CyberSecurity 101 and Top 25 AWS Certified Security Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps

AWS Certified Security – Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps

Almost 4.57 billion people were active internet users as of July 2020, encompassing 59 percent of the global population.  94% of enterprises use cloud. 77% of organizations worldwide have at least one application running on the cloud. This results in an exponential growth of cyber attacks. Therefore, CyberSecurity is one  the biggest challenge to individuals and organizations worldwide:  158,727 cyber attacks per hour, 2,645 per minute and 44 every second of every day.  

In this blog, we cover the Top 25 AWS Certified Security Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps and all latest and relevant information about CyberSecurity including:

I- The AWS Certified Security – Specialty (SCS-C01) examination is intended for  individuals who perform a security role. This exam validates an examinee’s ability to effectively demonstrate knowledge about securing the AWS platform.

It validates an examinee’s ability to demonstrate:

An understanding of specialized data classifications and AWS data protection mechanisms.

An understanding of data-encryption methods and AWS mechanisms to implement them.

An understanding of secure Internet protocols and AWS mechanisms to implement them.

A working knowledge of AWS security services and features of services to provide a secure production environment.

Competency gained from two or more years of production deployment experience using AWS security services and features.

The ability to make tradeoff decisions with regard to cost, security, and deployment complexity given a set of application requirements.

AWS Certified Security Specialty
AWS Certified Security Specialty

An understanding of security operations and risks.

Below are the Top 25 AWS Certified Security Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps including Notes, Hint and References:

Question 1:  When requested through an STS API call, credentials are returned with what three components?

A)  Security Token, Access Key ID, Signed URL
B) Security Token, Access Key ID, Secret Access Key
C) Signed URL, Security Token, Username
D) Security Token, Secret Access Key, Personal Pin Code
 

ANSWER1:

B

Notes/Hint1:

Security Token, Access Key ID, Secret Access Key

Reference1: Security Token, Access Key ID, Secret Access Key

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Question 2: A company has AWS workloads in multiple geographical locations. A Developer has created an Amazon Aurora database in the us-west-1 Region. The database is encrypted using a customer-managed AWS KMS key. Now the Developer wants to create the same encrypted database in the us-east-1 Region. Which approach should the Developer take to accomplish this task?

A) Create a snapshot of the database in the us-west-1 Region. Copy the snapshot to the us-east-1 Region and specify a KMS key in the us-east-1 Region. Restore the database from the copied snapshot.
B) Create an unencrypted snapshot of the database in the us-west-1 Region. Copy the snapshot to the useast-1 Region. Restore the database from the copied snapshot and enable encryption using the KMS key from the us-east-1 Region
C) Disable encryption on the database. Create a snapshot of the database in the us-west-1 Region. Copy the snapshot to the us-east-1 Region. Restore the database from the copied snapshot.
D) In the us-east-1 Region, choose to restore the latest automated backup of the database from the us-west1 Region. Enable encryption using a KMS key in the us-east-1 Region
 

ANSWER2:

A

Notes/Hint2:

If a user copies an encrypted snapshot, the copy of the snapshot must also be encrypted. If a user copies an encrypted snapshot across Regions, users cannot use the same AWS KMS encryption key for the copy as used for the source snapshot, because KMS keys are Region specific. Instead, users must specify a KMS key that is valid in the destination Region

Reference2: copies an encrypted snapshot, KMS Keys are Region-specific

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Question 3: A corporate cloud security policy states that communication between the company’s VPC and KMS must travel entirely within the AWS network and not use public service endpoints. Which combination of the following actions MOST satisfies this requirement? (Select TWO.) 

A) Add the aws:sourceVpce condition to the AWS KMS key policy referencing the company’s VPC endpoint ID.
 
B) Remove the VPC internet gateway from the VPC and add a virtual private gateway to the VPC to prevent direct, public internet connectivity.
 
C) Create a VPC endpoint for AWS KMS with private DNS enabled.
 
D) Use the KMS Import Key feature to securely transfer the AWS KMS key over a VPN. E) Add the following condition to the AWS KMS key policy: “aws:SourceIp”: “10.0.0.0/16“.
 

ANSWER3:

A and C

Notes/Hint3: 

An IAM policy can deny access to AWS KMS except through your VPC endpoint with the following condition statement: 
“Condition”:  {
     “StringNotEquals”: { 
             “aws:sourceVpce”: “vpce-0295a3caf8414c94a” 
                 } 
}
 If you select the Enable Private DNS Name option, the standard AWS KMS DNS hostname resolves to your VPC endpoint.

Reference3: AWS KMS

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Question 4: An application team is designing a solution with two applications. The security team wants the applications’ logs to be captured in two different places, because one of the applications produces logs with sensitive data. Which solution meets the requirement with the LEAST risk and effort? 

A) Use Amazon CloudWatch Logs to capture all logs, write an AWS Lambda function that parses the log file, and move sensitive data to a different log.
 
B) Use Amazon CloudWatch Logs with two log groups, with one for each application, and use an AWS IAM policy to control access to the log groups, as required.
 
C) Aggregate logs into one file, then use Amazon CloudWatch Logs, and then design two CloudWatch metric filters to filter sensitive data from the logs.
 
 D) Add logic to the application that saves sensitive data logs on the Amazon EC2 instances’ local storage, and write a batch script that logs into the Amazon EC2 instances and moves sensitive logs to a secure location.
 

ANSWER4:

B

Notes/Hint4: 

Each application's log can be configured to send the log to a specific Amazon CloudWatch Logs log group.

Reference4: Amazon CloudWatch Logs log group.

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Question 5: A security engineer must set up security group rules for a three-tier application: 

  • Presentation tier – Accessed by users over the web, protected by the security group presentation-sg
  • Logic tier – RESTful API accessed from the presentation tier through HTTPS, protected by the security group logic-sg
  • Data tier – SQL Server database accessed over port 1433 from the logic tier, protected by the security group data-sg
Which combination of the following security group rules will allow the application to be secure and functional? (Select THREE.)
 
A) presentation-sg: Allow ports 80 and 443 from 0.0.0.0/0
B) data-sg: Allow port 1433 from presentation-sg
C) data-sg: Allow port 1433 from logic-sg
D) presentation-sg: Allow port 1433 from data-sg
 E) logic-sg: Allow port 443 from presentation-sg
F) logic-sg: Allow port 443 from 0.0.0.0/0
 

ANSWER5:

A C and E

Notes/Hint5: 

In an n-tier architecture, each tier’s security group allows traffic from the security group sending it traffic only. The presentation tier opens traffic for HTTP and HTTPS from the internet. Since security groups are stateful, only inbound rules are required.

Reference5: n-tier architecture

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Question 6: A security engineer is working with a product team building a web application on AWS. The application uses Amazon S3 to host the static content, Amazon API Gateway to provide RESTful services, and Amazon DynamoDB as the backