS Certified Cloud practitioner Exam Prep App for Android (Amazon App Store)

AWS Certified Cloud practitioner Exam Prep App for Android (Huawei App Gallery)

AWS Solution Architect FREE version:

AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep App for iOS: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/solution-architect-assoc-quiz/id1501225766

Solution Architect Associate for Android Google Play

AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep App for the eb: Pwa

AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep App for Amazon android

‪‬

AWS Certified Cloud practitioner Exam Prep App for Microsoft/Windows10

AWS Certified Cloud practitioner Exam Prep App for Huawei App Gallery

AWS Cloud Practitioner PRO Versions:

AWS Certified Cloud practitioner PRO Exam Prep App for iOS

AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner PRO Associate Exam Prep App for android google

AWS Certified Cloud practitioner Exam Prep App for Amazon android

AWS Certified Cloud practitioner Exam Prep App for Windows 10

AWS Certified Cloud practitioner Exam Prep PRO App for Android (Huawei App Gallery) Coming soon

AWS Solution Architect PRO

AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate PRO versions for iOS

AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate PRO Exam Prep App for Android google

AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate PRO Exam Prep App for Windows10

AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate PRO Exam Prep App for Amazon android

Huawei App Gallery: Coming soon

AWS Certified Developer Associates Free version:

AWS Certified Developer Associates for Android (Google Play)

AWS Certified Developer Associates Web/PWA

AWS Certified Developer Associates for iOs

AWS Certified Developer Associates for Android (Huawei App Gallery)

AWS Certified Developer Associates for windows 10 (Microsoft App store)

Amazon App Store: Coming soon

AWS Developer Associates PRO version

PRO version with mock exam for android (Google Play)

PRO version with mock exam ios

AWS Certified Developer Associates PRO for Android (Amazon App Store): Coming Soon

AWS Certified Developer Associates PRO for Android (Huawei App Gallery): Coming soon

AWS certification exam quiz apps for all platforms

AWS certification Quiz App for all platforms

Below is a listing of AWS certification exam quiz apps for all platforms:

AWS Certified Cloud practitioner Exam Prep FREE version: CCP, CLF-C01

IOS: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/aws-certified-cloud-pract-prep/id1488832117

Microsoft/Windows10:https://www.microsoft.com/en-ca/p/aws-certified-cloud-practitioner-exam-preparation/9ns1xttj1d5s

Google play: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awscloudpractitonerexamprep.enoumen

Amazon App Store (Android): https://www.amazon.com/dp/B085MFT53J/ref=mp_s_a_1_2?keywords=cloud+practitioner&qid=1583633225&s=mobile-apps&sr=1-2

Web/PWA: https://aws-cloud-practitioner-exam.firebaseapp.com

Cloud Practitioner PRO Versions:

ios: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/aws-certified-cloud-pract-pro/id1501104845

android google : https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awscloudpractitonerexampreppro.enoumen

Amazon android: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B085HGKRMG/ref=pe_385040_118058080_TE_M1DP

Windows 10: https://www.microsoft.com/en-ca/p/aws-certified-cloud-practitioner-exam-preparation-quiz-pro/9phhz236gh4d

AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep FREE version: SAA, SAA-C01, SAA-C02

Google: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awssolutionarchitectassociateexamprep.app

iOS: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/solution-architect-assoc-quiz/id1501225766

Web(All platforms): https://awscertifiedsolutionarchitectexamprep.com/

Amazon android: ‪http://www.amazon.com/dp/B085MG99H9/ref=cm_sw_r_tw_awdm_xs_pqfzEb4HSYJV1

Microsoft/Windows10: https://www.microsoft.com/en-ca/p/aws-certified-solution-architect-associate-exam-prep/9ncch3cgskmp

Solution Architect PRO versions:

Ios: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/solution-architect-assoc-pro/id1501465417

Android google: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awssolutionarchitectassociateexampreppro.app

Windows10: not available yet

Amazon android: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B085HR898X/ref=pe_385040_118058080_TE_M1DP

AWS Certified Developer Associate Exam Prep: DVA-C01

android: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awscertdevassociateexampreppro.enoumen

iOs: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/aws-certified-developer-assoc/id1511211095

PRO version with mock exams android: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awscertdevassociateexampreppro.enoumen

PRO version with mock exam ios: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/aws-certified-dev-ass-dva-c01/id1506519319t

AWS Solution Architect FREE version:

Google Play (Android): https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awssolutionarchitectassociateexamprep.app

iOS: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/solution-architect-assoc-quiz/id1501225766

Pwa: https://awscertifiedsolutionarchitectexamprep.com

Amazon android: http://www.amazon.com/dp/B085MG99H9/ref=cm_sw_r_tw_awdm_xs_pqfzEb4HSYJV1‬

Microsoft/Windows10: https://www.microsoft.com/en-ca/p/aws-certified-solution-architect-associate-exam-prep/9ncch3cgskmp

AWS Cloud Practitioner PRO Versions:

ios: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/aws-certified-cloud-pract-pro/id1501104845

Android google : https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awscloudpractitonerexampreppro.enoumen

Amazon android: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B085HGKRMG/ref=pe_385040_118058080_TE_M1DP

Microsoft/Windows 10: https://www.microsoft.com/en-ca/p/aws-certified-cloud-practitioner-exam-preparation-quiz-pro/9phhz236gh4d

AWS Solution Architect PRO versions:

Ios: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/solution-architect-assoc-pro/id1501465417

Android google: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awssolutionarchitectassociateexampreppro.app

Windows10: not available yet

Amazon android: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B085HR898X/ref=pe_385040_118058080_TE_M1DP

What are some common reasons why a blog doesn’t rank on Google?

What are some common reasons why a blog doesn't rank on Google

Any content destined to the public that doesn’t rank on Google or Bing is destined to be obscure and gets no visibility. Writing any blog post or article is not enough to be ranked on Google or Bing, the top 2 search engines in the world.

In this blog, we are going to describe what are some common reasons why a blog doesn’t rank on Google or Bing or Yahoo search engine.

  1. Poor content: Little or no content value
  2. Site heavy to load
  3. No tags
  4. Insecure site (no SSL certificate)
  5. Poor formatting
  6. Articles are in a very competitive space
  7. Disconnect between blog title, and content
  8. Lack of keywords or misplaced keywords: The primary keyword must be the first word of both your domain name and blog title.
  9. Malformed URLs
  10. Site Not mobile friendly
  11. No inlinks
  12. No meta-tags
  13. No Alt Tags

What to do Next?

If you resolve all the issues above, register your site to google search console,, then submit a sitemap url to google or Bing, then check your site performance and index status regularly to make sure that your site is getting indexed properly.

What are some financial software products that do not require you to store data in the cloud?

For privacy sake, it is very important for a lot of people to not trust cloud providers with their financial data. Below are some free desktop financial software products that do not require you to store data in the cloud.

1- Intrinio

Reliable, clean data, you only pay for what you use, your data stays on your computer.

2- LibreOffice Calc : Calc is the free spreadsheet program you’ve always needed. Newcomers find it intuitive and easy to learn, while professional data miners and number crunchers appreciate the comprehensive range of advanced functions. Built-in wizards guide you through choosing and using a comprehensive range of advanced features.

3- Open Office Calc :

Calc is the spreadsheet application you’ve always wanted. Newcomers find it intuitive and easy to learn; professional data miners and number crunchers will appreciate the comprehensive range of advanced functions.

4- Google Sheets: With Google Sheets, you can create, edit, and collaborate wherever you are. For free. Price:
Free for non-business use
$5/month per user for basic G-Suite
$10/month per user for business license

5- Excel: Well it is Microsoft Excel….Enough said. Excel provides a simple way to download financial data into a preconfigured spreadsheet at the click of a button.

6- Money Manager Ex

Money Manager Ex is a free, open-source, cross-platform, easy-to-use personal finance software. It primarily helps organize one’s finances and keeps track of where, when and how the money goes. It is also a great tool to get a bird’s eye view of your financial worth.

Money Manager includes all the basic features that 90% of users would want to see in a personal finance application. The design goals are to concentrate on simplicity and user-friendliness – something one can use everyday.

7- Xero: Xero backs up your data and protects it with multiple layers of security including industry-standard data encryption and secure data centres. We also offer two-step authentication as an additional layer of protection for your Xero account.

8- Smartsheet Smartsheet is a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) company focused entirely on its core cloud-based work automation platform. Their competency is in simplifying tasks and including many diverse types of output. Since all their efforts revolve around a single product and its extensions, there is strong user support. 

Resources:

1- Quora

2- Top 20 budgeting financial solutions

What are the corresponding Azure and Google Cloud services for each of the AWS services?

What are the corresponding or equivalent Azure services for each of the AWS services?

What are unique distinctions and similarities between AWS, Azure and Google Cloud services? For each AWS service, what is the equivalent Azure and Google Cloud service? For each Azure service, what is the corresponding Google Service? AWS Services vs Azure vs Google Services? Side by side comparison between AWS, Google Cloud and Azure Service?

For a better experience, use the mobile app here.

AWS vs Azure vs Google
AWS vs Azure vs Google Mobile App
Cloud Practitioner Exam Prep:  AWS vs Azure vs Google
Cloud Practitioner Exam Prep: AWS vs Azure vs Google

1

Category: Marketplace
Easy-to-deploy and automatically configured third-party applications, including single virtual machine or multiple virtual machine solutions.
References:
[AWS]:AWS Marketplace
[Azure]:Azure Marketplace
[Google]:Google Cloud Marketplace
Tags: #AWSMarketplace, #AzureMarketPlace, #GoogleMarketplace
Differences: They are both digital catalog with thousands of software listings from independent software vendors that make it easy to find, test, buy, and deploy software that runs on their respective cloud platform.

3

Category: AI and machine learning
Build and connect intelligent bots that interact with your users using text/SMS, Skype, Teams, Slack, Office 365 mail, Twitter, and other popular services.
References:
[AWS]:Alexa Skills Kit (enables a developer to build skills, also called conversational applications, on the Amazon Alexa artificial intelligence assistant.)
[Azure]:Microsoft Bot Framework (building enterprise-grade conversational AI experiences.)
[Google]:Google Assistant Actions ( developer platform that lets you create software to extend the functionality of the Google Assistant, Google’s virtual personal assistant,)

Tags: #AlexaSkillsKit, #MicrosoftBotFramework, #GoogleAssistant
Differences: One major advantage Google gets over Alexa is that Google Assistant is available to almost all Android devices.

4

Category: AI and machine learning
Description:API capable of converting speech to text, understanding intent, and converting text back to speech for natural responsiveness.
References:
[AWS]:Amazon Lex (building conversational interfaces into any application using voice and text.)
[Azure]:Azure Speech Services(unification of speech-to-text, text-to-speech, and speech translation into a single Azure subscription)
[Google]:Google APi.ai, AI Hub (Hosted repo of plug-and-play AI component), AI building blocks(for developers to add sight, language, conversation, and structured data to their applications.), AI Platform(code-based data science development environment, lets ML developers and data scientists quickly take projects from ideation to deployment.), DialogFlow (Google-owned developer of human–computer interaction technologies based on natural language conversations. ), TensorFlow(Open Source Machine Learning platform)

Tags: #AmazonLex, #CogintiveServices, #AzureSpeech, #Api.ai, #DialogFlow, #Tensorflow
Differences: api.ai provides us with such a platform which is easy to learn and comprehensive to develop conversation actions. It is a good example of the simplistic approach to solving complex man to machine communication problem using natural language processing in proximity to machine learning. Api.ai supports context based conversations now, which reduces the overhead of handling user context in session parameters. On the other hand in Lex this has to be handled in session. Also, api.ai can be used for both voice and text based conversations (assistant actions can be easily created using api.ai).

5

Category: AI and machine learning
Description:Computer Vision: Extract information from images to categorize and process visual data.
References:
[AWS]:Amazon Rekognition (based on the same proven, highly scalable, deep learning technology developed by Amazon’s computer vision scientists to analyze billions of images and videos daily. It requires no machine learning expertise to use.)
[Azure]:Cognitive Services(bring AI within reach of every developer—without requiring machine-learning expertise.)
[Google]:Google Vision (offers powerful pre-trained machine learning models through REST and RPC APIs.)
Tags: AmazonRekognition, #GoogleVision, #AzureSpeech
Differences: For now, only Google Cloud Vision supports batch processing. Videos are not natively supported by Google Cloud Vision or Amazon Rekognition. The Object Detection functionality of Google Cloud Vision and Amazon Rekognition is almost identical, both syntactically and semantically.
Differences:
Google Cloud Vision and Amazon Rekognition offer a broad spectrum of solutions, some of which are comparable in terms of functional details, quality, performance, and costs.

7

Category: Big data and analytics: Data warehouse
Description: Apache Spark-based analytics platform. Managed Hadoop service. Data orchestration, ETL, Analytics and visualization
References:
[AWS]:EMR, Data Pipeline, Kinesis Stream, Kinesis Firehose, Glue, QuickSight, Athena, CloudSearch
[Azure]:Azure Databricks, Data Catalog Cortana Intelligence, HDInsight, Power BI, Azure Datafactory, Azure Search, Azure Data Lake Anlytics, Stream Analytics, Azure Machine Learning
[Google]:Cloud DataProc, Machine Learning, Cloud Datalab
Tags:#EMR, #DataPipeline, #Kinesis, #Cortana, AzureDatafactory, #AzureDataAnlytics, #CloudDataProc, #MachineLearning, #CloudDatalab
Differences: All three providers offer similar building blocks; data processing, data orchestration, streaming analytics, machine learning and visualisations. AWS certainly has all the bases covered with a solid set of products that will meet most needs. Azure offers a comprehensive and impressive suite of managed analytical products. They support open source big data solutions alongside new serverless analytical products such as Data Lake. Google provide their own twist to cloud analytics with their range of services. With Dataproc and Dataflow, Google have a strong core to their proposition. Tensorflow has been getting a lot of attention recently and there will be many who will be keen to see Machine Learning come out of preview.

8

Category: Virtual servers
Description:Virtual servers allow users to deploy, manage, and maintain OS and server software. Instance types provide combinations of CPU/RAM. Users pay for what they use with the flexibility to change sizes.
Batch: Run large-scale parallel and high-performance computing applications efficiently in the cloud.
References:
[AWS]:Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Amazon Bracket(Explore and experiment with quantum computing), Amazon Ec2 M6g Instances (Achieve up to 40% better price performance), Amazon Ec2 Inf1 instancs (Deliver cost-effective ML inference), AWS Graviton2 Processors (Optimize price performance for cloud workloads), AWS Batch, AWS AutoScaling, VMware Cloud on AWS, AWS Local Zones (Run low latency applications at the edge), AWS Wavelength (Deliver ultra-low latency applications for 5G devices), AWS Nitro Enclaves (Further protect highly sensitive data), AWS Outposts (Run AWS infrastructure and services on-premises)
[Azure]:Azure Virtual Machines, Azure Batch, Virtual Machine Scale Sets, Azure VMware by CloudSimple
[Google]:Compute Engine, Preemptible Virtual Machines, Managed instance groups (MIGs), Google Cloud VMware Solution by CloudSimple
Tags: #AWSEC2, #AWSBatch, #AWSAutoscaling, #AzureVirtualMachine, #AzureBatch, #VirtualMachineScaleSets, #AzureVMWare, #ComputeEngine, #MIGS, #VMWare
Differences: There is very little to choose between the 3 providers when it comes to virtual servers. Amazon has some impressive high end kit, on the face of it this sound like it would make AWS a clear winner. However, if your only option is to choose the biggest box available you will need to make sure you have very deep pockets, and perhaps your money may be better spent re-architecting your apps for horizontal scale.Azure’s remains very strong in the PaaS space and now has a IaaS that can genuinely compete with AWS
Google offers a simple and very capable set of services that are easy to understand. However, with availability in only 5 regions it does not have the coverage of the other players.

9

Category: Containers and container orchestrators
Description: A container is a standard unit of software that packages up code and all its dependencies so the application runs quickly and reliably from one computing environment to another.
Container orchestration is all about managing the lifecycles of containers, especially in large, dynamic environments.
References:
[AWS]:EC2 Container Service (ECS), Fargate(Run containers without anaging servers or clusters), EC2 Container Registry(managed AWS Docker registry service that is secure, scalable, and reliable.), Elastic Container Service for Kubernetes (EKS: runs the Kubernetes management infrastructure across multiple AWS Availability Zones), App Mesh( application-level networking to make it easy for your services to communicate with each other across multiple types of compute infrastructure)
[Azure]:Azure Container Instances, Azure Container Registry, Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS), Service Fabric Mesh
[Google]:Google Container Engine, Container Registry, Kubernetes Engine
Tags:#ECS, #Fargate, #EKS, #AppMesh, #ContainerEngine, #ContainerRegistry, #AKS
Differences: Google Container Engine, AWS Container Services, and Azure Container Instances can be used to run docker containers. Google offers a simple and very capable set of services that are easy to understand. However, with availability in only 5 regions it does not have the coverage of the other players.

10

Category: Serverless
Description: Integrate systems and run backend processes in response to events or schedules without provisioning or managing servers.
References:
[AWS]:AWS Lambda
[Azure]:Azure Functions
[Google]:Google Cloud Functions
Tags:#AWSLAmbda, #AzureFunctions, #GoogleCloudFunctions
Differences: Both AWS Lambda and Microsoft Azure Functions and Google Cloud Functions offer dynamic, configurable triggers that you can use to invoke your functions on their platforms. AWS Lambda, Azure and Google Cloud Functions support Node.js, Python, and C#. The beauty of serverless development is that, with minor changes, the code you write for one service should be portable to another with little effort – simply modify some interfaces, handle any input/output transforms, and an AWS Lambda Node.JS function is indistinguishable from a Microsoft Azure Node.js Function. AWS Lambda provides further support for Python and Java, while Azure Functions provides support for F# and PHP. AWS Lambda is built from the AMI, which runs on Linux, while Microsoft Azure Functions run in a Windows environment. AWS Lambda uses the AWS Machine architecture to reduce the scope of containerization, letting you spin up and tear down individual pieces of functionality in your application at will.

11

Category: Relational databases
Description: Managed relational database service where resiliency, scale, and maintenance are primarily handled by the platform.
References:
[AWS]:AWS RDS(MySQL and PostgreSQL-compatible relational database built for the cloud,), Aurora(MySQL and PostgreSQL-compatible relational database built for the cloud)
[Azure]:SQL Database, Azure Database for MySQL, Azure Database for PostgreSQL
[Google]:Cloud SQL
Tags: #AWSRDS, #AWSAUrora, #AzureSQlDatabase, #AzureDatabaseforMySQL, #GoogleCloudSQL
Differences: All three providers boast impressive relational database offering. RDS supports an impressive range of managed relational stores while Azure SQL Database is probably the most advanced managed relational database available today. Azure also has the best out-of-the-box support for cross-region geo-replication across its database offerings.

12

Category: NoSQL, Document Databases
Description:A globally distributed, multi-model database that natively supports multiple data models: key-value, documents, graphs, and columnar.
References:
[AWS]:DynamoDB (key-value and document database that delivers single-digit millisecond performance at any scale.), SimpleDB ( a simple web services interface to create and store multiple data sets, query your data easily, and return the results.), Managed Cassandra Services(MCS)
[Azure]:Table Storage, DocumentDB, Azure Cosmos DB
[Google]:Cloud Datastore (handles sharding and replication in order to provide you with a highly available and consistent database. )
Tags:#AWSDynamoDB, #SimpleDB, #TableSTorage, #DocumentDB, AzureCosmosDB, #GoogleCloudDataStore
Differences:DynamoDB and Cloud Datastore are based on the document store database model and are therefore similar in nature to open-source solutions MongoDB and CouchDB. In other words, each database is fundamentally a key-value store. With more workloads moving to the cloud the need for NoSQL databases will become ever more important, and again all providers have a good range of options to satisfy most performance/cost requirements. Of all the NoSQL products on offer it’s hard not to be impressed by DocumentDB; Azure also has the best out-of-the-box support for cross-region geo-replication across its database offerings.

13

Category:Caching
Description:An in-memory–based, distributed caching service that provides a high-performance store typically used to offload non transactional work from a database.
References:
[AWS]:AWS ElastiCache (works as an in-memory data store and cache to support the most demanding applications requiring sub-millisecond response times.)
[Azure]:Azure Cache for Redis (based on the popular software Redis. It is typically used as a cache to improve the performance and scalability of systems that rely heavily on backend data-stores.)
[Google]:Memcache (In-memory key-value store, originally intended for caching)
Tags:#Redis, #Memcached
<Differences: They all support horizontal scaling via sharding.They all improve the performance of web applications by allowing you to retrive information from fast, in-memory caches, instead of relying on slower disk-based databases.”, “Differences”: “ElastiCache supports Memcached and Redis. Memcached Cloud provides various data persistence options as well as remote backups for disaster recovery purposes. Redis offers persistence to disk, Memcache does not. This can be very helpful if you cache lots of data, since you remove the slowness around having a fully cold cache. Redis also offers several extra data structures that Memcache doesn’t— Lists, Sets, Sorted Sets, etc. Memcache only has Key/Value pairs. Memcache is multi-threaded. Redis is single-threaded and event driven. Redis is very fast, but it’ll never be multi-threaded. At hight scale, you can squeeze more connections and transactions out of Memcache. Memcache tends to be more memory efficient. This can make a big difference around the magnitude of 10s of millions or 100s of millions of keys. ElastiCache supports Memcached and Redis. Memcached Cloud provides various data persistence options as well as remote backups for disaster recovery purposes. Redis offers persistence to disk, Memcache does not. This can be very helpful if you cache lots of data, since you remove the slowness around having a fully cold cache. Redis also offers several extra data structures that Memcache doesn’t— Lists, Sets, Sorted Sets, etc. Memcache only has Key/Value pairs. Memcache is multi-threaded. Redis is single-threaded and event driven. Redis is very fast, but it’ll never be multi-threaded. At hight scale, you can squeeze more connections and transactions out of Memcache. Memcache tends to be more memory efficient. This can make a big difference around the magnitude of 10s of millions or 100s of millions of keys.

14

Category: Security, identity, and access
Description:Authentication and authorization: Allows users to securely control access to services and resources while offering data security and protection. Create and manage users and groups, and use permissions to allow and deny access to resources.
References:
[AWS]:Identity and Access Management (IAM), AWS Organizations, Multi-Factor Authentication, AWS Directory Service, Cognito(provides solutions to control access to backend resources from your app), Amazon Detective (Investigate potential security issues), AWS IAM Access Analyzer(Easily analyze resource accessibility)
[Azure]:Azure Active Directory, Azure Subscription Management + Azure RBAC, Multi-Factor Authentication, Azure Active Directory Domain Services, Azure Active Directory B2C, Azure Policy, Management Groups
[Google]:Cloud Identity, Identity Platform, Cloud IAM, Policy Intelligence, Cloud Resource Manager, Cloud Identity-Aware Proxy, Context-aware accessManaged Service for Microsoft Active Directory, Security key enforcement, Titan Security Key
Tags: #IAM, #AWSIAM, #AzureIAM, #GoogleIAM, #Multi-factorAuthentication
Differences: One unique thing about AWS IAM is that accounts created in the organization (not through federation) can only be used within that organization. This contrasts with Google and Microsoft. On the good side, every organization is self-contained. On the bad side, users can end up with multiple sets of credentials they need to manage to access different organizations. The second unique element is that every user can have a non-interactive account by creating and using access keys, an interactive account by enabling console access, or both. (Side note: To use the CLI, you need to have access keys generated.)

15

Category: Object Storage and Content delivery
Description:Object storage service, for use cases including cloud applications, content distribution, backup, archiving, disaster recovery, and big data analytics.
References:
[AWS]:Simple Storage Services (S3), Import/Export(used to move large amounts of data into and out of the Amazon Web Services public cloud using portable storage devices for transport.), Snowball( petabyte-scale data transport solution that uses devices designed to be secure to transfer large amounts of data into and out of the AWS Cloud), CloudFront( content delivery network (CDN) is massively scaled and globally distributed), Elastic Block Store (EBS: high performance block storage service), Elastic File System(shared, elastic file storage system that grows and shrinks as you add and remove files.), S3 Infrequent Access (IA: is for data that is accessed less frequently, but requires rapid access when needed. ), S3 Glacier( long-term storage of data that is infrequently accessed and for which retrieval latency times of 3 to 5 hours are acceptable.), AWS Backup( makes it easy to centralize and automate the back up of data across AWS services in the cloud as well as on-premises using the AWS Storage Gateway.), Storage Gateway(hybrid cloud storage service that gives you on-premises access to virtually unlimited cloud storage), AWS Import/Export Disk(accelerates moving large amounts of data into and out of AWS using portable storage devices for transport)
[Azure]:
Azure Blob storage, File Storage, Data Lake Store, Azure Backup, Azure managed disks, Azure Files, Azure Storage cool tier, Azure Storage archive access tier, Azure Backup, StorSimple, Import/Export
[Google]:
Cloud Storage, GlusterFS, CloudCDN
Tags:#S3, #AzureBlobStorage, #CloudStorage
Differences:
Source: All providers have good object storage options and so storage alone is unlikely to be a deciding factor when choosing a cloud provider. The exception perhaps is for hybrid scenarios, in this case Azure and AWS clearly win. AWS and Google’s support for automatic versioning is a great feature that is currently missing from Azure; however Microsoft’s fully managed Data Lake Store offers an additional option that will appeal to organisations who are looking to run large scale analytical workloads. If you are prepared to wait 4 hours for your data and you have considerable amounts of the stuff then AWS Glacier storage might be a good option. If you use the common programming patterns for atomic updates and consistency, such as etags and the if-match family of headers, then you should be aware that AWS does not support them, though Google and Azure do. Azure also supports blob leasing, which can be used to provide a distributed lock.

16

Category:Internet of things (IoT)
Description:A cloud gateway for managing bidirectional communication with billions of IoT devices, securely and at scale. Deploy cloud intelligence directly on IoT devices to run in on-premises scenarios.
References:
[AWS]:AWS IoT (Internet of Things), AWS Greengrass, Kinesis Firehose, Kinesis Streams, AWS IoT Things Graph
[Azure]:Azure IoT Hub, Azure IoT Edge, Event Hubs, Azure Digital Twins, Azure Sphere
[Google]:Google Cloud IoT Core, Firebase, Brillo, Weave, CLoud Pub/SUb, Stream Analysis, Big Query, Big Query Streaming API
Tags:#IoT, #InternetOfThings, #Firebase
Differences:AWS and Azure have a more coherent message with their products clearly integrated into their respective platforms, whereas Google Firebase feels like a distinctly separate product.

17

Category:Web Applications
Description:Managed hosting platform providing easy to use services for deploying and scaling web applications and services. API Gateway is a a turnkey solution for publishing APIs to external and internal consumers. Cloudfront is a global content delivery network that delivers audio, video, applications, images, and other files.
References:
[AWS]:Elastic Beanstalk (for deploying and scaling web applications and services developed with Java, .NET, PHP, Node.js, Python, Ruby, Go, and Docker on familiar servers such as Apache, Nginx, Passenger, and IIS), AWS Wavelength (for delivering ultra-low latency applications for 5G), API Gateway (makes it easy for developers to create, publish, maintain, monitor, and secure APIs at any scale.), CloudFront (web service that speeds up distribution of your static and dynamic web content, such as .html, .css, .js, and image files, to your users. CloudFront delivers your content through a worldwide network of data centers called edge locations.),Global Accelerator ( improves the availability and performance of your applications with local or global users. It provides static IP addresses that act as a fixed entry point to your application endpoints in a single or multiple AWS Regions, such as your Application Load Balancers, Network Load Balancers or Amazon EC2 instances.)AWS AppSync (simplifies application development by letting you create a flexible API to securely access, manipulate, and combine data from one or more data sources: GraphQL service with real-time data synchronization and offline programming features. )
[Azure]:App Service, API Management, Azure Content Delivery Network, Azure Content Delivery Network
[Google]:App Engine, Cloud API, Cloud Enpoint, APIGee
Tags: #AWSElasticBeanstalk, #AzureAppService, #GoogleAppEngine, #CloudEnpoint, #CloudFront, #APIgee
Differences: With AWS Elastic Beanstalk, developers retain full control over the AWS resources powering their application. If developers decide they want to manage some (or all) of the elements of their infrastructure, they can do so seamlessly by using Elastic Beanstalk’s management capabilities. AWS Elastic Beanstalk integrates with more apps than Google App Engines (Datadog, Jenkins, Docker, Slack, Github, Eclipse, etc..). Google App Engine has more features than AWS Elastic BEanstalk (App Identity, Java runtime, Datastore, Blobstore, Images, Go Runtime, etc..). Developers describe Amazon API Gateway as “Create, publish, maintain, monitor, and secure APIs at any scale”. Amazon API Gateway handles all the tasks involved in accepting and processing up to hundreds of thousands of concurrent API calls, including traffic management, authorization and access control, monitoring, and API version management. On the other hand, Google Cloud Endpoints is detailed as “Develop, deploy and manage APIs on any Google Cloud backend”. An NGINX-based proxy and distributed architecture give unparalleled performance and scalability. Using an Open API Specification or one of our API frameworks, Cloud Endpoints gives you the tools you need for every phase of API development and provides insight with Google Cloud Monitoring, Cloud Trace, Google Cloud Logging and Cloud Trace.

18

Category:Encryption
Description:Helps you protect and safeguard your data and meet your organizational security and compliance commitments.
References:
[AWS]:Key Management Service AWS KMS, CloudHSM
[Azure]:Key Vault
[Google]:Encryption By Default at Rest, Cloud KMS
Tags:#AWSKMS, #Encryption, #CloudHSM, #EncryptionAtRest, #CloudKMS
Differences: AWS KMS, is an ideal solution for organizations that want to manage encryption keys in conjunction with other AWS services. In contrast to AWS CloudHSM, AWS KMS provides a complete set of tools to manage encryption keys, develop applications and integrate with other AWS services. Google and Azure offer 4096 RSA. AWS and Google offer 256 bit AES. With AWs, you can bring your own key

19

Category:Internet of things (IoT)
Description:A cloud gateway for managing bidirectional communication with billions of IoT devices, securely and at scale. Deploy cloud intelligence directly on IoT devices to run in on-premises scenarios.
References:
[AWS]:AWS IoT, AWS Greengrass, Kinesis Firehose ( captures and loads streaming data in storage and business intelligence (BI) tools to enable near real-time analytics in the AWS cloud), Kinesis Streams (for rapid and continuous data intake and aggregation.), AWS IoT Things Graph (makes it easy to visually connect different devices and web services to build IoT applications.)
[Azure]:Azure IoT Hub, Azure IoT Edge, Event Hubs, Azure Digital Twins, Azure Sphere
[Google]:Google Cloud IoT Core, Firebase, Brillo, Weave, CLoud Pub/SUb, Stream Analysis, Big Query, Big Query Streaming API
Tags:#IoT, #InternetOfThings, #Firebase
Differences:AWS and Azure have a more coherent message with their products clearly integrated into their respective platforms, whereas Google Firebase feels like a distinctly separate product.

20

Category:Object Storage and Content delivery
Description: Object storage service, for use cases including cloud applications, content distribution, backup, archiving, disaster recovery, and big data analytics.
References:
[AWS]:Simple Storage Services (S3), Import/Export Snowball, CloudFront, Elastic Block Store (EBS), Elastic File System, S3 Infrequent Access (IA), S3 Glacier, AWS Backup, Storage Gateway, AWS Import/Export Disk, Amazon S3 Access Points(Easily manage access for shared data)
[Azure]:Azure Blob storage, File Storage, Data Lake Store, Azure Backup, Azure managed disks, Azure Files, Azure Storage cool tier, Azure Storage archive access tier, Azure Backup, StorSimple, Import/Export
[Google]:Cloud Storage, GlusterFS, CloudCDN
Tags:#S3, #AzureBlobStorage, #CloudStorage
Differences:All providers have good object storage options and so storage alone is unlikely to be a deciding factor when choosing a cloud provider. The exception perhaps is for hybrid scenarios, in this case Azure and AWS clearly win. AWS and Google’s support for automatic versioning is a great feature that is currently missing from Azure; however Microsoft’s fully managed Data Lake Store offers an additional option that will appeal to organisations who are looking to run large scale analytical workloads. If you are prepared to wait 4 hours for your data and you have considerable amounts of the stuff then AWS Glacier storage might be a good option. If you use the common programming patterns for atomic updates and consistency, such as etags and the if-match family of headers, then you should be aware that AWS does not support them, though Google and Azure do. Azure also supports blob leasing, which can be used to provide a distributed lock.

21

Category: Backend process logic
Description: Cloud technology to build distributed applications using out-of-the-box connectors to reduce integration challenges. Connect apps, data and devices on-premises or in the cloud.
References:
[AWS]:AWS Step Functions ( lets you build visual workflows that enable fast translation of business requirements into technical requirements. You can build applications in a matter of minutes, and when needs change, you can swap or reorganize components without customizing any code.)
[Azure]:Logic Apps (cloud service that helps you schedule, automate, and orchestrate tasks, business processes, and workflows when you need to integrate apps, data, systems, and services across enterprises or organizations.)
[Google]:Dataflow ( fully managed service for executing Apache Beam pipelines within the Google Cloud Platform ecosystem.)
Tags:#AWSStepFunctions, #LogicApps, #Dataflow
Differences: AWS Step Functions makes it easy to coordinate the components of distributed applications and microservices using visual workflows. Building applications from individual components that each perform a discrete function lets you scale and change applications quickly. AWS Step Functions belongs to \”Cloud Task Management\” category of the tech stack, while Google Cloud Dataflow can be primarily classified under \”Real-time Data Processing\”. According to the StackShare community, Google Cloud Dataflow has a broader approval, being mentioned in 32 company stacks & 8 developers stacks; compared to AWS Step Functions, which is listed in 19 company stacks and 7 developer stacks.

22

Category: Enterprise application services
Description:Fully integrated Cloud service providing communications, email, document management in the cloud and available on a wide variety of devices.
References:
[AWS]:Amazon WorkMail, Amazon WorkDocs, Amazon Kendra (Sync and Index)
[Azure]:Office 365
[Google]:G Suite
Tags: #AmazonWorkDocs, #Office365, #GoogleGSuite
Differences: G suite document processing applications like Google Docs are far behind Office 365 popular Word and Excel software, but G Suite User interface is intuite, simple and easy to navigate. Office 365 is too clunky. Get 20% off G-Suite Business Plan with Promo Code: PCQ49CJYK7EATNC

23

Category: Networking
Description: Provides an isolated, private environment in the cloud. Users have control over their virtual networking environment, including selection of their own IP address range, creation of subnets, and configuration of route tables and network gateways.
References:
[AWS]:Virtual Private Cloud (VPC), Cloud virtual networking, Subnets, Elastic Network Interface (ENI), Route Tables, Network ACL, Secutity Groups, Internet Gateway, NAT Gateway, AWS VPN Gateway, AWS Route 53, AWS Direct Connect, AWS Network Load Balancer, VPN CloudHub, AWS Local Zones, AWS Transit Gateway network manager (Centrally manage global networks)
[Azure]:Virtual Network(provide services for building networks within Azure.),Subnets (network resources can be grouped by subnet for organisation and security.), Network Interface (Each virtual machine can be assigned one or more network interfaces (NICs)), Network Security Groups (NSG: contains a set of prioritised ACL rules that explicitly grant or deny access), Azure VPN Gateway ( allows connectivity to on-premise networks), Azure DNS, Traffic Manager (DNS based traffic routing solution.), ExpressRoute (provides connections up to 10 Gbps to Azure services over a dedicated fibre connection), Azure Load Balancer, Network Peering, Azure Stack (Azure Stack allows organisations to use Azure services running in private data centers.), Azure Load Balancer , Azure Log Analytics, Azure DNS,
[Google]:Cloud Virtual Network, Subnets, Network Interface, Protocol fowarding, Cloud VPN, Cloud DNS, Virtual Private Network, Cloud Interconnect, CDN interconnect, Cloud DNS, Stackdriver, Google Cloud Load Balancing,
Tags:#VPC, #Subnets, #ACL, #VPNGateway, #CloudVPN, #NetworkInterface, #ENI, #RouteTables, #NSG, #NetworkACL, #InternetGateway, #NatGateway, #ExpressRoute, #CloudInterConnect, #StackDriver
Differences: Subnets group related resources, however, unlike AWS and Azure, Google do not constrain the private IP address ranges of subnets to the address space of the parent network. Like Azure, Google has a built in internet gateway that can be specified from routing rules.

24

Category: Management
Description: A unified management console that simplifies building, deploying, and operating your cloud resources.
References:
[AWS]: AWS Management Console, Trusted Advisor, AWS Usage and Billing Report, AWS Application Discovery Service, Amazon EC2 Systems Manager, AWS Personal Health Dashboard, AWS Compute Optimizer (Identify optimal AWS Compute resources)
[Azure]:Azure portal, Azure Advisor, Azure Billing API, Azure Migrate, Azure Monitor, Azure Resource Health
[Google]:Google CLoud Platform, Cost Management, Security Command Center, StackDriver
Tags: #AWSConsole, #AzurePortal, #GoogleCloudConsole, #TrustedAdvisor, #AzureMonitor, #SecurityCommandCenter
Differences: AWS Console categorizes its Infrastructure as a Service offerings into Compute, Storage and Content Delivery Network (CDN), Database, and Networking to help businesses and individuals grow. Azure excels in the Hybrid Cloud space allowing companies to integrate onsite servers with cloud offerings. Google has a strong offering in containers, since Google developed the Kubernetes standard that AWS and Azure now offer. GCP specializes in high compute offerings like Big Data, analytics and machine learning. It also offers considerable scale and load balancing – Google knows data centers and fast response time.

25

Category: DevOps and application monitoring
Description: Comprehensive solution for collecting, analyzing, and acting on telemetry from your cloud and on-premises environments; Cloud services for collaborating on code development; Collection of tools for building, debugging, deploying, diagnosing, and managing multiplatform scalable apps and services; Fully managed build service that supports continuous integration and deployment.
References:
[AWS]:AWS CodePipeline(orchestrates workflow for continuous integration, continuous delivery, and continuous deployment), AWS CloudWatch (monitor your AWS resources and the applications you run on AWS in real time. ), AWS X-Ray (application performance management service that enables a developer to analyze and debug applications in aws), AWS CodeDeploy (automates code deployments to Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and on-premises servers. ), AWS CodeCommit ( source code storage and version-control service), AWS Developer Tools, AWS CodeBuild (continuous integration service that compiles source code, runs tests, and produces software packages that are ready to deploy. ), AWS Command Line Interface (unified tool to manage your AWS services), AWS OpsWorks (Chef-based), AWS CloudFormation ( provides a common language for you to describe and provision all the infrastructure resources in your cloud environment.), Amazon CodeGuru (for automated code reviews and application performance recommendations)
[Azure]:Azure Monitor, Azure DevOps, Azure Developer Tools, Azure CLI Azure PowerShell, Azure Automation, Azure Resource Manager , VM extensions , Azure Automation
[Google]:DevOps Solutions (Infrastructure as code, Configuration management, Secrets management, Serverless computing, Continuous delivery, Continuous integration , Stackdriver (combines metrics, logs, and metadata from all of your cloud accounts and projects into a single comprehensive view of your environment)
Tags: #CloudWatch, #StackDriver, #AzureMonitor, #AWSXray, #AWSCodeDeploy, #AzureDevOps, #GoogleDevopsSolutions
Differences: CodeCommit eliminates the need to operate your own source control system or worry about scaling its infrastructure. Azure DevOps provides unlimited private Git hosting, cloud build for continuous integration, agile planning, and release management for continuous delivery to the cloud and on-premises. Includes broad IDE support.

SageMakerAzure Machine Learning Studio

A collaborative, drag-and-drop tool to build, test, and deploy predictive analytics solutions on your data.

Alexa Skills KitMicrosoft Bot Framework

Build and connect intelligent bots that interact with your users using text/SMS, Skype, Teams, Slack, Office 365 mail, Twitter, and other popular services.

Amazon LexSpeech Services

API capable of converting speech to text, understanding intent, and converting text back to speech for natural responsiveness.

Amazon LexLanguage Understanding (LUIS)

Allows your applications to understand user commands contextually.

Amazon Polly, Amazon Transcribe | Azure Speech Services

Enables both Speech to Text, and Text into Speech capabilities.
The Speech Services are the unification of speech-to-text, text-to-speech, and speech-translation into a single Azure subscription. It’s easy to speech enable your applications, tools, and devices with the Speech SDK, Speech Devices SDK, or REST APIs.
Amazon Polly is a Text-to-Speech (TTS) service that uses advanced deep learning technologies to synthesize speech that sounds like a human voice. With dozens of lifelike voices across a variety of languages, you can select the ideal voice and build speech-enabled applications that work in many different countries.
Amazon Transcribe is an automatic speech recognition (ASR) service that makes it easy for developers to add speech-to-text capability to their applications. Using the Amazon Transcribe API, you can analyze audio files stored in Amazon S3 and have the service return a text file of the transcribed speech.

Amazon RekognitionCognitive Services

Computer Vision: Extract information from images to categorize and process visual data.
Amazon Rekognition is a simple and easy to use API that can quickly analyze any image or video file stored in Amazon S3. Amazon Rekognition is always learning from new data, and we are continually adding new labels and facial recognition features to the service.

Face: Detect, identy, and analyze faces in photos.

Emotions: Recognize emotions in images.

Alexa Skill SetAzure Virtual Assistant

The Virtual Assistant Template brings together a number of best practices we’ve identified through the building of conversational experiences and automates integration of components that we’ve found to be highly beneficial to Bot Framework developers.

Big data and analytics

Data warehouse

AWS RedshiftSQL Data Warehouse

Cloud-based Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW) that uses Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) to quickly run complex queries across petabytes of data.

Big data processing
EMR | Azure Databricks
Apache Spark-based analytics platform.

EMR HDInsight

Managed Hadoop service. Deploy and manage Hadoop clusters in Azure.

Data orchestration / ETL

AWS Data Pipeline, AWS Glue | Data Factory

Processes and moves data between different compute and storage services, as well as on-premises data sources at specified intervals. Create, schedule, orchestrate, and manage data pipelines.

AWS GlueData Catalog

A fully managed service that serves as a system of registration and system of discovery for enterprise data sources

Analytics and visualization

AWS Kinesis Analytics | Stream Analytics

Data Lake Analytics | Data Lake Store

Storage and analysis platforms that create insights from large quantities of data, or data that originates from many sources.

QuickSightPower BI

Business intelligence tools that build visualizations, perform ad hoc analysis, and develop business insights from data.

CloudSearchAzure Search

Delivers full-text search and related search analytics and capabilities.

Amazon AthenaAzure Data Lake Analytics

Provides a serverless interactive query service that uses standard SQL for analyzing databases.

Compute

Virtual servers

Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)Azure Virtual Machines

Virtual servers allow users to deploy, manage, and maintain OS and server software. Instance types provide combinations of CPU/RAM. Users pay for what they use with the flexibility to change sizes.

AWS BatchAzure Batch

Run large-scale parallel and high-performance computing applications efficiently in the cloud.

AWS Auto ScalingVirtual Machine Scale Sets

Allows you to automatically change the number of VM instances. You set defined metric and thresholds that determine if the platform adds or removes instances.

VMware Cloud on AWSAzure VMware by CloudSimple

Redeploy and extend your VMware-based enterprise workloads to Azure with Azure VMware Solution by CloudSimple. Keep using the VMware tools you already know to manage workloads on Azure without disrupting network, security, or data protection policies.

Containers and container orchestrators

EC2 Container Service (ECS), FargateAzure Container Instances

Azure Container Instances is the fastest and simplest way to run a container in Azure, without having to provision any virtual machines or adopt a higher-level orchestration service.

EC2 Container RegistryAzure Container Registry

Allows customers to store Docker formatted images. Used to create all types of container deployments on Azure.

Elastic Container Service for Kubernetes (EKS)Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)

Deploy orchestrated containerized applications with Kubernetes. Simplify monitoring and cluster management through auto upgrades and a built-in operations console.

App MeshService Fabric Mesh

Fully managed service that enables developers to deploy microservices applications without managing virtual machines, storage, or networking.
AWS App Mesh is a service mesh that provides application-level networking to make it easy for your services to communicate with each other across multiple types of compute infrastructure. App Mesh standardizes how your services communicate, giving you end-to-end visibility and ensuring high-availability for your applications.

Serverless

AWS Lambda | Azure Functions

Integrate systems and run backend processes in response to events or schedules without provisioning or managing servers.
AWS Lambda is an event-driven, serverless computing platform provided by Amazon as a part of the Amazon Web Services. It is a computing service that runs code in response to events and automatically manages the computing resources required by that code

Database

Relational database

AWS RDS | SQL Database Azure Database for MySQL Azure Database for PostgreSQL

Managed relational database service where resiliency, scale, and maintenance are primarily handled by the platform.
Amazon Relational Database Service is a distributed relational database service by Amazon Web Services. It is a web service running “in the cloud” designed to simplify the setup, operation, and scaling of a relational database for use in applications. Administration processes like patching the database software, backing up databases and enabling point-in-time recovery are managed automatically. Scaling storage and compute resources can be performed by a single API call as AWS does not offer an ssh connection to RDS instances.

NoSQL / Document

DynamoDB and SimpleDBAzure Cosmos DB

A globally distributed, multi-model database that natively supports multiple data models: key-value, documents, graphs, and columnar.

Caching

AWS ElastiCache | Azure Cache for Redis

An in-memory–based, distributed caching service that provides a high-performance store typically used to offload non transactional work from a database.
Amazon ElastiCache is a fully managed in-memory data store and cache service by Amazon Web Services. The service improves the performance of web applications by retrieving information from managed in-memory caches, instead of relying entirely on slower disk-based databases. ElastiCache supports two open-source in-memory caching engines: Memcached and Redis.

Database migration

AWS Database Migration ServiceAzure Database Migration Service

Migration of database schema and data from one database format to a specific database technology in the cloud.
AWS Database Migration Service helps you migrate databases to AWS quickly and securely. The source database remains fully operational during the migration, minimizing downtime to applications that rely on the database. The AWS Database Migration Service can migrate your data to and from most widely used commercial and open-source databases.

DevOps and application monitoring

AWS CloudWatch, AWS X-Ray | Azure Monitor

Comprehensive solution for collecting, analyzing, and acting on telemetry from your cloud and on-premises environments.
Amazon CloudWatch is a monitoring and observability service built for DevOps engineers, developers, site reliability engineers (SREs), and IT managers. CloudWatch provides you with data and actionable insights to monitor your applications, respond to system-wide performance changes, optimize resource utilization, and get a unified view of operational health. CloudWatch collects monitoring and operational data in the form of logs, metrics, and events, providing you with a unified view of AWS resources, applications, and services that run on AWS and on-premises servers.
AWS X-Ray is an application performance management service that enables a developer to analyze and debug applications in the Amazon Web Services (AWS) public cloud. A developer can use AWS X-Ray to visualize how a distributed application is performing during development or production, and across multiple AWS regions and accounts.

AWS CodeDeploy, AWS CodeCommit, AWS CodePipeline | Azure DevOps

A cloud service for collaborating on code development.
AWS CodeDeploy is a fully managed deployment service that automates software deployments to a variety of compute services such as Amazon EC2, AWS Fargate, AWS Lambda, and your on-premises servers. AWS CodeDeploy makes it easier for you to rapidly release new features, helps you avoid downtime during application deployment, and handles the complexity of updating your applications.
AWS CodePipeline is a fully managed continuous delivery service that helps you automate your release pipelines for fast and reliable application and infrastructure updates. CodePipeline automates the build, test, and deploy phases of your release process every time there is a code change, based on the release model you define.
AWS CodeCommit is a source code storage and version-control service for Amazon Web Services’ public cloud customers. CodeCommit was designed to help IT teams collaborate on software development, including continuous integration and application delivery.

AWS Developer ToolsAzure Developer Tools

Collection of tools for building, debugging, deploying, diagnosing, and managing multiplatform scalable apps and services.
The AWS Developer Tools are designed to help you build software like Amazon. They facilitate practices such as continuous delivery and infrastructure as code for serverless, containers, and Amazon EC2.

AWS CodeBuild | Azure DevOps

Fully managed build service that supports continuous integration and deployment.

AWS Command Line Interface | Azure CLI Azure PowerShell

Built on top of the native REST API across all cloud services, various programming language-specific wrappers provide easier ways to create solutions.
The AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) is a unified tool to manage your AWS services. With just one tool to download and configure, you can control multiple AWS services from the command line and automate them through scripts.

AWS OpsWorks (Chef-based)Azure Automation

Configures and operates applications of all shapes and sizes, and provides templates to create and manage a collection of resources.
AWS OpsWorks is a configuration management service that provides managed instances of Chef and Puppet. Chef and Puppet are automation platforms that allow you to use code to automate the configurations of your servers.

AWS CloudFormation | Azure Resource Manager , VM extensions , Azure Automation

Provides a way for users to automate the manual, long-running, error-prone, and frequently repeated IT tasks.
AWS CloudFormation provides a common language for you to describe and provision all the infrastructure resources in your cloud environment. CloudFormation allows you to use a simple text file to model and provision, in an automated and secure manner, all the resources needed for your applications across all regions and accounts.

Networking

Area

Cloud virtual networking, Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) | Virtual Network

Provides an isolated, private environment in the cloud. Users have control over their virtual networking environment, including selection of their own IP address range, creation of subnets, and configuration of route tables and network gateways.

Cross-premises connectivity

AWS VPN Gateway | Azure VPN Gateway

Connects Azure virtual networks to other Azure virtual networks, or customer on-premises networks (Site To Site). Allows end users to connect to Azure services through VPN tunneling (Point To Site).

DNS management

AWS Route 53 | Azure DNS

Manage your DNS records using the same credentials and billing and support contract as your other Azure services

Route 53 | Traffic Manager

A service that hosts domain names, plus routes users to Internet applications, connects user requests to datacenters, manages traffic to apps, and improves app availability with automatic failover.

Dedicated network

AWS Direct Connect | ExpressRoute

Establishes a dedicated, private network connection from a location to the cloud provider (not over the Internet).

Load balancing

AWS Network Load Balancer | Azure Load Balancer

Azure Load Balancer load-balances traffic at layer 4 (TCP or UDP).

Application Load Balancer | Application Gateway

Application Gateway is a layer 7 load balancer. It supports SSL termination, cookie-based session affinity, and round robin for load-balancing traffic.

Internet of things (IoT)

AWS IoT | Azure IoT Hub

A cloud gateway for managing bidirectional communication with billions of IoT devices, securely and at scale.

AWS Greengrass | Azure IoT Edge

Deploy cloud intelligence directly on IoT devices to run in on-premises scenarios.

Kinesis Firehose, Kinesis Streams | Event Hubs

Services that allow the mass ingestion of small data inputs, typically from devices and sensors, to process and route the data.

AWS IoT Things Graph | Azure Digital Twins

Azure Digital Twins is an IoT service that helps you create comprehensive models of physical environments. Create spatial intelligence graphs to model the relationships and interactions between people, places, and devices. Query data from a physical space rather than disparate sensors.

Management

Trusted Advisor | Azure Advisor

Provides analysis of cloud resource configuration and security so subscribers can ensure they’re making use of best practices and optimum configurations.

AWS Usage and Billing Report | Azure Billing API

Services to help generate, monitor, forecast, and share billing data for resource usage by time, organization, or product resources.

AWS Management Console | Azure portal

A unified management console that simplifies building, deploying, and operating your cloud resources.

AWS Application Discovery Service | Azure Migrate

Assesses on-premises workloads for migration to Azure, performs performance-based sizing, and provides cost estimations.

Amazon EC2 Systems Manager | Azure Monitor

Comprehensive solution for collecting, analyzing, and acting on telemetry from your cloud and on-premises environments.

AWS Personal Health Dashboard | Azure Resource Health

Provides detailed information about the health of resources as well as recommended actions for maintaining resource health.

Security, identity, and access

Authentication and authorization

Identity and Access Management (IAM) | Azure Active Directory

Allows users to securely control access to services and resources while offering data security and protection. Create and manage users and groups, and use permissions to allow and deny access to resources.

Identity and Access Management (IAM) | Azure Role Based Access Control

Role-based access control (RBAC) helps you manage who has access to Azure resources, what they can do with those resources, and what areas they have access to.

AWS Organizations | Azure Subscription Management + Azure RBAC

Security policy and role management for working with multiple accounts.

Multi-Factor Authentication | Multi-Factor Authentication

Safeguard access to data and applications while meeting user demand for a simple sign-in process.

AWS Directory Service | Azure Active Directory Domain Services

Provides managed domain services such as domain join, group policy, LDAP, and Kerberos/NTLM authentication that are fully compatible with Windows Server Active Directory.

Cognito | Azure Active Directory B2C

A highly available, global, identity management service for consumer-facing applications that scales to hundreds of millions of identities.

AWS Organizations | Azure Policy

Azure Policy is a service in Azure that you use to create, assign, and manage policies. These policies enforce different rules and effects over your resources, so those resources stay compliant with your corporate standards and service level agreements.

AWS Organizations | Management Groups

Azure management groups provide a level of scope above subscriptions. You organize subscriptions into containers called “management groups” and apply your governance conditions to the management groups. All subscriptions within a management group automatically inherit the conditions applied to the management group. Management groups give you enterprise-grade management at a large scale, no matter what type of subscriptions you have.

Encryption

Server-side encryption with Amazon S3 Key Management Service | Azure Storage Service Encryption

Helps you protect and safeguard your data and meet your organizational security and compliance commitments.

Key Management Service AWS KMS, CloudHSM | Key Vault

Provides security solution and works with other services by providing a way to manage, create, and control encryption keys stored in hardware security modules (HSM).

Firewall

Web Application Firewall | Application Gateway – Web Application Firewall

A firewall that protects web applications from common web exploits.

Web Application Firewall | Azure Firewall

Provides inbound protection for non-HTTP/S protocols, outbound network-level protection for all ports and protocols, and application-level protection for outbound HTTP/S.

Security

Inspector | Security Center

An automated security assessment service that improves the security and compliance of applications. Automatically assess applications for vulnerabilities or deviations from best practices.

Certificate Manager | App Service Certificates available on the Portal

Service that allows customers to create, manage, and consume certificates seamlessly in the cloud.

GuardDuty | Azure Advanced Threat Protection

Detect and investigate advanced attacks on-premises and in the cloud.

AWS Artifact | Service Trust Portal

Provides access to audit reports, compliance guides, and trust documents from across cloud services.

AWS Shield | Azure DDos Protection Service

Provides cloud services with protection from distributed denial of services (DDoS) attacks.

Storage

Object storage

Simple Storage Services (S3) | Azure Blob storage

Object storage service, for use cases including cloud applications, content distribution, backup, archiving, disaster recovery, and big data analytics.

Virtual server disks

Elastic Block Store (EBS) | Azure managed disks

SSD storage optimized for I/O intensive read/write operations. For use as high-performance Azure virtual machine storage.

Shared files

Elastic File System | Azure Files

Provides a simple interface to create and configure file systems quickly, and share common files. Can be used with traditional protocols that access files over a network.

Archiving and backup

S3 Infrequent Access (IA) | Azure Storage cool tier

Cool storage is a lower-cost tier for storing data that is infrequently accessed and long-lived.

S3 Glacier | Azure Storage archive access tier

Archive storage has the lowest storage cost and higher data retrieval costs compared to hot and cool storage.

AWS Backup | Azure Backup

Back up and recover files and folders from the cloud, and provide offsite protection against data loss.

Hybrid storage

Storage Gateway | StorSimple

Integrates on-premises IT environments with cloud storage. Automates data management and storage, plus supports disaster recovery.

Bulk data transfer

AWS Import/Export Disk | Import/Export

A data transport solution that uses secure disks and appliances to transfer large amounts of data. Also offers data protection during transit.

AWS Import/Export Snowball, Snowball Edge, Snowmobile | Azure Data Box

Petabyte- to exabyte-scale data transport solution that uses secure data storage devices to transfer large amounts of data to and from Azure.

Web applications

Elastic Beanstalk | App Service

Managed hosting platform providing easy to use services for deploying and scaling web applications and services.

API Gateway | API Management

A turnkey solution for publishing APIs to external and internal consumers.

CloudFront | Azure Content Delivery Network

A global content delivery network that delivers audio, video, applications, images, and other files.

Global Accelerator | Azure Front Door

Easily join your distributed microservice architectures into a single global application using HTTP load balancing and path-based routing rules. Automate turning up new regions and scale-out with API-driven global actions, and independent fault-tolerance to your back end microservices in Azure—or anywhere.

Miscellaneous

Backend process logic

AWS Step Functions | Logic Apps

Cloud technology to build distributed applications using out-of-the-box connectors to reduce integration challenges. Connect apps, data and devices on-premises or in the cloud.

Enterprise application services

Amazon WorkMail, Amazon WorkDocs | Office 365

Fully integrated Cloud service providing communications, email, document management in the cloud and available on a wide variety of devices.

Gaming

GameLift, GameSparks | PlayFab

Managed services for hosting dedicated game servers.

Media transcoding

Elastic Transcoder | Media Services

Services that offer broadcast-quality video streaming services, including various transcoding technologies.

Workflow

Simple Workflow Service (SWF) | Logic Apps

Serverless technology for connecting apps, data and devices anywhere, whether on-premises or in the cloud for large ecosystems of SaaS and cloud-based connectors.

Hybrid

Outposts | Azure Stack

Azure Stack is a hybrid cloud platform that enables you to run Azure services in your company’s or service provider’s datacenter. As a developer, you can build apps on Azure Stack. You can then deploy them to either Azure Stack or Azure, or you can build truly hybrid apps that take advantage of connectivity between an Azure Stack cloud and Azure.

Source: AWS to Azure services comparison – Azure Architecture

Pros and Cons of Cloud Computing

Cloud User insurance and Cloud Provider Insurance

Cloud computing is the new big thing in Information Technology. Everyone, every business will sooner or later adopt it, because of hosting cost benefits, scalability and more.

This blog outlines the Pros and Cons of Cloud Computing, Pros and Cons of Cloud Technology, Faqs, Facts, Questions and Answers Dump about cloud computing.

AWS Cloud Practitioner Exam Prep App – Free

AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner Exam Prep App
AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner Exam Prep PWA App
Cloud Practitioner Exam Prep AWS vs Azure vs Google
Cloud Practitioner Exam Prep AWS vs Azure vs Google

What is cloud computing?

Cloud computing is an information technology paradigm that enables ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale, similar to a public utility.
Simply put, cloud computing is the delivery of computing services including servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, and intelligence—over the Internet (“the cloud”) to offer faster innovation, flexible resources, and economies of scale. You typically pay only for cloud services you use, helping you lower your operating costs, run your infrastructure more efficiently, and scale as your business needs change.

What are the Pros of using cloud computing? What are characteristics of cloud computing?


  • Cost effective & Time saving: Cloud computing eliminates the capital expense of buying hardware and software and setting up and running on-site datacenters; the racks of servers, the round-the-clock electricity for power and cooling, and the IT experts for managing the infrastructure.
  • The ability to pay only for cloud services you use, helping you lower your operating costs.
  • Powerful server capabilities and Performance: The biggest cloud computing services run on a worldwide network of secure datacenters, which are regularly upgraded to the latest generation of fast and efficient computing hardware. This offers several benefits over a single corporate datacenter, including reduced network latency for applications and greater economies of scale.
  • Powerful and scalable server capabilities: The ability to scale elastically; That means delivering the right amount of IT resources—for example, more or less computing power, storage, bandwidth—right when they’re needed, and from the right geographic location.
  • SaaS ( Software as a service). Software as a service is a method for delivering software applications over the Internet, on demand and typically on a subscription basis. With SaaS, cloud providers host and manage the software application and underlying infrastructure, and handle any maintenance, like software upgrades and security patching. Users connect to the application over the Internet, usually with a web browser on their phone, tablet, or PC.
  • PaaS ( Platform as a service). Platform as a service refers to cloud computing services that supply an on-demand environment for developing, testing, delivering, and managing software applications. PaaS is designed to make it easier for developers to quickly create web or mobile apps, without worrying about setting up or managing the underlying infrastructure of servers, storage, network, and databases needed for development.
  • IaaS ( Infrastructure as a service). The most basic category of cloud computing services. With IaaS, you rent IT infrastructure—servers and virtual machines (VMs), storage, networks, operating systems—from a cloud provider on a pay-as-you-go basis
  • Serverless: Running complex Applications without a single server. Overlapping with PaaS, serverless computing focuses on building app functionality without spending time continually managing the servers and infrastructure required to do so. The cloud provider handles the setup, capacity planning, and server management for you. Serverless architectures are highly scalable and event-driven, only using resources when a specific function or trigger occurs.
  • Infrastructure provisioning as code, helps recreating same infrastructure by re-running the same code in a few click.
  • Automatic and Reliable Data backup and storage of data: Cloud computing makes data backup, disaster recovery, and business continuity easier and less expensive because data can be mirrored at multiple redundant sites on the cloud provider’s network.
  • Increase Productivity: On-site datacenters typically require a lot of “racking and stacking”—hardware setup, software patching, and other time-consuming IT management chores. Cloud computing removes the need for many of these tasks, so IT teams can spend time on achieving more important business goals.
  • Security: Many cloud providers offer a broad set of policies, technologies, and controls that strengthen your security posture overall, helping protect your data, apps, and infrastructure from potential threats.
  • Speed: Most cloud computing services are provided self service and on demand, so even vast amounts of computing resources can be provisioned in minutes, typically with just a few mouse clicks, giving businesses a lot of flexibility and taking the pressure off capacity planning.

What are the Cons of using cloud computing?

  • Privacy: Cloud computing poses privacy concerns because the service provider can access the data that is in the cloud at any time. It could accidentally or deliberately alter or delete information.Many cloud providers can share information with third parties if necessary for purposes of law and order without a warrant. That is permitted in their privacy policies, which users must agree to before they start using cloud services.
  • Security: According to the Cloud Security Alliance, the top three threats in the cloud are Insecure Interfaces and API’s, Data Loss & Leakage, and Hardware Failure—which accounted for 29%, 25% and 10% of all cloud security outages respectively. Together, these form shared technology vulnerabilities.
  • Ownership of Data: There is the problem of legal ownership of the data (If a user stores some data in the cloud, can the cloud provider profit from it?). Many Terms of Service agreements are silent on the question of ownership.
  • Limited Customization Options: Cloud computing is cheaper because of economics of scale, and—like any outsourced task—you tend to get what you get. A restaurant with a limited menu is cheaper than a personal chef who can cook anything you want.
  • Downtime: Technical outages are inevitable and occur sometimes when cloud service providers (CSPs) become overwhelmed in the process of serving their clients. This may result to temporary business suspension.
  • Insurance : It can be expensive to insure the customer and business data and infrastructure hosted in the cloud. A cyber insurance is necessary when using the cloud.
  • Other concerns of cloud computing.

      • Users with specific records-keeping requirements, such as public agencies that must retain electronic records according to statute, may encounter complications with using cloud computing and storage. For instance, the U.S. Department of Defense designated the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) to maintain a list of records management products that meet all of the records retention, personally identifiable information (PII), and security (Information Assurance; IA) requirements
      • Cloud storage is a rich resource for both hackers and national security agencies. Because the cloud holds data from many different users and organizations, hackers see it as a very valuable target.
    • Piracy and copyright infringement may be enabled by sites that permit filesharing. For example, the CodexCloud ebook storage site has faced litigation from the owners of the intellectual property uploaded and shared there, as have the GrooveShark and YouTube sites it has been compared to.

What are the different types of cloud computing?


  • Public clouds: A cloud is called a “public cloud” when the services are rendered over a network that is open for public use. They are owned and operated by a third-party cloud service providers, which deliver their computing resources, like servers and storage, over the Internet. Microsoft Azure is an example of a public cloud. With a public cloud, all hardware, software, and other supporting infrastructure is owned and managed by the cloud provider. You access these services and manage your account using a web browser. For infrastructure as a service (IaaS) and platform as a service (PaaS), Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud Platform (GCP) hold a commanding position among the many cloud companies.
  • Private cloud is cloud infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether managed internally or by a third party, and hosted either internally or externally. A private cloud refers to cloud computing resources used exclusively by a single business or organization. A private cloud can be physically located on the company’s on-site datacenter. Some companies also pay third-party service providers to host their private cloud. A private cloud is one in which the services and infrastructure are maintained on a private network.
  • Hybrid cloud is a composition of a public cloud and a private environment, such as a private cloud or on-premise resources, that remain distinct entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. Hybrid cloud can also mean the ability to connect collocation, managed and/or dedicated services with cloud resources. Hybrid clouds combine public and private clouds, bound together by technology that allows data and applications to be shared between them. By allowing data and applications to move between private and public clouds, a hybrid cloud gives your business greater flexibility, more deployment options, and helps optimize your existing infrastructure, security, and compliance.
  • Community Cloud: A community cloud in computing is a collaborative effort in which infrastructure is shared between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. This is controlled and used by a group of organizations that have shared interest. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud, so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized.


Other AWS Facts and Summaries and Questions/Answers Dump

Reference

Cloud User insurance and Cloud Provider Insurance

Cloud User insurance and Cloud Provider Insurance

In this blog, we are going to explore the following topics and provide some suggestions and recommendations:

As cloud user, cloud customer, company storing customer data in the cloud, you probably have a lot of personal or private data hosted in various infrastructure in the cloud. Losing that data or having the data accessed by hackers or unauthorized third party can be very harmful both financially and emotionally to you or your customers. A cloud User or Customer Insurance can protect you against data lost or stolen data. Practically, the cloud computing insurance is a cyber liability policy that covers web-based services. Before looking for a customer insurance in the cloud, you need to clarify “What data should the insurance cover and under which governing laws?“, “What data can be considered a loss?” . The good news is : as cloud adoption is increasing in the insurance industry, insurers have the opportunity to better understand their operations models and to implement tailored insurance solutions for cloud.

Cloud Data loss can happen in the following forms:

First Party Losses: losses where the cloud provider incurs damages. Those types of losses include:

  • Destruction of Data
  • Denial of Service Attack (DOS)
  • Virus, Malware and Spyware
  • Human Error
  • Electrical Malfunctions and Power Surges in data centers
  • Natural Disasters
  • Network Failures
  • Cyber Extortion

Each of the above exposures to loss would result in direct damages to the insured, or first-party loss.

Third-Party Losses – damages that would occur to customers outside of the cloud provider. These types of losses include:

  • Breach of Privacy
  • Misuse of Private Personal Information
  • Defamation or Slander
  • Transmission of Malicious Content

The above exposures could result in a company being held liable for the damages caused to others (liability).

Cyber insurance is a form of insurance for businesses and individuals against internet-based risks. The most common risk that is insured against is data breaches. … It also covers losses from network security breaches, theft of intellectual property and loss of privacy.

Data Compromise coverage insures a commercial entity when there is a data breach, theft or unauthorized disclosure of personal information. … Thus Cyber Liability covers both the expenses to notify affected individuals of data breaches and the expenses to make the insured whole for their own damages incurred.

Some insurance companies that specialize in Cyber Insurance include:

Contact an Independent Insurance Agent near you that writes Cyber Insurance and ask them to get multiple quotes for your business.

However, a more effective risk management solution might be loss control rather than financing. If you encrypt your data at rest and set up and adopt a process of automatic regular backups, and geographically distribute those backups , then you have effectively minimized the potential costs of loss.

Cyber Insurance is not yet standardized as many other forms of commercial insurance. Therefore, breadth of coverage and pricing can vary widely.

Below is AWS commitment to data privacy:

  • Access: As a customer, you maintain full control of your content and responsibility for configuring access to AWS services and resources. We provide an advanced set of access, encryption, and logging features to help you do this effectively (e.g., AWS Identity and Access Management, AWS Organizations and AWS CloudTrail). We provide APIs for you to configure access control permissions for any of the services you develop or deploy in an AWS environment. We do not access or use your content for any purpose without your consent. We never use your content or derive information from it for marketing or advertising.
  • Storage: You choose the AWS Region(s) in which your content is stored and the type of storage. You can replicate and back up your content in more than one AWS Region. We will not move or replicate your content outside of your chosen AWS Region(s) without your consent, except as legally required and as necessary to maintain the AWS services.
  • Security: You choose how your content is secured. We offer you strong encryption for your content in transit and at rest, and we provide you with the option to manage your own encryption keys. These features include:
    • Data encryption capabilities available in AWS storage and database services, such as Amazon Elastic Block Store, Amazon Simple Storage Service, Amazon Relational Database Service, and Amazon Redshift.
    • Flexible key management options, including AWS Key Management Service (KMS), allow customers to choose whether to have AWS manage the encryption keys or enable customers to keep complete control over their keys.
    • AWS customers can employ Server-Side Encryption (SSE) with Amazon S3-Managed Keys (SSE-S3), SSE with AWS KMS-Managed Keys (SSE-KMS), or SSE with Customer-Provided Encryption Keys (SSE-C).
  • Disclosure of customer content: We do not disclose customer information unless we’re required to do so to comply with a legally valid and binding order. Unless prohibited from doing so or there is clear indication of illegal conduct in connection with the use of Amazon products or services, Amazon notifies customers before disclosing content information.
  • Security Assurance: We have developed a security assurance program that uses best practices for global privacy and data protection to help you operate securely within AWS, and to make the best use of our security control environment. These security protections and control processes are independently validated by multiple third-party independent assessments

Microsoft Azure Data Privacy and protection Commitment

Google Cloud commitment to data privacy and security:

What types of business insurance are available?

  • Property and Casualty Insurance: Property insurance covers the physical location of the business and its contents from things like fire, theft, flood, and earthquakes—although read the terms carefully to make sure they include everything you need. Casualty insurance, on the other hand, covers the operation of the business, but the two are usually grouped together in policies.
  • Auto Insurance: Auto insurance protects you against financial loss if you have an accident. It is a contract between you and the insurance company.
  • Liability Insurance: Liability insurance is insurance that provides protection against claims resulting from injuries and damage property.
  • Business Insurance: Business interruption insurance can make up for lost cash flow and profits incurred because of an event that has interrupted your normal business operations.
  • Health and Disability Insurance: Health insurance provides health coverage for you and your employees. This insurance covers your employees for the expenses and loss of income caused by non work-related injuries, illnesses, and disabilities and death from any cause.
  • Life Insurance: Life and disability insurance covers your business in the event of the death or disability of key owners.
  • Cyber Insurance: Cover Data loss, destruction of data, privacy breach, Denial of Service Attack (DOS), Network failure, Transmission of Malicious Content, Misuse of personal or private information, etc.
  • Crime & Employee Dishonesty Insurance: To cover your business for fraudulent acts committed by your employees, e.g. theft or embezzlement of money, securities, and other business-owned property and for burglary, theft, and robbery of cash and other representations of money, e.g. money orders, postage stamps, travelers checks, and readily convertible securities, e.g. bearer bonds;
  • Mandatory Workers Compensation Insurance: To cover your employees for injuries and illnesses sustained during the course of employment. This would include medical expenses and loss of income due to a work-related disability;
  • Transportation/Inland & Ocean Marine Insurance: To pay for loss of damage to property you own or are responsible for while it is being transported or shipped to or from customers, manufacturers, processors, assemblers, warehouses, etc. by air, ship, or land vehicles either domestically or internationally.
  • Umbrella Liability Insurance: To provide an additional layer of liability insurance over your primary automobile liability, general liability, employers liability, and, if applicable, watercraft or aircraft liability policies;
  • Directors & Officers Liability Insurance: To defend your business and its directors or officers against allegations that they mismanaged the business in some way which caused financial loss to your clients (and/or others) and pay money damages in a court trial or settlement;
  • Condos Unit Owners Personal Insurance & Landlord / Rental Property Insurance: Cover expenses that come from having a loss within your property. Whether the unit owner is living in their unit or not, it is your responsibility to ensure that your personal assets and liabilities are adequately protected by your own personal insurance policy. This coverage includes all the content items that are brought into a unit or stored in a storage locker or premises, such as furnishings, electronics, clothing, etc. Most policies out there will also cover personal property while it is temporary off premises, on vacation for example.
  • Landlord property coverage is to protect the property that you own within your rental unit, which includes but is not limited to, appliances, window coverings, or if you rent out your unit fully furnished, then all of that property that is yours.
  • Rental Property insurance coverage allows you to protect you revenue source. Your property is your responsibility and if you property gets damaged by an insured peril, and your tenant can’t live there for a month or two (or more), you can purchase insurance to replace that rental income for the period of time your property is inhabitable.

Do online businesses need insurance?

All businesses need insurance. Here are some suggestions:

Property Insurance: To cover your owned, non-owned, and leased business property (contents, buildings if applicable, computers, office supplies, and any other property that you need to operate your business) for such perils as fire, windstorm, smoke damage, water damage, and theft.

EDP Insurance: To cover your computer hardware and software for such perils as mechanical breakdown and electrical injury;

Cyber Property and Liability Insurance: To cover your business for its activities on the Internet. Cyber Property coverages apply to losses sustained by your company directly. An example is damage to your company’s electronic data files caused by a hacker/security breach. Cyber Liability coverages apply to claims against your company by people who have been injured as a result of your actions or failure to act. For instance, a client sues you for negligence after his personal data, e.g credit card numbers or confidential information is stolen from your computer system and released online.

Loss of Income (Business Interruption) Insurance: To cover your business for the loss of income you would sustain because it was damaged by a covered peril under your property insurance, e.g. fire, windstorm, smoke damage, and theft;

Read this blog about insurance for E-commerce

Thinking of purchasing cyber insurance? Make sure the policy you choose covers more than paying ransomware. Paying cyber criminals should be a last resort. Your policy should include cleaning & rebuilding current systems, hiring experts, & purchasing new protections.

Resource:

1- Quora

2- AWS Data privacy

3- Does Cyber insurance makes sense?

4- What does cyber insurance do? What does it protect?

The purpose of cyber security is to protect all forms of digital data. Protecting personal information (SSN, credit card information, etc.), protecting proprietary information .(Facebook algorithms, Tesla vehicle designs, etc.), and other forms of digital data.

5- Cloud based Insurance Providers

* https://www.cloudinsurance.io

6- Understanding Cloud insurance

Cloud computing insurance is meant to protect a cloud provider. The implementation of a system and the preservation of important information comes with risks. If anything goes wrong, such as an outage at a critical time that results in business interruption, your client can hold you responsible and seek damages. Cloud insurance can not only provide compensation to your client as a result of a claim against you, but can also cover your legal defense and lost income.

7- Ransomware still dominates the cyber threat landscape in 2019: Europol report.

Below is a listing of AWS certification exam quiz apps for all platforms:

AWS Certified Cloud practitioner Exam Prep FREE version: CCP, CLF-C01

IOS: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/aws-certified-cloud-pract-prep/id1488832117

Microsoft/Windows10:https://www.microsoft.com/en-ca/p/aws-certified-cloud-practitioner-exam-preparation/9ns1xttj1d5s

Google play: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awscloudpractitonerexamprep.enoumen

Amazon App Store (Android): https://www.amazon.com/dp/B085MFT53J/ref=mp_s_a_1_2?keywords=cloud+practitioner&qid=1583633225&s=mobile-apps&sr=1-2

Web/PWA: https://aws-cloud-practitioner-exam.firebaseapp.com

Cloud Practitioner PRO Versions:

ios: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/aws-certified-cloud-pract-pro/id1501104845

android google : https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awscloudpractitonerexampreppro.enoumen

Amazon android: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B085HGKRMG/ref=pe_385040_118058080_TE_M1DP

Windows 10: https://www.microsoft.com/en-ca/p/aws-certified-cloud-practitioner-exam-preparation-quiz-pro/9phhz236gh4d

AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep FREE version: SAA, SAA-C01, SAA-C02

Google:
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awssolutionarchitectassociateexamprep.app

iOS:
https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/solution-architect-assoc-quiz/id1501225766[aws Certified Exam Quiz apps](https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/solution-architect-assoc-quiz/id1501225766)

Web(All platforms):
https://awscertifiedsolutionarchitectexamprep.com/

Amazon android: ‪http://www.amazon.com/dp/B085MG99H9/ref=cm_sw_r_tw_awdm_xs_pqfzEb4HSYJV1‬

Microsoft/Windows10: https://www.microsoft.com/en-ca/p/aws-certified-solution-architect-associate-exam-prep/9ncch3cgskmp

Solution Architect PRO versions:

Ios: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/solution-architect-assoc-pro/id1501465417

Android google: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awssolutionarchitectassociateexampreppro.app

Windows10: not available yet

Amazon android: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B085HR898X/ref=pe_385040_118058080_TE_M1DP

AWS Certified Developer Associate Exam Prep: DVA-C01

android: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awscertdevassociateexampreppro.enoumen

iOs: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/aws-certified-developer-assoc/id1511211095

PRO version with mock exam android: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.awscertdevassociateexampreppro.enoumen

PRO version with mock exam ios: https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/aws-certified-dev-ass-dva-c01/id1506519319t

What are good competitors to G-Suite?

What are good competitors to G-Suite?

Office 365 comes to mind.

Office 365 is a line of subscription services offered by Microsoft as part of the Microsoft Office product line. The brand encompasses plans that allow use of the Microsoft Office software suite over the life of the subscription, as well as cloud-based software as a service products for business environments, such as hosted Exchange ServerSkype for Business Server, and SharePoint, among others. 

Office 365 and G Suite give you professional email, cloud storage, mailing list and fast access from anywhere using a browser.

I use both, but G suite still has an edge over all their other competitors for me.

My problem with Office 365 is that its email interface is heavy and can be confusing. Try adding an alias to forward to your main email using Office 365 and get back to me.

G suite email interface is well, Gmail: the best email system ever created.

Why G suite?

G Suite is a set of cloud computingproductivity and collaboration tools, software and products developed by Google, first launched on August 28, 2006 as Google Apps for Your Domain. G Suite comprises GmailHangoutsCalendar, and Currents for communication; Drive for storage; DocsSheetsSlidesForms, and Sites for productivity and collaboration; and, depending on the plan, an Admin panel and Vault for managing users and the services. It also includes the digital interactive whiteboardJamboard and the app development platform App Maker.

  • Gives you a professional custom email (you@yourcompany.com)
  • Allows you to access documents in the cloud with over 30GB of storage
  • Helps you work faster from anywhere and from any device

G Suite Pros:
* All useful apps to manage your small business in one place from same provider with 24/7 support
* Slick and extremely fast apps like gmail, google groups
* You can set them up yourself with no knowledge of IT
* Cost efficient
* Easy to use as most people already use gmail and other google products.

As low as $7 per month per user

24/7 Support: If you call or email Google anytime , they will help you set it up very quickly and get you ready.

Get 20% off G-Suite Business Plan with this discount code: PCQ49CJYK7EATNC

Get 20% off G-Suite Basic Plan with one of the following discount code if you are in the US:

  • ECHNMY33E4FVU3P
  • ECJRCHMDJK9AWLW
  • ECJUGWDGT9GNXUC
  • ECKHFANHQ7GQRAE
  • ECL3TXFGU43LYYM

Get 20% Off G-Suite Basic Plan with one of the following discount code if you are in Canada:

  • 9CRJVEEMUEADCX4
  • 9CTRUK939AKEYE4
  • 9CU9CK6LNHWCDAH
  • 9CUHYWELHLYDEPC
  • 9CULR3FMQ4EDYMT

With G Suite Basic, you and the other users in your organization get:

  • Gmail: Send and receive mail using your professional address, as in bob@yourcompany.com
  • Calendar: Share calendars to easily schedule meetings and events
  • Docs: Collaborate in real-time on online documents, spreadsheets, and presentations
  • Drive: Store and back up files securely in the cloud
  • Hangouts: Join video meetings from their laptop or other device

Administrative controls

Your administrative or IT team can also:

  • Manage user accounts and security settings from a central Admin console
  • Control user access to features and services
  • Remotely manage your mobile fleet
  • Track usage trends via audits and reports
  • Receive 24/7 support from G Suite experts

Unlimited storage

With G Suite Business, each user in your organization can store unlimited Gmail messages, Google Photos, and files in Drive. Or if there are 4 or fewer users in your organization, each user gets 1 TB of storage.

Company-wide search

Users can also use Google Cloud Search to:

  • Search for company content across Gmail, Docs, Calendar, and their other G Suite services
  • Receive useful information and suggestions from assist cards

Learn more about Google Cloud Search.

Shared drives

With shared drives, files belong to a team instead of an individual. If members leave, files stay where they are so the team can continue to share information and get work done. Learn more

Advanced administrator controls

Archiving with Vault

Use Vault to retain, archive, search, and export your organization’s data for eDiscovery and compliance needs. Learn more

Advanced reports

  • Advanced Drive audit reporting, custom alerts, and APIs. Learn more
  • Mobile audits and alerts, such as when a device is compromised. Learn more

Drive activity alerts

Get custom alerts on Drive activity, such as when documents are shared outside your domain. Learn more

Security keys

Deploy and monitor security keys for your organization, and purchase them at a discounted rate. Learn more

Extra policy controls

Restrict even more tasks to specific users, based on organizational units.

  • Sync Drive files with local files on their computer. Learn more
  • Share Drive and Docs editors files outside your organization, to anyone or only whitelisted domains. Learn more
  • Use Docs editors offline. Learn more
  • Open files in third-party web apps from the Chrome Web Store. Learn more
  • Use Docs add-ons built by third-party developers. Learn more

The cons:

You cannot add more than 25 emails to your Google groups at a time with G Suite Basic. Maybe it is possible with their enterprise option.

G suite document processing applications like Google Docs are far behind Office 365 popular Word and Excel software.

Other notable competitors to G-Suite are:

Pros of Office 365

One of the biggest advantages of Office 365 is the ability to work from anywhere as long as you have an internet connection. Because it’s entirely cloud-based, you can access your email, files and Office programs (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) from any location and any device.

Multiple, flexible plans tailored to businesses

Advanced Security : It is a feature that provides extra protection from sophisticated threats that may be hidden in emails and attachments. Users are also provided with additional security features such as two-factor authentication

Cons of Office 365:

Relying on network and bandwidth. If your Internet provider goes down, then you haven’t any access to your enterprise software and data. Microsoft does not control how you access the Internet and, therefore, cannot account for any failures.

The user interface for email is heavy and cumbersome.

What are the top 10 biggest lessons you have learned from the corporate world?

What are the top 10 biggest lessons you have learned from the corporate world?

According to Wikipedia, Corporate America is  an informal (and sometimes derogatory) phrase describing the world of corporations and big business within the United States and Canada.

A job or career in corporate America is usually the best entry to true middle class or even upper middle class for managers,  but it comes with baggages.

The question is What are the top 10 biggest lessons learned from the corporate world?

1- Every single day, there is someone whose job is to figure out how to get rid of you without impacting the business. Make choice that are good for you and your family only. If you leave, no one will care. Everybody is replaceable.

2- No emotion, nobody cares for you. The occasional smiles are 95% fake. Never forget that.

3- Always figure out a way to be good and be needed, because at the second they realize they can do it without you with minimal effect to the team or business, you will be gone.

4- Always improve yourself and keep your eyes open on the market. Never get too comfortable. Be nice to recruiters, always reply nicely to their email even if you are not available. The tide can turn very quickly. Always keep a pulse on the job market. At least twice a year apply for jobs in your industry to get a sense on what your skills trade for in the open market and to sharpen your interviewing skills. It is also a great habit to be in the orbit of recruiters because they operate within a tight-knit ecosystem, network with, and know one another. If you’re not a great fit for one role, and they like you, they’ll refer you to a friend or colleague looking to fill another role as a courtesy.

5- If you are very technical , the best outcome for you is to open your own business or become an independent consultant or contractor or freelancer while working in corporate. Once your own business pick up, quit your corporate job and discover real freedom.

Read this thread on Reddit for successful freelance stories from people who are sick and tired of Corporate America:

Read this excellent answer from Quora

6- Be very wise and knowledgeable about the business, but stay humble at the same time: Be friendly without making friends. Being too cold can prevent colleagues from sharing gossips with you and those gossips can be helpful sometimes.

7- Stay away from people who complain too much, they slow productivity and can drag you with them and expose you.

8- HR is not your friend. Their jobs is to protect the big bosses and their own job. Think twice before reporting racists, sexists, bullies, …or you will be gone. If you are victim of any of that as a minority, look for a new job and report it anonymously, otherwise your career will be over. All the following characteristics are overlooked by most HR departments:

Compassion

Sympathy

Empathy

Kindness

Gratitude

Humility

Patience

Self awareness

The ability to be the “bigger person”

Sincerity

9- Become a subject matter in at least one topic or area within your department of team to make yourself indispensable. Be result oriented and not effort oriented. Result matter more than effort. Focus on getting things done instead of on working hard. They are more than often not the same thing.

10- Volunteer to headline new projects and gain visibility from leadership. It might help during tough times when cuts are needed.

11- Be kind, especially to nerds, they will probably own a company one day and will remember you. Be authentic, work hard and be wise and kind, especially to the awkward and silent ones. Introverts, extroverts, flashy dressers, frumpy dressers, are sometime gifted with supreme execution and succeed in business, which proves one thing: Success doesn’t care how you show up; just that you show up.

12- Never waste your weekend or holidays for office work. Your company is not going to take care of your family. You will regret later when the time will start taking your loved ones back, every product of nature has expiry date. This is harsh truth.

13- Emotional and professional are opposite words in corporate culture. Don’t share your emotional stories with your colleagues, surely one day, they are gonna make fun of your emotions and use it against you.

14- Keep your spirit and self respect up and never let anyone harm your image. They selected you because you were better than others and you add value to the company.

15- Never make a relationship in the office, a single mistake will destroy your personal and professional life.

Other Corporate America stories:

What are the unwritten rules and dark truth of corporate America?

What are your best tips to survive corporate America?

Disclaimer: The content of this post doesn’t describe or target any company I worked with in particular, it is based on research and discussion with friends working with several companies within Corporate America.

How does using a VPN or Proxy or TOR or private browsing protects your online activity?

What are some common reasons why a blog doesn't rank on Google

VPNs are used to provide remote corporate employees, gig economy freelance workers and business travelers with access to software applications hosted on proprietary networks. To gain access to a restricted resource through a VPN, the user must be authorized to use the VPN app and provide one or more authentication factors, such as a password, security token or biometric data.

A VPN extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network. Applications running on a computing device, e.g. a laptop, desktop, smartphone, across a VPN may therefore benefit from the functionality, security, and management of the private network. Encryption is a common though not an inherent part of a VPN connection.

To ensure security, the private network connection is established using an encrypted layered tunneling protocol and VPN users use authentication methods, including passwords or certificates, to gain access to the VPN. In other applications, Internet users may secure their connections with a VPN, to circumvent geo restrictions and censorship, or to connect to proxy servers to protect personal identity and location to stay anonymous on the Internet. However, some websites block access to known VPN technology to prevent the circumvention of their geo-restrictions, and many VPN providers have been developing strategies to get around these roadblocks.

Private browsing on incognito window or inPrivate window a privacy feature in some web browsers (Chrome, Firefox, Explorer, Edge). When operating in such a mode, the browser creates a temporary session that is isolated from the browser’s main session and user data. Browsing history is not saved, and local data associated with the session, such as cookies, are cleared when the session is closed.

These modes are designed primarily to prevent data and history associated with a particular browsing session from persisting on the device, or being discovered by another user of the same device. Private browsing modes do not necessarily protect users from being tracked by other websites or their internet service provider (ISP). Furthermore, there is a possibility that identifiable traces of activity could be leaked from private browsing sessions by means of the operating system, security flaws in the browser, or via malicious browser extensions, and it has been found that certain HTML5APIs can be used to detect the presence of private browsing modes due to differences in behaviour.

The question is:

How does using a VPN or Proxy or TOR or private browsing protects your online activity?

What are the pros and cons of VPN vs Proxy?

How can VPN, Proxy, TOR, private browsing, incognito windows How does using a VPN, Proxy, TOR, private browsing, incognito windows protects your online activity? protects your online activity?

  • VPN masks your real IP address by hiding it with one of its servers. As a result, no third party will be able to link your online activity to your physical location. To top it off, you avoid annoying ads and stay off the marketer’s radars.
  • VPN encrypts your internet traffic in order to make it impossible for anybody to decode your sensitive information and steal your identity. You can also learn more what a development team tells about how they protect their users against data theft.

If your VPN doesn’t protect your online activities, it means there are some problems with the aforementioned protection measures. This could be:

  1. VPN connection disruption. Unfortunately, a sudden disruption of your connection can deanonymize you, if at this moment your device is sending or receiving IP-related requests. In order to avoid such a situation, the kill switch option should be always ON.
  2. DNS/IP address leakage. This problem can be caused by various reasons from configuration mistakes to a conflict between the app under discussion and some other installed software. Regardless of the reason, you will end up with otherwise perfectly working security app, which, in fact, is leaking your IP address.
  3. Outdated protocol. In a nutshell, it is the technology that manages the сreation of your secured connection. If your current protocol becomes obsolete, the app will not work perfectly.
  4. Free apps. This is about free software that makes money on your privacy. The actions of such applications are also considered as unethical and illegal. Stealing your private data and selling of it to third parties is one of them.
  5. User carelessness. For instance, turn on your virtual private network when you visit any website or enter your credentials. Don’t use the app sporadically.

How is a VPN different from a proxy server?

On top of serving as a proxy server, VPN provides encryption. A proxy server only hides your IP address.

Proxies are good for the low-stakes task like: watching regionally restricted videos on YouTube, creating another Gmail account when your IP limit ran out, accessing region restricted websites, bypassing content filters, request restrictions on IP.

On the other hand, proxies are not so great for the high-stakes task. As we know, proxies only act as a middleman in our Internet traffic, they only serve a webpage which we are requesting them to serve.

Just like the proxy service, a VPN makes your traffic to have appeared from the remote IP address that is not yours. But, that’s when all the similarities end.

Unlike a proxy, VPN is set at the operating system level, it captures all the traffic coming from the device it is set up on. Whether it is your web traffic, BitTorrent client, game, or a Windows Update, it captures traffic from all the applications from your device.

Another difference between proxy and VPN is – VPN tunnels all your traffic through heavily encrypted and secure connection to the VPN server.

This makes VPN an ideal solution high-stakes tasks where security and privacy are of paramount of importance. With VPN, neither your ISP, Government, or a guy snooping over open Wi-Fi connection can access your traffic.

What are daily use of VPN for?

There are many uses of Virtual Private Network (VPN) for normal users and company employees. Here are the list of the most common usages:

Accessing Business Networks From Any Places in the World :

This is one of the best use of VPN. It is very much helpful when you are travelling and have to complete some work. You can connect any computer to your business network from anywhere and set up your work easily. Local resources need some security so they have to be kept in VPN-only to ensure their safety.

To Hide Your Browsing Data From ISP & Local Users :

All Internet Service Providers (ISP) will log the data of your IP address. If you use the VPN then they can only see the connection of your VPN. It won’t let anyone spy on your website history.

Moreover, it secures your connection when you use a public Wi-Fi network. As you may or may not know, users on these networks can spy on your browsing history, even if you are surfing HTTPS websites. Virtual Private Networks protect your privacy on public unsecured Wi-Fi connection.

To Access Geographically Blocked Sites :

Have you ever faced a problem like “This content is not available in your country”? VPNs are the best solution to bypass these restrictions.

Some videos on YouTube will also show this restriction. VPNs are a quick fix for all these restrictions.

What about TOR and VPN? What are the Pros and Cons?

The Tor network is similar to a VPN. Messages to and from your computer pass through the Tor network rather than connecting directly to resources on the Internet. But where VPNs provide privacy, Tor provides anonymity.

Tor is free and open-source software for enabling anonymous communication. The name is derived from an acronym for the original software project name “The Onion Router”. Tor directs Internet traffic through a free, worldwide, volunteer overlay network consisting of more than seven thousand relays to conceal a user’s location and usage from anyone conducting network surveillance or traffic analysis. Using Tor makes it more difficult to trace Internet activity to the user: this includes “visits to Web sites, online posts, instant messages, and other communication forms”.[ Tor’s intended use is to protect the personal privacy of its users, as well as their freedom and ability to conduct confidential communication by keeping their Internet activities from being monitored.

Tor does not prevent an online service from determining when it is being accessed through Tor. Tor protects a user’s privacy, but does not hide the fact that someone is using Tor. Some websites restrict allowances through Tor. For example, Wikipedia blocks attempts by Tor users to edit articles unless special permission is sought. Although a VPN is generally faster than Tor, using them together will slow down your internet connection and should be avoided. More is not necessarily better in this situation.

Is VPN necessary when using the deep web?

The deep web is the part of the web that can not be indexed by search machines: internal company login pages, or a school portal (the internal portal) private google sites or government pages.

The dark web is the more sinister form of the Deep Web. The dark web is more associated with illegal activity (i.e child pornography, drug dealing, hitmen etc).
VPN is not necessary when connecting to the DEEP WEB. Please do not confuse the DEEP WEB with the DARK WEB.

Are there any good free VPN services?

It is not recommended to use free VPN for following reasons:

1- Security: Free VPNs don’t necessarily have to ensure your privacy is protected.

2- Tracking – Free VPNs have no obligation to keep your details safe, so at any point, your details could be passed on.

3- Speed / bandwidth – Some free VPN services are capped at a lower bandwidth that is you will receive less browsing or download speed to that of paid VPN.

4- Protocols supported – A free VPN may not support all necessary protocols. PPTP, OpenVPN and L2TP are generally provided only on paid VPN services.

If you are ok with the risks of using Free VPN, here are some you can try:

  1. TunnelBear: Secure VPN Service
  2. Hide.me VPN
  3. SurfEasy | Ultra fast, no-log private network VPN for Android, iOS, Mac & Windows
  4. CyberGhost Fast and Secure VPN Service
  5. Windscibe Free VPN and Ad Block
  6. OpenVPN – Open Source VPN
  7. SoftEther VPN Open Source
  8. Zenmate
  9. HotSpot Shield

Paid VPNs are better and give you:

  • great customer support
  • lighting internet speed
  • user friendly design
  • minimum 256-bit security
  • advanced features such as P2P, double encryption, VPN over Onion etc.

Below are the top paid VPNs:

1- NordVPN – cost-effective, provides Netflix in 5 countries (US, CAN, UK, JP, NL) and does not log your info.

2- ExpressVPN – nearly 3x NordVPN’s price but guarantees Netflix in the US. Excellent customer service and claims to not log your info.

3- Private Internet Access – a U.S. based VPN that has proven its no log policy in the court of law. This is a unique selling point that 99.99% VPNs don’t have.

4- OpenVPN provides flexible VPN solutions to secure your data communications, whether it’s for Internet privacy, remote access for employees, securing IoT, or for networking Cloud data centers. 

Other Questions about VPN and security:

Why might certain web sites not load with VPN?

For security, some corporations like Banks often block IP addresses used by major VPN companies, because it is thought to improve security.

Can a VPN bypass being flagged as a suspicious log-in on Facebook & Instagram?

You probably need a VPN that allow you to use dedicated IP address, otherwise the server ips are constantly switching every time you reconnect to your vpn and shared ip usually raised as suspicious logins due to many people logging in from the same ip address (which make the site thinks it might be bots or mass-hacked accounts).

How is a hacker traced when server logs show his or her IP is from a VPN?

  • Start looking for IP address leaks. Even hackers are terrible at not leaking their IPs.
  • Look for times the attacker forgot to enable their VPN. It happens all the time.
  • Look at other things related to the attcke like domains for example. They might have registered a domain using something you can trace or they left a string in the malware that can help identify them.
  • Silently take control of the command and control server legally.

What is the most secure VPN protocol?

  • OpenVPN technology uses the highest levels (military standards) of encryption algorithms i.e. 256bit keys to secure your data transfers.
  • OpenVPN is also known to have the fastest speeds even in the case of long distance connections that have latency. The protocol is highly recommended for streaming, downloading files and watching live TV. In addition to speeds, the protocol is stable and known to have fewer disconnections compared to its many counterparts.
  • OpenVPN comes equipped with solid military grade encryption and is way better, security wise, than PPTP, L2TP/IPSec and SSTP.

What are some alternatives for VPN?

  • Tor network, it is anonymous, free and well, rather slow, certainly fast enough to access your private email, but not fast enough to stream a movie.
  • Proxies are remote computers that individuals or organizations use to restrict Internet access, filter content, and make Internet browsing more secure. It acts as a middleman between the end user and the web server, since all connection requests pass through it. It filters the request first then sends it to the web server. Once the web server responds, the proxy filters the response then sends it to the end user.
  • IPSec (Cisco, Netgear, etc.): secure network protocol suite that authenticates and encrypts the packets of data sent over an Internet Protocol network.
  • SSL (Full) like OpenVPN
  • SSL (Partial) like SSL-Explorer and most appliances
  • SSH Tunneling is a method of transporting arbitrary networking data over an encrypted SSH connection. It can be used to add encryption to legacy applications. It also provides a way to secure the data traffic of any given application using port forwarding, basically tunneling any TCP/IP port over SSH.
  • PPTP
  • L2TP (old Cisco, pre IPSec)
  • DirectAccess 
  • Hamachi
  • You can create you own VPN as well using any encryption or simple tunneling technology.

How does private browsing or incognito window work?

When you are in private browsing mode, your browser doesn’t store any of this information at all. It functions as a completely isolated browser session.

For most web browsers, their optional private mode, often also called InPrivate or incognito, is like normal browsing except for a few things.

  1. it uses separate temporary cookies that are deleted once the browser is closed (leaving your existing cookies unaffected)
  2. no private activity is logged to the browser’s history
  3. it often uses a separate temporary cache

What are the advantages of Google Chrome’s private browsing?

  • simultaneously log into a website using different account names
  • access websites without extensions (all extensions are disabled by default when in Incognito)
  • Shield you from being tracked by Google, Facebook and other online advertising companies
  • Allow you to be anonymous visitor to a website, or see how a personalized webpage will look like from a third-party perspective

Firefox private browsing or chrome incognito?

Mozilla doesn’t really have an incentive to spy on their users. It’s not really going to get them anything because they’re not a data broker and don’t sell ads. Couple this with the fact that Firefox is open-source and I would argue that Firefox is the clear winner here.

Chrome now prevents sites from checking for private browsing mode

Mozilla Private Network VPN gives Firefox another privacy boost

Adding a VPN to Firefox is clever because it means the privacy protection is integrated into one application rather than being spread across different services. That integration probably makes it more likely to be used by people who wouldn’t otherwise use one.

Pros and Cons of Adding VPN to browsers like Firefox and Opera:

Turning on the VPN will give users a secure connection to a trusted server when using a device connected to public Wi-Fi (and running the gamut of rogue Wi-Fi hotspots and unknown intermediaries). Many travellers use subscription VPNs when away from a home network – the Mozilla Private Network is just a simpler, zero-cost alternative.

However, like Opera’s offering, it’s not a true VPN – that is, it only encrypts traffic while using one browser, Firefox.  Traffic from all other applications on the same computer won’t be secured in the same way.

As with any VPN, it won’t keep you completely anonymous. Websites you visit will see a Cloudflare IP address instead of your own, but you will still get advertising cookies and if you log in to a website your identity will be known to that site.

Additional reading:

Resources:

1- Wikipedia

2- Quora

3- SearchExpress

4- Reddit

5- VPN’s for Remote Workers: A Beginners Guide for 2019

What is the programming model and best language for Hadoop and Spark? Python or Java?

What are some common reasons why a blog doesn't rank on Google

Hadoop is an open-source software framework for storing data and running applications on clusters of commodity hardware. It provides massive storage for any kind of data, enormous processing power and the ability to handle virtually limitless concurrent tasks or jobs. Apache Hadoop is used mainly for Data Analysis

Apache Spark is an open-source distributed general-purpose cluster-computing framework. Spark provides an interface for programming entire clusters with implicit data parallelism and fault tolerance

The question is Which programming language is good to drive Hadoop and Spark?

The programming model for developing hadoop based applications is the map reduce. In other words, MapReduce is the processing layer of Hadoop.
MapReduce programming model is designed for processing large volumes of data in parallel by dividing the work into a set of independent tasks. Hadoop MapReduce is a software framework for easily writing an application that processes the vast amount of structured and unstructured data stored in the Hadoop Distributed FileSystem (HDFS). The biggest advantage of map reduce is to make data processing on multiple computing nodes easy. Under the Map reduce model, data processing primitives are called Mapper and Reducers.

Spark is written in Scala and Hadoop is written in Java.

The key difference between Hadoop MapReduce and Spark lies in the approach to processing: Spark can do it in-memory, while Hadoop MapReduce has to read from and write to a disk. As a result, the speed of processing differs significantly – Spark may be up to 100 times faster.

In-memory processing is faster when compared to Hadoop, as there is no time spent in moving data/processes in and out of the disk. Spark is 100 times faster than MapReduce as everything is done here in memory.

Spark’s hardware is more expensive than Hadoop MapReduce because it’s hardware needs a lot of RAM.

Hadoop runs on Linux, it means that you must have knowldge of linux.

Java is important for hadoop because:

  • There are some advanced features that are only available via the Java API.
  • The ability to go deep into the Hadoop coding and figure out what’s going wrong.

In both these situations, Java becomes very important.
As a developer, you can enjoy many advanced features of Spark and Hadoop if you start with their native languages (Java and Scala).

What Python Offers for Hadoop and Spark?

  • Simple syntax– Python offers simple syntax which shows it is more user friendly than other two languages.
  • Easy to learn – Python syntax are like English languages. So, it much more easier to learn it and master it.
  • Large community support – Unlike Scala, Python has huge community (active), which we will help you to solve your queries.
  • Offers Libraries, frameworks and packages – Python has huge number of Scientific packages, libraries and framework, which are helping you to work in any environment of Hadoop and Spark.
  • Python Compatibility with Hadoop – A package called PyDoop offers access to the HDFS API for Hadoop and hence it allows to write Hadoop MapReduce program and application.
  • Hadoop is based off of Java (then so e.g. non-Hadoop yet still a Big-Data technology like the ElasticSearch engine, too – even though it processes JSON REST requests)
  • Spark is created off of Scala although pySpark (the lovechild of Python and Spark technologies of course) has gained a lot of momentum as of late.

If you are planning for Hadoop Data Analyst, Python is preferable given that it has many libraries to perform advanced analytics and also you can use Spark to perform advanced analytics and implement machine learning techniques using pyspark API.

The key Value pair is the record entity that MapReduce job receives for execution. In MapReduce process, before passing the data to the mapper, data should be first converted into key-value pairs as mapper only understands key-value pairs of data.
key-value pairs in Hadoop MapReduce is generated as follows:

Resources:

1- Quora

2- Wikipedia

3- Data Flair

What is the best app for finding people to join group activity in USA and Canada for free?

In this blog, I will help answer this question that i get frequently:
What is the best app for finding people to join group activity ?

1- The meetup app is the best. You can join as a member or as an organizer or both. I run multiple meetup groups and organize drop in soccer/football games. I post and also allow members to post all kind of games and people join and play together. It is a lot of fun. Check out my Show Up And Play meetups app at https://meetup.com/ShowUpAndPlaySports

2- Facebook Groups or pages

Look for established facebook group or pages for your specific activity or create a new group of your own for free and grow it organically.

3- Kijiji activity and groups under community section in Canada

You can find teams looking for players or players looking for teams on this section. You can also post your own ad and you will get a lot of answers.

4- Craigslist Community-activity section of your city in USA or Canada

Same as kijiji: You can find teams looking for players or players looking for teams on this section. You can also post your own ad and you will get a lot of answers.

5- WhatsApp Groups for your activity in your city

One can send messages and media individually as well as in groups through WhatsApp. Yes, I know you all are familiar with these things and even better than me. If you really wish to send you messages to a large number of people having a common identity, we make use of groups. We create groups so that every message is delivered with great accuracy. Additionally, these groups created will help business owners and organizations to promote and set up their business.

Moreover, all the WhatsApp group resembles our social connection. It has now become an ineluctable part of our personal lives. Spreading information to a big crowd has now become an easy job with aid of WhatsApp groups. You can easily make a personal connection with your old school and college mates. Also, Whatsapp groups help people to get connected with relatives living on the other part of the world.

Search online for WhatsApp group for soccer in your city for example. Unfortunately most WhatsApp groups are private to avoid being spammed and the best way is to know someone part of a specific WhatsApp group and request to be added. For example, to join Calgary and Edmonton Soccer WhatsApp group, you must contact the Admin at 4zero3695SevenThree0Four to be added.

Top 10 legal side business that can make you $1000-$2000 a week?

What are good competitors to G-Suite?

Below are the Top 10 legal side business that can make you $1000-$2000 a week. This list is based on my own experience and research. I have tried most of them and it takes dedication and passion to get there. Do your due diligence and make sure you have enough passion and patience to make it work.

1- Referee (If you like sports)

Become an amateur team sports referee and officiate about 20 to 30 games per week. I did it myself and it works. You make extra cash and stay in shape and meet a lot of people( hot girls playing soccer or basketball included).

To become a soccer referee, you just need to take a 2 days certification that will cost you about $100 depending on your state.

Amateur soccer Referees are paid up to $50 per game and games are played everyday after 05pm and on week ends.

I have created a referee locator app and listed how to become a referee anywhere in US and Canada at Amateur Referees Locator – How to become a referee? – Djamga – ShowUpAndPlaySports

2- Buy and sell popular or efficient cars (Japanese makes like Corolla, Camry, Honda, etc…) on Craigslist , kijiji, facebook marketplace or any local popular online used item market site.

3- Learn web design, coding and apply for part time consulting gigs at Remote Jobs: Design, Programming, Rails, Executive, Marketing, Copywriting, and more. or any other site posting IT work remote jobs in US or Canada.

4- Organize sports tournaments (soccer, basketball, hockey): Rent good and inexpensive fields, convince friends to create teams, run a great campaign and organize amateur sport tournaments monthly and you can easily make $5000 after expenses if you do it right. This is not easy though, you must know local players and team captains and convince them to join.

5- Become a freelancer writerIf you’re creative about how you write (hint: use speech to text and edit down into prose) you can get your hourly > $40/hour even at rates like $1/100 words.

6- Learn to play poker either online or in-person. Online, go for low-stakes and grind out your cash. Live, go for higher stakes and hunt down atrocious players (see my answer to How much can a competitive online poker player make? for more)

7- Become a tutor that focuses on students that are under-performing in the subjects you’re best at.

8- Do contract sales for companies that pay you recurring revenue. Over time, if you take care of your accounts, you won’t even need to close new ones if the retention rate is high.

9- Arbitrage mispriced items on Craigslist or kijiji

10- Arbitrage textbooks on Amazon. Time it with quarters / semesters / school years ending and hold until next quarter / semester / school year.

Bonus1- Drive 20 hours a week for Uber or https://lyft.com

Bonus2- Buy vending machines so that your cashflow for your investment is $1,000-$2,000 a week

Bonus- More opportunities here

Top 10 Financial Tips for Young Adults in USA and Canada

What are good competitors to G-Suite?

This blog is geared towards young adults, particularly young first and second generation immigrants like me who don’t have any real estate and assets inherited from their parents here in Canada and USA. In this blog, I will help answer the following questions below based on my own experience and extensive research:

I- What are some financial tips for middle class people? What is the best financial advice for middle age people?

  • Work Hard first and foremost and do well at your job. If you are not working hard at your job, you will lose it and any advice below won't matter.
  • Live a healthy lifestyle. Your health is your most important asset: Any advice below will be useless if you don't eat healthy, exercise and have a stress free life. Get medical insurance and get a health check up done once every year
  • Live within your mean; within your budget; Don't spend more than you earn.
  • Use your credit cards, but always pay them off at the end of the month.
  • Never miss a credit card payment: It will affect your credit negatively and cost you money.
  • Don't buy a car unless you really really need one. If you do need a car, don't buy old cars; You will end up spending more in the long run. Buy new cars at bargain price.
  • Take public transit or bike to work: You will save money and exercise and read a lot in the process.
  • Rent empty rooms in your apartment or house, and use that rental income to pay off your mortgage.
  • Get a side job in an area you are passionate about: If you like team sports, you can become a referee or coach and make extra money. You can help people fix their web site if you are tech savvy; You can buy and sell used items on facebook marketplace or kijiji or craigslist for a profit; you can be a tutor on week ends or evenings, etc…
  • After paying all your student loans and more importantly your credit cards debts, save money every single month automatically in your TFSA, RRSP , Roth IRA, 401K accounts.
  • Negotiate everything involving money coming in and out of your pocket. There are no rules set in stone about interest rates or pay grade; Negotiate, Research, Negotiate again until you get the best value for anything you are buying. Don't be a jerk though and don't come across as cheap: Learn when to stop and accept and appreciate a good value.

II- How do I improve my personal finances?

  • Work hard. The harder you work, the more likely you are to become financially independent. 
  • Diversify your income. You should never rely on one source of income, you should try and diversify your income streams. On top of your monthly salary at your main job, try to get rental income by renting empty rooms in your house or apartment. Get a side job in an area you have some expertise. Example: Tutoring, Team sport referee, Dance instructor, Handyman, Cleaner, salesman, etc…
  • Cancel recurring paying for things you don't need (Netflix, Spotify, cable, etc…) ; They add up.
  • Save as much as possible into your TFSA and RRSP, Roth IRA Account and let them compound.
  • Don't stress too much about anything, particularly finances; Stress is harmful.
  • Have self control: Resist the temptation of buying things that you don't need.
  • Start investing early and focus on compounding. Always think about long term. Have your money earn money.
  • Read, read and read: Education will help you make and save a lot of money.
  • Exercise and invest on your health which is your most important asset.

III- What should I invest in as a 18-45 year old?  How do I become financially stable in my 20’s?

  • As soon as you get paid, transfer at least $100 automatically to your TFSA, or Roth IRA Account every month. Select an aggressive portfolio and forget it. You will likely get a big return after 10 years.
  • If you can afford a 5% down payment for a house, buy one and if you are still single, rent the empty rooms and make sure that your rental income can cover at least half of your mortgage payment.
  • If you have time to research about stocks market, do your due diligence and buy some good stocks. Don't invest more than $10000 on stocks from your own pocket. Invest in stocks as if it is lost money and you might be lucky down the road.
  • Start saving money monthly in your RRSP, 401K and RESP accounts if you have kids.
  • Invest in your physical, mental and emotional health: Yes I am repeating myself. If you are not healthy, any other advice is useless and you might not even be around to enjoy the benefits of your investments.

IV- What is a financial rule you should never break? What personal finance mistakes should everyone avoid?

  • Easy to say, but hard to do: Never buy depreciating assets on credit. Cars, RVs, appliances, clothes, trips, leasing, etc. You won't get rich that way.
  • If you’ve ever thought about buying a house, you’ve probably heard it: Don’t take out a mortgage until you’ve saved up at least 20 percent for a down payment. Otherwise, you’ll be forced to pay notorious private mortgage insurance.
  • Save 10 percent of your income.
  • Don't rent or throw away money. Buy a house and be the landlord.
  • Investing before spending rather than investing after spending.
  • Pay all your bills and dues in time so as to never pay them with heavy interest or penalty!
  • Don’t invest in anything that you don’t understand. Yourself. Not because someone sold it to you or because others are doing it.
  • Don’t focus on the short-term, allow yourself to be unduly influenced by the financial news media, or let news about the market or the economy affect your long-term investing strategy.
  • Save and Invest early and aggressively in your 20's. Time and a higher risk tolerance are extraordinarily valuable and everyone can make this call when they are younger—or do so for their children/family. This also sort of falls under the “rule” of paying yourself first. This is key to maximizing wealth.

V- How can you attain financial freedom by working 9 to 5 job?

  • Read , read, read and be curious. This will help you find and execute ideas to make some money on the side.
  • Increase your income streams: On top of your day job, try freelancing on the side for a few extra bucks. Identify where you can provide your freelancing services (Referee in team sports, Handyman, Tutor, Buy and Sell used items for a profit, art, etc..). The more sources you have, the better.
  • Start saving as early as you can.  The earlier you start, the better.
  • Make your money work. Start a business, make investments, do something that makes you more money from what you have.
  • Make money from your existing assets (rent rooms in yours house, Uber or deliver stuffs with your car or truck, etc..)
  • Never spend money on depreciating commodities that doesn't affect your safety. What you can do with a  used $200 phone, doesn’t have to be bought at $1000 just because it is hip.
  • Don't jeopardize your safety. If you buy old cars that  break down regularly and put you at risk on highway, all the advice above won't matter.

VI- What is the best way to invest in real estate?

  • Whatever you are buying, put at least 20% down to avoid paying extra insurance fees and be stuck with a high interest rate for years.
  • Buy in decent neighbourhood.  It usually means better tenants who will be more likely to  pay their rents and not damage the property.
  • Buy a mix of multi family and single family homes.  It usually results in better tenants and higher equity growth over time.
  • Invest on home inspection: Make sure to use an agent who is able to point out potential problems.  Get a home inspection and don't buy a property that requires extensive repair.  Especially on your first one and when you don't have a ton of disposable income.
  • Build: Contact builder who build properties and buy from them, allowing you to get great discount and customize the house for extra rooms and developed basement. 
  • Become Part of a Bigger Deal:  By partnering up with others interested in investing and pooling your resources to make a larger deal happen. Do some research online on how you can do this for either a commercial or residential property, which in some cases, requires an investment as small as $1000. The good thing about these deals is that you can hedge your bets by placing multiple investments into various properties.
  • Real Estate Investment Trust: Also known as a REIT, you can invest in a publicly traded trust that uses the capital of its investors to acquire and operate properties. You can find REITs in the major Wall Street exchanges and it requires companies to shell out 90% of their taxable profits through dividends to investors in order to retain their position as an REIT.
  • Rent A Portion Of Your Existing Home via Airbnb or VRBO: I prefer those options because you it is short term and you can always stop renting when you have family visiting. This gives you a lot of flexibility.

VII- Is it worth taking out a loan to pay for a house?

  Year 1 Year 10
Time to Sell
John Doe 1
Buys 1 house cash putting 20K down and invest 80K
Gets $800 per month from the $80K savings
easy life and always has plenty of cash
$96,000 in rental income
sells his one house for $200,000 and nets $100,000, so his total gain was $196,000, not bad. His $100,000 investment has nearly tripled!
John Doe 2
Borrows and Buys 4 houses with 100K putting down 20K for each
Gets $200 per house per month but spends it all towards the principal of the loan, so gets $0 per month
Must keep his full time job and has a struggle keeping up with expenses
around $24,000 in rental income
sells his 4 rentals for $200,000 each netting $100,000 each for a gain of $400,000, so his total gain is $424,000, so his investment has more than quadrupled!

Who won?

VIII-  What are some rookie mistakes of first-time house buyers?

  • Rushing to accept any financing offer because of the excitement to own your first house: Not good. Get various and competitive financing offer from different institutions and negotiate to get the lowest possible interest rate.
  • Don't just focus on the aesthetic part of the house; Most first houses are never your dream house:  Focus on features that will make the house  easily and quickly sellable (Number of rooms, size of rooms, garage, easy to maintain, location, etc..).
  • Don't buy an above average size and price house for your first house, go to the lower end and get a size that is proportional to your family size.
  • Using a family or friend for a realtor: Don't do it. This is your first most important investment and don't mix it with feelings and emotions.
  • Location, location, location: Buy where you can easily access public transit so you don't have to spend all your savings on driving to work. In the same token, buying closer to public transit will help you get renters easily if you have empty rooms available.
  • Inspection, inspection, inspection: Get the best home inspector available. Some of them are really bad. Look for home inspectors reviews before hiring them. If the home inspection misses important defective stuffs like dry rot on the siding, you will end up spending thousands of dollars to fix them.

IX- What’s a realistic down payment percentage for a first-time home buyer?

  • As a buyer, if you have  enough money for a 20% down payment and closing costs and has something left over for cash reserves, 20% is fine. But if you carry any consumer debt with rates higher than that of a mortgage, it is far better to pay those more expensive items off with available cash than to put it into a home down payment.
  • When you get a conventional mortgage with a down payment of less than 20 percent, you have to get private mortgage insurance, or PMI. The monthly cost of PMI varies, depending on your credit score, the size of the down payment and the loan amount. 

X- Resources & Definitions:

1- Quora

2- CRA

3- What is RRSP: An RRSP is a retirement savings plan that you establish, that we register, and to which you or your spouse or common-law partner contribute. Deductible RRSP contributions can be used to reduce your tax. Any income you earn in the RRSP is usually exempt from tax as long as the funds remain in the plan; you generally have to pay tax when you receive payments from the plan. (Applies to USCanadaonly)

4- What is TFSA: The Tax-Free Savings Account (TFSA) program began in 2009. It is a way for individuals who are 18 and older and who have a valid social insurance number to set money aside tax-free throughout their lifetime. Contributions to a TFSA are not deductible for income tax purposes. Any amount contributed as well as any income earned in the account (for example, investment income and capital gains) is generally tax-free, even when it is withdrawn.  Administrative or other fees in relation to TFSA and any interest or money borrowed to contribute to a TFSA are not deductible. (Applies to Canada only)

5- What is RESP: A registered education savings plan (RESP) is a contract between an individual (the subscriber) and a person or organization (the promoter). Under the contract, the subscriber names one or more beneficiaries (the future student(s)) and agrees to make contributions for them, and the promoter agrees to pay educational assistance payments (EAPs) to the beneficiaries. (Applies to Canada only)

There are two different types of RESP available: family plans and specified plans.

6- What is Roth IRA? A Roth IRA is an IRA that, except as explained below, is subject to the rules that apply to a traditional IRA. (Applies to USA only)

  • You cannot deduct contributions to a Roth IRA.
  • If you satisfy the requirements, qualified distributions are tax-free.
  • You can make contributions to your Roth IRA after you reach age 70 ½.
  • You can leave amounts in your Roth IRA as long as you live.
  • The account or annuity must be designated as a Roth IRA when it is set up.

The same combined contribution limit applies to all of your Roth and traditional IRAs. 

A traditional IRA is a way to save for retirement that gives you tax advantages (USA)

  • Contributions you make to a traditional IRA may be fully or partially deductible, depending on your circumstances, and
     
  • Generally, amounts in your traditional IRA (including earnings and gains) are not taxed until distributed.

7- 401K: A 401(k) is a feature of a qualified profit-sharing plan that allows employees to contribute a portion of their wages to individual accounts.

  • Elective salary deferrals are excluded from the employee’s taxable income (except for designated Roth deferrals).
  • Employers can contribute to employees’ accounts.
  • Distributions, including earnings, are includible in taxable income at retirement (except for qualified distributions of designated Roth accounts).

Free and Effective Internet Marketing in USA and Canada: Top 10 Tips to Sell Online at No Cost

Free and Effective Internet Marketing - Online Advertising
Free and Effective online marketing with instagram
Free and Effective Internet Marketing or Online Advertising in USA and Canada

Online advertising is the process of promoting a business or brand and its products or services over the internet using tools that help drive traffic, leads, and sales. Internet Marketing, also called online marketing or Internet advertising or web advertising, is a form of marketing and advertising which uses the Internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers.

Online Advertising is also known as Digital Marketing, Web Marketing, Social Media Marketing, Digital Advertising, etc…

What is the secret for Free and Effective Internet Marketing or Online Advertising in USA and Canada?

What and when to sell free of charge on kijiji in Canada and Craigslist in USA?

What and when to sell free of charge on Facebook Marketplace in USA and Canada?

What and when to sell free of charge instagram, reddit, Linkedin, WhatsApp?

How to sell new or used items online fast and at no cost?

The cost of Internet Marketing can be overwhelming for every day people who want to sell new or used items, but there are ways to do it at no cost and be effective.

There are various platforms and tools available for Free and effective  Internet Marketing, but those platforms evolve and some fall behind as technology and users evolve. 

The prerequisite for an efficient internet marketing campaign is the quality of the ad. No Tools or website will help you sell if your ad doesn’t have the following basic qualities:

  • Clear Pictures or Videos of your products 
  • Clear and concise title
  • Clear and short description
  • Cost
  • Location
  • Category
  • Hashtags
  • Honesty 

Once those prerequisites are satisfied, you need to know your target users and the best tools to use and I will help with some pointers in this blog.

The efficiency of your internet marketing also depends on the products or services you are selling.

Below are the tools and websites to use for an efficient  internet marketing  free of charge:

I- Facebook Marketplace

In October 2016, Facebook announced a new Marketplace, citing the growth of organized “buy and sell” Facebook Groups, and gave the new version a higher prominence in the main Facebook app, taking the navigation position previously held by Facebook Messenger

Facebook and Google ad platforms use machine learning and artificial intelligence to find people more prone to making the advertiser’s desired action. To achieve this, they analyze the user’s information, like their interests, demographics, and other aspects to learn and detect the best audience for their brand.

Facebook Market place is your best best to sell the following products quickly and at no advertising cost:

  • Household items
  • Garage sale
  • Art and crafts
  • Electronics and Computers
  • Furniture
  • Kids and baby toys
  • Clothing
  • Accommodation (Room, house rental)
  • Auto parts
  • Sport Equipment

To be efficient, you must join the local facebook groups for your neighbourhood. Post your items to Facebook marketplace and share it to groups in your neighbourhood. Don’t share your ads to vague groups or city wide groups unless it is a very rare and unique item. If you share it to city wide groups, you will waste a lot of time talking to interested users who will not show up because of the distance: So it is very important to stick to groups in your neighbourhood only.

Facebook has superior technology and artificial intelligence to show your ads to targeted users who need your products and you only create your ad once and you can post, repost, share and re-share the same ad to various target groups very easily.

Free and Effective Facebook Marketplace Ad
Free and Effective Facebook Marketplace Ad

II- Kijiji in Canada and Craigslist in USA

Kijiji and Craigslist used to be the best place to sell anything in USA and Canada, but they have been overtaken by facebook superior technology and artificial intelligence. Kijiji gives priority to paid ads and your ad can fall far below in a few minutes after posting it. 

When i post the same ad on facebook marketplace and kijiji at the same time, I receive better response on facebook for a ration of 10 to 1. 

Kijiji and Craigslist remain the best place for the following buy and sell products and services type of ads:

  • Cars, Autos Sales
  • local contractors (Carpenters, Basement developers, Plumbers, Electricians, etc..)
  • local non corporate Jobs and Services
  • Local Trades jobs and services
Free and Effective Contractor Ad on kijiji or craigslist
Free and Effective Contractor Ad on kijiji or craigslist

III- WhatsApp Groups

WhatsApp groups are very efficient and will soon become the best place to buy and  sell ads  and share info for free. If you are not part of a whatsApp group, i strongly suggest you join one that is closer to you and your interests. The best thing about WhatsApp group is trust. Members are usually friends or family who have met each other at least once.

WhatsApp group users share interest and people who join WhatsApp group are really motivated about the group, otherwise they will remove themselves to avoid annoying notifications on their phones.

When you are part of a whatsApp group, you always read the message posted on the group, because it pops up on your phone directly like a text message.

If you are part of a large WhatsApp group, post your items for sell there if the groups allows it and you will likely gets serious inquiries immediately. It is very important to avoid spamming. Check with the group admin privately if it is ok to post a sale ad.

What to post on WhatsApp groups?

  1. Local jobs and services
  2. Announcement
  3. Events
  4. Charity post
  5. Offering your service
Free and Efficient  Buy and sell Ad on WhatsApp Groups
Free and Efficient Buy and sell Ad on WhatsApp Groups

IV- Hashtags

hashtag is a type of metadata tag used on social networks such as Twitter and other microblogging services, allowing users to apply dynamicuser-generated tagging which makes it possible for others to easily find messages with a specific theme or content. 

Whatever you are posting online, use hashtags (Example: #HairExtension) to be found for free. Even if you don’t have a lot of followers and friends, you can post your items of your twitter, linkedin, facebook, instagram feed  and use hashtag to be found by thousands of people.

V- Instagram

Instagram (also known as IG or Insta) is a photo and video-sharing social networking service owned by Facebook, Inc.

Instagram is very powerful for the following visual products and services:

  • Beauty (Hair Salon, Nail Salon, etc..)
  • Clothing, fashion
  • Shoes
  • Aesthetician
  • Food, Restaurants
  • Fitness
Free and Effective Sell Ad on Instagram - Extensionista Hair Salon
Free and Effective Sell Ad on Instagram – Extensionista Hair Salon

VI- Facebook Pages

Efficient to promote local events with RSVP options.

Free and Efficient Internet Marketing with Facebook Page
Free and Efficient Internet Marketing with Facebook Page

VII- Reddit

Reddit is an American social news aggregation, web content rating, and discussion website. Registered members submit content to the site such as links, text posts, and images, which are then voted up or down by other members. Posts are organized by subject into user-created boards called “subreddits”, which cover a variety of topics including news, science, movies, video games, music, books, fitness, food, and image-sharing.

If you are developing a product (web app, tool, prototype, etc,) and want to have a feel for how it will be received, you can post it on Reddit as long as you are not spamming.

Reddit users are very clever and harsh and will bash whatever you post in most cases, but you can use the negative feedbacks to improve your product and make it better.

Free and Effective Internet Marketing or Online Advertising in USA and Canada - reddit
Free and Effective Internet Marketing or Online Advertising in USA and Canada

What to post or promote on Reddit?

  1. Web App
  2. Prototype of a product or service asking for feedback
  3. Link to blogs

VIII- LinkedIn

If you are looking for candidates for a job in the corporate world, if you are looking for a job in the corporate world, linkedin is your best bet if you add proper hashtags on your posts.

Linkedin is mainly used for professional networking, including employers posting jobs and job seekers posting their CVs.

Free and Effective Internet Marketing - Linkedin
Free and Effective Internet Marketing – Linkedin

IX- Twitter

According to wikipedia, Twitter  is a microblogging and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as “tweets”. Tweets were originally restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled to 280 for all languages except Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Registered users can post, like, and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service (SMS) or its mobile-device application software (“app”). 

You can post ads on twitter when you want to use a large audience. Even if you don’t have a large follower base, a proper hashtag of your tweets can help your post been re-tweeted and re-shared to a large audience. Efficient ads on twitter must send users to a website for actions. 

What to sell on twitter for free ?

  • Promote a web site or blog
  • Promote an event
  • Promote a product or service from a website to a large audience
Free and Effective Internet Marketing on Twitter
Free and Effective Internet Marketing on Twitter

 

X- Google My Business

Google My Business is an Internet-based service for business owners and operated by Google. The network launched in June 2014 as a way of giving business owners more control of what shows in the search results when someone searches a given business name. Google allows business owners to verify their own business data via creating a new profile or claiming an existing auto-generated profile. The Google My Business listing appears in the Google Maps section of Google as well as the “Local Pack” for qualifying search queries.

Google My Business is Free and any small business should have it. Google has full control of the digital search market and having an account with Google My Business will give your company a boost for people looking for your products and services in your area.

Free and Effective Online Marketing with Google My Business
Free and Effective Online Marketing with Google My Business

Any small business or company with a specific location or address should have a Google My Business account to stay relevant and be found and no cost by consumers.

Google My Business allows business owners to supply information that can show up in a Google search, such as open hours, address, phone number, and photos.

Google My Business allows businesses to create a website at no cost.

Google My Business allow customers to review businesses and business owners can respond to reviews. 

Google My Business allows business owners to post updates about announcements or sales.  Business owners are able to upload pictures and videos to a company’s Google My Business page.

Posts from Google My Business show up in Google search results.

XI- Ressources:

  1. What are the best Internet Marketing Techniques
  2. Online Advertising
  3. Digital Marketing and AI

AWS Solution Architect Associate Certification Exam Prep: Facts and Summaries, Questions and Answers Dump

AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Questions and Answers Dump
aws certified solution architect exam prep
aws certified solution architect exam prep

In this blog, we will help you prepare for the AWS Solution Architect Associate Certification Exam, give you some  facts and summaries, provide AWS Solution Architect Associate Top 65 Questions and Answers Dump

 

Definition 1: Solution architecture is a practice of defining and describing an architecture of a system delivered in context of a specific solution and as such it may encompass description of an entire system or only its specific parts. Definition of a solution architecture is typically led by a solution architect.

Definition 2: The AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate examination is intended for individuals who perform a solutions architect role and have one or more years of hands-on experience designing available, cost-efficient, fault-tolerant, and scalable distributed systems on AWS.

AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Facts and Summaries

  1. This exam validates an examinee’s ability to effectively demonstrate knowledge of how to architect and deploy secure and robust applications on AWS technologies. It validates an examinee’s ability to:
    • Define a solution using architectural design principles based on customer requirements.
    • Provide implementation guidance based on best practices to the organization throughout the lifecycle of the project.
  2. There are two types of questions on the examination:
    • Multiple-choice: Has one correct response and three incorrect responses (distractors).
    • Multiple-response: Has two correct responses out of five options.

    Select one or more responses that best complete the statement or answer the question. Distractors, or incorrect answers, are response options that an examinee with incomplete knowledge or skill would likely choose. However, they are generally plausible responses that fit in the content area defined by the test objective. Unanswered questions are scored as incorrect; there is no penalty for guessing.  

  3. The table below lists the main content domains and their weightings:
  4. Domain 1: Design Resilient Architectures
    • Choose reliable/resilient storage.
    • Determine how to design decoupling mechanisms using AWS services.
    • Determine how to design a multi-tier architecture solution.
    • Determine how to design high availability and/or fault tolerant architectures
  5. Domain 2: Define Performant Architectures
    • Choose performant storage and databases.
    • Apply caching to improve performance.
    • Design solutions for elasticity and scalability.
  6. Domain 3: Specify Secure Applications and Architectures.
    • Determine how to secure application tiers.
    • Determine how to secure data.
    • Define the networking infrastructure for a single VPC application.
  7.  Domain 4: Design Cost-Optimized Architectures
    • Determine how to design cost-optimized storage.
    • Determine how to design cost-optimized compute.
  8. Domain 5: Define Operationally-Excellent Architectures
    • Choose design features in solutions that enable operational excellence.
  9. Take an AWS Training Class
  10. Study AWS Whitepapers and FAQs: AWS Well-Architected webpage (various whitepapers linked)
  11. If you are running an application in a production environment and must add a new EBS volume with data from a snapshot, what could you do to avoid degraded performance during the volume’s first use?
    Initialize the data by reading each storage block on the volume.
    Volumes created from an EBS snapshot must be initialized. Initializing occurs the first time a storage block on the volume is read, and the performance impact can be impacted by up to 50%. You can avoid this impact in production environments by pre-warming the volume by reading all of the blocks.
  12. If you are running a legacy application that has hard-coded static IP addresses and it is running on an EC2 instance; what is the best failover solution that allows you to keep the same IP address on a new instance?
    Elastic IP addresses (EIPs) are designed to be attached/detached and moved from one EC2 instance to another. They are a great solution for keeping a static IP address and moving it to a new instance if the current instance fails. This will reduce or eliminate any downtime uses may experience.
  13. Which feature of Intel processors help to encrypt data without significant impact on performance?
    AES-NI
  14. You can mount to EFS from which two of the following?
    • On-prem servers running Linux
    • EC2 instances running Linux

    EFS is not compatible with Windows operating systems.

  15. When a file(s) is encrypted and the stored data is not in transit it’s known as encryption at rest. What is an example of encryption at rest? 

  16. When would vertical scaling be necessary? When an application is built entirely into one source code, otherwise known as a monolithic application.

  17. Fault-Tolerance allows for continuous operation throughout a failure, which can lead to a low Recovery Time Objective.  RPO vs. RTO

  18. High-Availability means automating tasks so that an instance will quickly recover, which can lead to a low Recovery Time Objective.  RPO vs. RTO
  19. Frequent backups reduce the time between the last backup and recovery point, otherwise known as the Recovery Point Objective.  RPO vs. RTO
  20. Which represents the difference between Fault-Tolerance and High-Availability? High-Availability means the system will quickly recover from a failure event, and Fault-Tolerance means the system will maintain operations during a failure.
  21. From a security perspective, what is a principal? An anonymous user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an anonymous user acting on a system.

    An authenticated user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an authenticated user acting on a system.

  22. What are two types of session data saving for an Application Session State? Stateless and Stateful

 

23. It is the customer’s responsibility to patch the operating system on an EC2 instance.

24. In designing an environment, what four main points should a Solutions Architect keep in mind? Cost-efficient, secure, application session state, undifferentiated heavy lifting: These four main points should be the framework when designing an environment.

25. In the context of disaster recovery, what does RPO stand for? RPO is the abbreviation for Recovery Point Objective.

26. What are the benefits of horizontal scaling?

Vertical scaling can be costly while horizontal scaling is cheaper.

Horizontal scaling suffers from none of the size limitations of vertical scaling.

Having horizontal scaling means you can easily route traffic to another instance of a server.

Top
Reference: AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep

AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep Questions and Answers Dump

For a better mobile experience, download the mobile app below:

aws certified solution architect exam prep
aws certified solution architect exam prep

Q0: A company is developing a highly available web application using stateless web servers. Which services are suitable for storing session state data? (Select TWO.)

  • A. CloudWatch
  • B. DynamoDB
  • C. Elastic Load Balancing
  • D. ElastiCache
  • E. Storage Gateway

B. and D.

Reference: AWS Session management

Top

Q1: A Solutions Architect is designing a critical business application with a relational database that runs on an EC2 instance. It requires a single EBS volume that can support up to 16,000 IOPS.
Which Amazon EBS volume type can meet the performance requirements of this application?

  • A. EBS Provisioned IOPS SSD
  • B. EBS Throughput Optimized HDD
  • C. EBS General Purpose SSD
  • D. EBS Cold HDD

A.
EBS Provisioned IOPS SSD provides sustained performance for mission-critical low-latency workloads. EBS General Purpose SSD can provide bursts of performance up to 3,000 IOPS and have a maximum baseline performance of 10,000 IOPS for volume sizes greater than 3.3 TB. The 2 HDD options are lower cost, high throughput volumes.

Reference: Amazon EBS Performance Tips

Top

Q2: An application running on EC2 instances processes sensitive information stored on Amazon S3. The information is accessed over the Internet. The security team is concerned that the Internet connectivity to Amazon S3 is a security risk.
Which solution will resolve the security concern?

  • A. Access the data through an Internet Gateway.
  • B. Access the data through a VPN connection.
  • C. Access the data through a NAT Gateway.
  • D.Access the data through a VPC endpoint for Amazon S3

D.
VPC endpoints for Amazon S3 provide secure connections to S3 buckets that do not require a gateway or NAT instances. NAT Gateways and Internet Gateways still route traffic over the Internet to the public endpoint for Amazon S3. There is no way to connect to Amazon S3 via VPN.

Reference: S3 VPC Endpoints

Top

Q3: An organization is building an Amazon Redshift cluster in their shared services VPC. The cluster will host sensitive data.
How can the organization control which networks can access the cluster?

  • A. Run the cluster in a different VPC and connect through VPC peering.
  • B. Create a database user inside the Amazon Redshift cluster only for users on the network.
  • C. Define a cluster security group for the cluster that allows access from the allowed networks.
  • D. Only allow access to networks that connect with the shared services network via VPN.

C
A security group can grant access to traffic from the allowed networks via the CIDR range for each network. VPC peering and VPN are connectivity services and cannot control traffic for security. Amazon Redshift user accounts address authentication and authorization at the user level and have no control over network traffic.

Reference: AWS Security best practice

Top

Q4: A web application allows customers to upload orders to an S3 bucket. The resulting Amazon S3 events trigger a Lambda function that inserts a message to an SQS queue. A single EC2 instance reads messages from the queue, processes them, and stores them in an DynamoDB table partitioned by unique order ID. Next month traffic is expected to increase by a factor of 10 and a Solutions Architect is reviewing the architecture for possible scaling problems.
Which component is MOST likely to need re-architecting to be able to scale to accommodate the new traffic?

  • A. Lambda function
  • B. SQS queue
  • C. EC2 instance
  • D. DynamoDB table

C.
A single EC2 instance will not scale and is a single point of failure in the architecture. A much better solution would be to have EC2 instances in an Auto Scaling group across 2 availability zones read messages from the queue. The other responses are all managed services that can be configured to scale or will scale automatically.

Reference: Eliminating Single Points of Failures on AWS Cloud

Top

Q5: An application requires a highly available relational database with an initial storage capacity of 8 TB. The database will grow by 8 GB every day. To support expected traffic, at least eight read replicas will be required to handle database reads.
Which option will meet these requirements?

  • A. DynamoDB
  • B. Amazon S3
  • C. Amazon Aurora
  • D. Amazon Redshift

C.
Amazon Aurora is a relational database that will automatically scale to accommodate data growth. Amazon Redshift does not support read replicas and will not automatically scale. DynamoDB is a NoSQL service, not a relational database. Amazon S3 is object storage, not a relational database.

Reference: Replication with Amazon Aurora

Top

Q6: How can you improve the performance of EFS?

  • A. Use an instance-store backed EC2 instance.
  • B. Provision more throughput than is required.
  • C. Divide your files system into multiple smaller file systems.
  • D. Provision higher IOPs for your EFS.

B.
Amazon EFS now allows you to instantly provision the throughput required for your applications independent of the amount of data stored in your file system. This allows you to optimize throughput for your application’s performance needs.

Reference: Amazon EFS Performance

Top

Q7:
If you are designing an application that requires fast (10 – 25Gbps), low-latency connections between EC2 instances, what EC2 feature should you use?

  • A. Snapshots
  • B. Instance store volumes
  • C. Placement groups
  • D. IOPS provisioned instances.

C.
Placement groups are a clustering of EC2 instances in one Availability Zone with fast (up to 25Gbps) connections between them. This feature is used for applications that need extremely low-latency connections between instances.

Reference: Placement Groups

Top

Q8: A Solution Architect is designing an online shopping application running in a VPC on EC2 instances behind an ELB Application Load Balancer. The instances run in an Auto Scaling group across multiple Availability Zones. The application tier must read and write data to a customer managed database cluster. There should be no access to the database from the Internet, but the cluster must be able to obtain software patches from the Internet.

 

Which VPC design meets these requirements?

  • A. Public subnets for both the application tier and the database cluster
  • B. Public subnets for the application tier, and private subnets for the database cluster
  • C. Public subnets for the application tier and NAT Gateway, and private subnets for the database cluster
  • D. Public subnets for the application tier, and private subnets for the database cluster and NAT Gateway

Answer: C.
The online application must be in public subnets to allow access from clients' browsers. The database cluster must be in private subnets to meet the requirement that there be no access from the Internet.
A NAT Gateway is required to give the database cluster the ability to download patches from the Internet. NAT Gateways must be deployed in public subnets.

Reference: Public and Private Subnets

Top

Q9: What command should you run on a running instance if you want to view its user data (that is used at launch)?

  • A. curl http://254.169.254.169/latest/user-data
  • B. curl http://localhost/latest/meta-data/bootstrap
  • C. curl http://localhost/latest/user-data
  • D. curl http://169.254.169.254/latest/user-data

Answer: D.
Retrieve Instance User Data
To retrieve user data from within a running instance, use the following URI:
http://169.254.169.254/latest/user-data

Reference: Instance Metadata and User Data

Get user data from AWS Ec2 running instance
Get user data from AWS Ec2 running instance

Top

Q10: A company is developing a highly available web application using stateless web servers. Which
services are suitable for storing session state data? (Select TWO.)

  • A. CloudWatch
  • B. DynamoDB
  • C. Elastic Load Balancing
  • D. ElastiCache
  • E. Storage Gateway

Answer: B. and D.
Both DynamoDB and ElastiCache provide high performance storage of key-value pairs.
CloudWatch and ELB are not storage services. Storage Gateway is a storage service, but it is a hybrid
Storage service that enables on-premises applications to use cloud storage.

A stateful web service will keep track of the “state” of a client's connection and data over several requests. So for example, the client might login, select a users account data, update their address, attach a photo, and change the status flag, then disconnect.

In a stateless web service, the server doesn't keep any information from one request to the next. The client needs to do it's work in a series of simple transactions, and the client has to keep track of what happens between requests. So in the above example, the client needs to do each operation separately: connect and update the address, disconnect. Connect and attach the photo, disconnect. Connect and change the status flag, disconnect.

A stateless web service is much simpler to implement, and can handle greater volume of clients.

Reference: Stateful & Stateless web service

Top

Q11: From a security perspective, what is a principal?

  • A. An identity
  • B. An anonymous user 
  • C. An authenticated user
  • D. A resource
  • E. 

Answer: B. and C.

An anonymous user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an anonymous user acting on a system.  An authenticated user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an authenticated user acting on a system.

Reference: Access management

Q12: What are the characteristics of a tiered application?

  • A. All three application layers are on the same instance
  • B. The presentation tier is on an isolated instance than the logic layer
  • C. None of the tiers can be cloned
  • D. The logic layer is on an isolated instance than the data layer
  • E. Additional machines can be added to help the application by implementing horizontal scaling
  • F.  Incapable of horizontal scaling

Answer: B. D. and E.

In a tiered application, the presentation layer is separate from the logic layer; the logic layer is separate from the data layer. Since parts of the application are isolated, they can scale horizontally.

Reference: Tiered Application

Q13: When using horizontal scaling, how can a server’s capacity closely match it’s rising demand?

A. By frequently purchasing additional instances and smaller resources

 

 

 

 

B. By purchasing more resources very far in advance

C. By purchasing more resources after demand has risen

D. It is not possible to predict demand

Answer: A

Reference: AWS Horizontal Scaling

 

Q14: What is the concept behind AWS’ Well-Architected Framework?

A. It’s a set of best practice areas, principles, and concepts that can help you implement effective AWS solutions.

B. It’s a set of best practice areas, principles, and concepts that can help you implement effective solutions tailored to your specific business.

C. It’s a set of best practice areas, principles, and concepts that can help you implement effective solutions from another web host.

D. It’s a set of best practice areas, principles, and concepts that can help you implement effective E-Commerce solutions.

Answer: A.

 
Q15: Select the true statements regarding AWS Regions.

 

 

 

 

A. Availability Zones are isolated locations within regions

B. Region codes identify specific regions (example: US-EAST-2)

C. All AWS Regions contain the full set of AWS services.

D. An AWS Region is assigned based on the user’s location when creating an AWS account.

Answer: (A, B, D)
Reference: AWS Regions
Q16: Which is not one of the five pillars of a well-architected framework?

 

 

 

 

A. Reliability

B. Performance Efficiency

C. Structural Simplicity

D. Security

E. Operational Excellence

Answer: C

 

What are the 5 pillars of a well architected framework:
1. Operational Excellence
The operational excellence pillar includes the ability to run and monitor systems to deliver business value and to continually improve supporting processes and procedures. You can find prescriptive guidance on implementation in the Operational Excellence Pillar whitepaper.

2. Security
The security pillar includes the ability to protect information, systems, and assets while delivering business value through risk assessments and mitigation strategies. You can find prescriptive guidance on implementation in the Security Pillar whitepaper.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Reliability
The reliability pillar includes the ability of a system to recover from infrastructure or service disruptions, dynamically acquire computing resources to meet demand, and mitigate disruptions such as misconfigurations or transient network issues. You can find prescriptive guidance on implementation in the Reliability Pillar whitepaper.

4. Performance Efficiency
The performance efficiency pillar includes the ability to use computing resources efficiently to meet system requirements and to maintain that efficiency as demand changes and technologies evolve. You can find prescriptive guidance on implementation in the Performance Efficiency Pillar whitepaper.

5. Cost Optimization
The cost optimization pillar includes the ability to avoid or eliminate unneeded cost or suboptimal resources. You can find prescriptive guidance on implementation in the Cost Optimization Pillar whitepaper.

The AWS Well-Architected Framework provides architectural best practices across the five pillars for designing and operating reliable, secure, efficient, and cost-effective systems in the cloud.
The framework provides a set of questions that allows you to review an existing or proposed architecture. It also provides a set of AWS best practices for each pillar.
Using the Framework in your architecture helps you produce stable and efficient systems, which allows you to focus on functional requirements.

 

 

Other AWS Facts and Summaries and Questions/Answers Dump

What means undifferentiated heavy lifting?

The reality, of course, today is that if you come up with a great idea you don’t get to go quickly to a successful product. There’s a lot of undifferentiated heavy lifting that stands between your idea and that success. The kinds of things that I’m talking about when I say undifferentiated heavy lifting are things like these: figuring out which servers to buy, how many of them to buy, what time line to buy them.

 

Eventually you end up with heterogeneous hardware and you have to match that. You have to think about backup scenarios if you lose your data center or lose connectivity to a data center. Eventually you have to move facilities. There’s negotiations to be done. It’s a very complex set of activities that really is a big driver of ultimate success.

 

But they are undifferentiated from, it’s not the heart of, your idea. We call this muck. And it gets worse because what really happens is you don’t have to do this one time. You have to drive this loop. After you get your first version of your idea out into the marketplace, you’ve done all that undifferentiated heavy lifting, you find out that you have to cycle back. Change your idea. The winners are the ones that can cycle this loop the fastest.

 

On every cycle of this loop you have this undifferentiated heavy lifting, or muck, that you have to contend with. I believe that for most companies, and it’s certainly true at Amazon, that 70% of your time, energy, and dollars go into the undifferentiated heavy lifting and only 30% of your energy, time, and dollars gets to go into the core kernel of your idea.

 

I think what people are excited about is that they’re going to get a chance they see a future where they may be able to invert those two. Where they may be able to spend 70% of their time, energy and dollars on the differentiated part of what they’re doing.

— Jeff Bezos, 2006

AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep Quiz App

AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep
AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep

Download AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep Pro App (No Ads, Full version with answers) for:

AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep Quiz Pro
AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep Quiz Pro

Android –  iOSWindows 10 Amazon Android

aws solution architect exam prep quiz pro full version with answers
aws solution architect exam prep quiz pro full version with answers

Download AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep Quiz App for:

AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep
AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep Quiz

All Platforms (PWA) –  Android –  iOSWindows 10 Amazon Android

AWS Certification Preparation: AWS Ec2 Facts, Faqs and Summaries, Top 10 Questions and Answers Dump

AWS Ec2 Facts and Summaries

AWS Ec2 Facts and summaries, AWS Ec2 Top 10 Questions and Answers Dump

Definition 1: Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is a web service that provides secure, resizable compute capacity in the cloud. It is designed to make web-scale cloud computing easier for developers.

Definition 2: Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) forms a central part of Amazon.com’s cloud-computing platform, Amazon Web Services (AWS), by allowing users to rent virtual computers on which to run their own computer applications.




AWS Ec2 Facts and summaries

  1. Can users SSH to EC2 instances using their AWS user name and password?
    No. User security credentials created with IAM are not supported for direct authentication to customer EC2 instances. Managing EC2 SSH credentials is the customer’s responsibility within the EC2 console.
  2. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is a web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. It is designed to make web-scale computing easier for developers.

  3. What is the difference between using the local instance store and Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) for the root device?
    When you launch your Amazon EC2 instances you have the ability to store your root device data on Amazon EBS or the local instance store. By using Amazon EBS, data on the root device will persist independently from the lifetime of the instance. This enables you to stop and restart the instance at a subsequent time, which is similar to shutting down your laptop and restarting it when you need it again.
    Alternatively, the local instance store only persists during the life of the instance. This is an inexpensive way to launch instances where data is not stored to the root device. For example, some customers use this option to run large web sites where each instance is a clone to handle web traffic.

  4. How many instances can I run in Amazon EC2?
    You are limited to running up to a total of 20 On-Demand instances across the instance family, purchasing 20 Reserved Instances, and requesting Spot Instances per your dynamic Spot limit per region.

  5. How quickly can I scale my capacity both up and down?
    Amazon EC2 provides a truly elastic computing environment. Amazon EC2 enables you to increase or decrease capacity within minutes, not hours or days. You can commission one, hundreds or even thousands of server instances simultaneously. When you need more instances, you simply call RunInstances, and Amazon EC2 will typically set up your new instances in a matter of minutes. Of course, because this is all controlled with web service APIs, your application can automatically scale itself up and down depending on its needs.
  6. When dealing with session state in EC2-based applications using Elastic load balancers which option is generally thought of as the best practice for managing user sessions?
    Having the ELB distribute traffic to all EC2 instances and then having the instance check a caching solution like ElastiCache running Redis or Memcached for session information
  7. What is one key difference between an Amazon EBS-backed and an instance-store backed instance?
    Amazon EBS-backed instances can be stopped and restarted without losing data
  8. How is the AWS Ec2 service different than a plain hosting service?
    Traditional hosting services generally provide a pre-configured resource for a fixed amount of time and at a predetermined cost. Amazon EC2 differs fundamentally in the flexibility, control and significant cost savings it offers developers, allowing them to treat Amazon EC2 as their own personal data center with the benefit of Amazon.com’s robust infrastructure.
    When computing requirements unexpectedly change (up or down), Amazon EC2 can instantly respond, meaning that developers have the ability to control how many resources are in use at any given point in time. In contrast, traditional hosting services generally provide a fixed number of resources for a fixed amount of time, meaning that users have a limited ability to easily respond when their usage is rapidly changing, unpredictable, or is known to experience large peaks at various intervals.
    Secondly, many hosting services don’t provide full control over the compute resources being provided. Using Amazon EC2, developers can choose not only to initiate or shut down instances at any time, they can completely customize the configuration of their instances to suit their needs – and change it at any time. Most hosting services cater more towards groups of users with similar system requirements, and so offer limited ability to change these.
    Finally, with Amazon EC2 developers enjoy the benefit of paying only for their actual resource consumption – and at very low rates. Most hosting services require users to pay a fixed, up-front fee irrespective of their actual computing power used, and so users risk overbuying resources to compensate for the inability to quickly scale up resources within a short time frame.

  9. What load balancing options does the Elastic Load Balancing service offer?
    Elastic Load Balancing offers two types of load balancers that both feature high availability, automatic scaling, and robust security. These include the Classic Load Balancer that routes traffic based on either application or network level information, and the Application Load Balancer that routes traffic based on advanced application level information that includes the content of the request.

  10. When should I use the Classic Load Balancer and when should I use the Application Load Balancer?
    The Classic Load Balancer is ideal for simple load balancing of traffic across multiple EC2 instances, while the Application Load Balancer is ideal for applications needing advanced routing capabilities, microservices, and container-based architectures. Please visit Elastic Load Balancing for more information.

  11. Can I get a history of all EC2 API calls made on my account for security analysis and operational troubleshooting purposes?
    Yes. To receive a history of all EC2 API calls (including VPC and EBS) made on your account, you simply turn on CloudTrail in the AWS Management Console. For more information, visit the CloudTrail home page.

  12. How to get information about Ec2 instance type?
    AWS EC2 Instance info
  13. Can I access the metrics data for a terminated Amazon EC2 instance or a deleted Elastic Load Balancer?
    Yes. Amazon CloudWatch stores metrics for terminated Amazon EC2 instances or deleted Elastic Load Balancers for 2 weeks.

Top
Reference: AWS Ec2 Faqs




AWS Ec2 Top 10 Questions and Answers Dump

Q0:
When dealing with session state in EC2-based applications using Elastic load balancers which option is generally thought of as the best practice for managing user sessions?

  • A. Having the ELB distribute traffic to all EC2 instances and then having the instance check a caching solution like ElastiCache running Redis or Memcached for session information
  • B. Permanently assigning users to specific instances and always routing their traffic to those instances
  • C. Using Application-generated cookies to tie a user session to a particular instance for the cookie duration
  • D. Using Elastic Load Balancer generated cookies to tie a user session to a particular instance

A.
Amazon ElastiCache for Memcached is a Memcached-compatible in-memory key-value store service that can be used as a cache or a data store. It delivers the performance, ease-of-use, and simplicity of Memcached. ElastiCache for Memcached is fully managed, scalable, and secure – making it an ideal candidate for use cases where frequently accessed data must be in-memory. It is a popular choice for use cases such as Web, Mobile Apps, Gaming, Ad-Tech, and E-Commerce.

Reference: Memcached

Top

Q2: You are attempting to SSH into an EC2 instance that is located in a public subnet. However, you are currently receiving a timeout error trying to connect. What could be a possible cause of this connection issue?

  • A. The security group associated with the EC2 instance has an inbound rule that allows SSH traffic, but does not have an outbound rule that allows SSH traffic.
  • B. The security group associated with the EC2 instance has an inbound rule that allows SSH traffic AND has an outbound rule that explicitly denies SSH traffic.
  • C. The security group associated with the EC2 instance has an inbound rule that allows SSH traffic AND the associated NACL has both an inbound and outbound rule that allows SSH traffic.
  • D. The security group associated with the EC2 instance does not have an inbound rule that allows SSH traffic AND the associated NACL does not have an outbound rule that allows SSH traffic.

D. Security groups are stateful, so you do NOT have to have an explicit outbound rule for return requests. However, NACLs are stateless so you MUST have an explicit outbound rule configured for return request.

Reference: Comparison of Security Groups and Network ACLs

AWS Security Groups and NACL

Top

Q3: Which API call would best be used to describe an Amazon Machine Image?

  • A. ami-describe-image
  • B. ami-describe-images
  • C. DescribeImage
  • D. DescribeImages

D. In general, API actions stick to the PascalCase style with the first letter of every word capitalized.

Reference: API DescribeImages

Top

Q4: What is one key difference between an Amazon EBS-backed and an instance-store backed instance?

  • A. Autoscaling requires using Amazon EBS-backed instances
  • B. Virtual Private Cloud requires EBS backed instances
  • C. Amazon EBS-backed instances can be stopped and restarted without losing data
  • D. Instance-store backed instances can be stopped and restarted without losing data

C. Instance-store backed images use “ephemeral” storage (temporary). The storage is only available during the life of an instance. Rebooting an instance will allow ephemeral data stay persistent. However, stopping and starting an instance will remove all ephemeral storage.

Reference: What is the difference between EBS and Instance Store?

Top

Q15: After having created a new Linux instance on Amazon EC2, and downloaded the .pem file (called Toto.pem) you try and SSH into your IP address (54.1.132.33) using the following command.
ssh -i my_key.pem ec2-user@52.2.222.22
However you receive the following error.
@@@@@@@@ WARNING: UNPROTECTED PRIVATE KEY FILE! @ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
What is the most probable reason for this and how can you fix it?

  • A. You do not have root access on your terminal and need to use the sudo option for this to work.
  • B. You do not have enough permissions to perform the operation.
  • C. Your key file is encrypted. You need to use the -u option for unencrypted not the -i option.
  • D. Your key file must not be publicly viewable for SSH to work. You need to modify your .pem file to limit permissions.

D. You need to run something like: chmod 400 my_key.pem

Reference:

Top

Q5: You have an EBS root device on /dev/sda1 on one of your EC2 instances. You are having trouble with this particular instance and you need to either Stop/Start, Reboot or Terminate the instance but you do NOT want to lose any data that you have stored on /dev/sda1. However, you are unsure if changing the instance state in any of the aforementioned ways will cause you to lose data stored on the EBS volume. Which of the below statements best describes the effect each change of instance state would have on the data you have stored on /dev/sda1?

  • A. Whether you stop/start, reboot or terminate the instance it does not matter because data on an EBS volume is not ephemeral and the data will not be lost regardless of what method is used.
  • B. If you stop/start the instance the data will not be lost. However if you either terminate or reboot the instance the data will be lost.
  • C. Whether you stop/start, reboot or terminate the instance it does not matter because data on an EBS volume is ephemeral and it will be lost no matter what method is used.
  • D. The data will be lost if you terminate the instance, however the data will remain on /dev/sda1 if you reboot or stop/start the instance because data on an EBS volume is not ephemeral.

D. The question states that an EBS-backed root device is mounted at /dev/sda1, and EBS volumes maintain information regardless of the instance state. If it was instance store, this would be a different answer.

Reference: AWS Root Device Storage

Top

Q6: EC2 instances are launched from Amazon Machine Images (AMIs). A given public AMI:

  • A. Can only be used to launch EC2 instances in the same AWS availability zone as the AMI is stored
  • B. Can only be used to launch EC2 instances in the same country as the AMI is stored
  • C. Can only be used to launch EC2 instances in the same AWS region as the AMI is stored
  • D. Can be used to launch EC2 instances in any AWS region

C. AMIs are only available in the region they are created. Even in the case of the AWS-provided AMIs, AWS has actually copied the AMIs for you to different regions. You cannot access an AMI from one region in another region. However, you can copy an AMI from one region to another

Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/

Top

Q7: Which of the following statements is true about the Elastic File System (EFS)?

  • A. EFS can scale out to meet capacity requirements and scale back down when no longer needed
  • B. EFS can be used by multiple EC2 instances simultaneously
  • C. EFS cannot be used by an instance using EBS
  • D. EFS can be configured on an instance before launch just like an IAM role or EBS volumes

A. and B.

Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/efs/

Top

Q8: You are in charge of deploying an application that will be hosted on an EC2 Instance and sit behind an Elastic Load balancer. You have been requested to monitor the incoming connections to the Elastic Load Balancer. Which of the below options can suffice this requirement?

  • A. Use AWS CloudTrail with your load balancer
  • B. Enable access logs on the load balancer
  • C. Use a CloudWatch Logs Agent
  • D. Create a custom metric CloudWatch lter on your load balancer

Answer – B
Elastic Load Balancing provides access logs that capture detailed information about requests sent to your load balancer. Each log contains information such as the time the request was received, the client's IP address, latencies, request paths, and server responses. You can use these access logs to analyze traffic patterns and troubleshoot issues.
Reference: Access Logs for Your Application Load Balancer

Top

Q9: When deploying application code to EC2, the AppSpec file can be written in which language?

  • A. JSON
  • B. JSON or YAML
  • C. XML
  • D. YAML

Top

Q9:

  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.

Reference:

Top

Q10:

  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.

Reference:

Top




Other AWS Facts and Summaries and Questions/Answers Dump

AWS Certification Preparation: AWS IAM Facts, Faqs, Summaries and Top 10 Questions and Answers Dump

AWS IAM Facts and Summaries and Questions Answers

AWS IAM Facts and summaries, AWS IAM Top 10 Questions and Answers Dump

Definition 1:

IAM is a framework of policies and technologies for ensuring that the proper people in an enterprise have the appropriate access to technology resources. IdM systems fall under the overarching umbrella of IT security and Data Management .

Definition 2:
AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) is a web service that helps you securely control access to AWS resources. You use IAM to control who is authenticated (signed in) and authorized (has permissions) to use resources.




AWS IAM Facts and summaries

    1. You can use AWS IAM to securely control individual and group access to your AWS resources. You can create and manage user identities (“IAM users”) and grant permissions for those IAM users to access your resources. You can also grant permissions for users outside of AWS ( federated users).
    2. How do users call AWS services?
      Users can make requests to AWS services using security credentials. Explicit permissions govern a user’s ability to call AWS services. By default, users have no ability to call service APIs on behalf of the account.
    3. What kinds of security credentials can IAM users have?
      IAM users can have any combination of credentials that AWS supports, such as an AWS access key, X.509 certificate, SSH key, password for web app logins, or an MFA device.
    4. What is the access level for newly created regular users in AWS?
      Default deny to all resources and actions
      By default, all new AWS users lack ANY access to AWS resources with a default deny. That default deny doesn’t prevent an explicit allow to grant them access. Keep in mind that EXPLICT denys override explicit allows.

    5. What is identity federation?
      AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) supports identity federation for delegated access to the AWS Management Console or AWS APIs. With identity federation, external identities are granted secure access to resources in your AWS account without having to create IAM users. These external identities can come from your corporate identity provider (such as Microsoft Active Directory or from the AWS Directory Service) or from a web identity provider (such as Amazon Cognito, Login with Amazon, Facebook, Google, or any OpenID Connect-compatible provider).

    6. Does AWS IAM support SAML?
      Yes, AWS supports the Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) 2.0.

    7. What SAML profiles does AWS support?
      The AWS single sign-on (SSO) endpoint supports the IdP-initiated HTTP-POST binding WebSSO SAML Profile. This enables a federated user to sign in to the AWS Management Console using a SAML assertion. A SAML assertion can also be used to request temporary security credentials using the AssumeRoleWithSAML API. For more information, see About SAML 2.0-Based Federation.
    8. Can a temporary security credential be revoked prior to its expiration?
      No. When requesting temporary credentials, we recommend the following:

      • When creating temporary security credentials, set the expiration to a value that is appropriate for your application.
      • Because root account permissions cannot be restricted, use an IAM user and not the root account for creating temporary security credentials. You can revoke permissions of the IAM user that issued the original call to request it. This action almost immediately revokes privileges for all temporary security credentials issued by that IAM user
    9. Can I reactivate or extend the expiration of temporary security credentials?
      No. It is a good practice to actively check the expiration and request a new temporary security credential before the old one expires. This rotation process is automatically managed for you when temporary security credentials are used in roles for EC2 instances.

    10. What does a policy look like?
      The following policy grants access to add, update, and delete objects from a specific folder, example_folder, in a specific bucket, example_bucket.
    11. What is the IAM policy simulator?
      The IAM policy simulator is a tool to help you understand, test, and validate the effects of your access control policies.
    12. What can the policy simulator be used for?
      You can use the policy simulator in several ways. You can test policy changes to ensure they have the desired effect before committing them to production. You can validate existing policies attached to users, groups, and roles to verify and troubleshoot permissions. You can also use the policy simulator to understand how IAM policies and resource-based policies work together to grant or deny access to AWS resources.
    13. Is there an authentication API to verify IAM user sign-ins?
      No. There is no programmatic way to verify user sign-ins.
    14. Can users SSH to EC2 instances using their AWS user name and password?
      No. User security credentials created with IAM are not supported for direct authentication to customer EC2 instances. Managing EC2 SSH credentials is the customer’s responsibility within the EC2 console.
    15. Are IAM actions logged for auditing purposes?
      Yes. You can log IAM actions, STS actions, and AWS Management Console sign-ins by activating AWS CloudTrail. To learn more about AWS logging, see AWS CloudTrail.
    16. What is AWS MFA?
      AWS multi-factor authentication (AWS MFA) provides an extra level of security that you can apply to your AWS environment. You can enable AWS MFA for your AWS account and for individual AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) users you create under your account.

    17. What problems does IAM solve?
      IAM makes it easy to provide multiple users secure access to your AWS resources. IAM enables you to:
      Manage IAM users and their access: You can create users in AWS’s identity management system, assign users individual security credentials (such as access keys, passwords, multi-factor authentication devices), or request temporary security credentials to provide users access to AWS services and resources. You can specify permissions to control which operations a user can perform.
      Manage access for federated users: You can request security credentials with configurable expirations for users who you manage in your corporate directory, allowing you to provide your employees and applications secure access to resources in your AWS account without creating an IAM user account for them. You specify the permissions for these security credentials to control which operations a user can perform.
    18. What is an IAM role?
      An IAM role is an IAM entity that defines a set of permissions for making AWS service requests. IAM roles are not associated with a specific user or group. Instead, trusted entities assume roles, such as IAM users, applications, or AWS services such as EC2.
    19. What problems do IAM roles solve?
      IAM roles allow you to delegate access with defined permissions to trusted entities without having to share long-term access keys. You can use IAM roles to delegate access to IAM users managed within your account, to IAM users under a different AWS account, or to an AWS service such as EC2.

    Top
    Reference: AWS IAM Faqs




    AWS IAM Top 10 Questions and Answers Dump

    Q0: What are the main benefits of IAM groups? (Select two)

    • A. The ability to create custom permission policies.
    • B. Assigning IAM permission policies to more than one user at a time.
    • C. Easier user/policy management.
    • D. Allowing EC2 instances to gain access to S3.

    B. and C.

    An IAM group is a collection of IAM users. Groups let you specify permissions for multiple users, which can make it easier to manage the permissions for those users. For example, you could have a group called Admins and give that group the types of permissions that administrators typically need. Any user in that group automatically has the permissions that are assigned to the group. If a new user joins your organization and needs administrator privileges, you can assign the appropriate permissions by adding the user to that group. Similarly, if a person changes jobs in your organization, instead of editing that user's permissions, you can remove him or her from the old groups and add him or her to the appropriate new groups.Reference: IAM Groups

    Top

    Q1: You would like to use STS to allow end users to authenticate from third-party providers such as Facebook, Google, and Amazon. What is this type of authentication called?

    • A. Web Identity Federation
    • B. Enterprise Identity Federation
    • C. Cross-Account Access
    • D. Commercial Federation

    A.
    AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) supports identity federation for delegated access to the AWS Management Console or AWS APIs. With identity federation, external identities are granted secure access to resources in your AWS account without having to create IAM users. These external identities can come from your corporate identity provider (such as Microsoft Active Directory or from the AWS Directory Service) or from a web identity provider (such as Amazon Cognito, Login with Amazon, Facebook, Google, or any OpenID Connect-compatible provider).

    Reference:

    Top

    Q2:
    IAM Policies, at a minimum, contain what elements?

    • A. Id
    • B. Sid
    • C. Actions
    • D. Effects
    • E. Principals
    • F. Resources

    C. D. F.Reference: Policies and Permissions

    Top

    Q3: What are benefits of using AWS STS?

    • A. Grant access to AWS resources without having to create an IAM identity for them
    • B. Since credentials are temporary, you don’t have to rotate or revoke them
    • C. Temporary security credentials can be extended indefinitely
    • D. Temporary security credentials can be restricted to a specific region

    Top

    Q4: Your mobile application includes a photo-sharing service that is expecting tens of thousands of users at launch. You will leverage Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) for storage of the user Images, and you must decide how to authenticate and authorize your users for access to these images. You also need to manage the storage of these images. Which two of the following approaches should you use? Choose two answers from the options below

    • A. Create an Amazon S3 bucket per user, and use your application to generate the S3 URL for the appropriate content.
    • B. Use AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) user accounts as your application-level user database, and offload the burden of authentication from your application code.
    • C. Authenticate your users at the application level, and use AWS Security Token Service (STS)to grant token-based authorization to S3 objects.
    • D. Authenticate your users at the application level, and send an SMS token message to the user. Create an Amazon S3 bucket with the same name as the SMS message token, and move the user’s objects to that bucket.

    Answer- C
    The AWS Security Token Service (STS) is a web service that enables you to request temporary, limited-privilege credentials for AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) users or for users that you authenticate (federated users). The token can then be used to grant access to the objects in S3.
    You can then provides access to the objects based on the key values generated via the user id.

    Reference: The AWS Security Token Service (STS)

    Top

    Q5: You’ve developed a Lambda function and are now in the process of debugging it. You add the necessary print statements in the code to assist in the debugging. You go to Cloudwatch logs , but you see no logs for the lambda function. Which of the following could be the underlying issue for this?

    • A. You’ve not enabled versioning for the Lambda function
    • B. The IAM Role assigned to the Lambda function does not have the necessary permission to create Logs
    • C. There is not enough memory assigned to the function
    • D. There is not enough time assigned to the function

    Answer: B
    “If your Lambda function code is executing, but you don't see any log data being generated after several minutes, this could mean your execution role for the Lambda function did not grant permissions to write log data to CloudWatch Logs. For information about how to make sure that you have set up the execution role correctly to grant these permissions, see Manage Permissions: Using an IAM Role (Execution Role)”.

    Reference: Using Amazon CloudWatch

    Top

    Q6: Your application must write to an SQS queue. Your corporate security policies require that AWS credentials are always encrypted and are rotated at least once a week.
    How can you securely provide credentials that allow your application to write to the queue?

    • A. Have the application fetch an access key from an Amazon S3 bucket at run time.
    • B. Launch the application’s Amazon EC2 instance with an IAM role.
    • C. Encrypt an access key in the application source code.
    • D. Enroll the instance in an Active Directory domain and use AD authentication.

    Answer: B.
    IAM roles are based on temporary security tokens, so they are rotated automatically. Keys in the source code cannot be rotated (and are a very bad idea). It’s impossible to retrieve credentials from an S3 bucket if you don’t already have credentials for that bucket. Active Directory authorization will not grant access to AWS resources.
    Reference: AWS IAM FAQs

    Top

    Q65: A corporate web application is deployed within an Amazon VPC, and is connected to the corporate data center via IPSec VPN. The application must authenticate against the on-premise LDAP server. Once authenticated, logged-in users can only access an S3 keyspace specific to the user. Which of the solutions below meet these requirements? Choose two answers How would you authenticate to the application given these details? (Choose 2)

    • A. The application authenticates against LDAP, and retrieves the name of an IAM role associated with the user. The application then calls the IAM Security Token Service to assume that IAM Role. The application can use the temporary credentials to access the S3 keyspace.
    • B. Develop an identity broker which authenticates against LDAP, and then calls IAM Security Token Service to get IAM federated user credentials. The application calls the identity broker to get IAM federated user credentials with access to the appropriate S3 keyspace
    • C. Develop an identity broker which authenticates against IAM Security Token Service to assume an IAM Role to get temporary AWS security credentials. The application calls the identity broker to get AWS temporary security credentials with access to the app
    • D. The application authenticates against LDAP. The application then calls the IAM Security Service to login to IAM using the LDAP credentials. The application can use the IAM temporary credentials to access the appropriate S3 bucket.

    Answer: A. and B.
    The question clearly says “authenticate against LDAP”. Temporary credentials come from STS. Federated user credentials come from the identity broker.
    Reference: IAM faqs

    Top

    Q7:
    A corporate web application is deployed within an Amazon VPC, and is connected to the corporate data center via IPSec VPN. The application must authenticate against the on-premise LDAP server. Once authenticated, logged-in users can only access an S3 keyspace specific to the user. Which of the solutions below meet these requirements? Choose two answers
    How would you authenticate to the application given these details? (Choose 2)

    • A. The application authenticates against LDAP, and retrieves the name of an IAM role associated with the user. The application then calls the IAM Security Token Service to assume that IAM Role. The application can use the temporary credentials to access the S3 keyspace.
    • B. Develop an identity broker which authenticates against LDAP, and then calls IAM Security Token Service to get IAM federated user credentials. The application calls the identity broker to get IAM federated user credentials with access to the appropriate S3 keyspace
    • C. Develop an identity broker which authenticates against IAM Security Token Service to assume an IAM Role to get temporary AWS security credentials. The application calls the identity broker to get AWS temporary security credentials with access to the app
    • D. The application authenticates against LDAP. The application then calls the IAM Security Service to login to IAM using the LDAP credentials. The application can use the IAM temporary credentials to access the appropriate S3 bucket.

    Answer: A. and B.
    The question clearly says “authenticate against LDAP”. Temporary credentials come from STS. Federated user credentials come from the identity broker.
    Reference: AWA STS Faqs

    Top

    Q8:

    • A.
    • B.
    • C.
    • D.

    Reference:

    Top

    Q9:

    • A.
    • B.
    • C.
    • D.

    Reference:

    Top

    Q10:

    • A.
    • B.
    • C.
    • D.

    Reference:

    Top




    Other AWS Facts and Summaries and Questions/Answers Dump

AWS Certification Exams Prep: Serverless Facts and Summaries and Question/Answers

AWS Serverless

AWS Serverless – Facts and summaries, Top 20 AWS Serverless Questions and Answers Dump

Definition 1: Serverless computing is a cloud-computing execution model in which the cloud provider runs the server, and dynamically manages the allocation of machine resources. Pricing is based on the actual amount of resources consumed by an application, rather than on pre-purchased units of capacity. It can be a form of utility computing.
Definition 2: AWS Serverless is the native architecture of the cloud that enables you to shift more of your operational responsibilities to AWS, increasing your agility and innovation. Serverless allows you to build and run applications and services without thinking about servers. It eliminates infrastructure management tasks such as server or cluster provisioning, patching, operating system maintenance, and capacity provisioning.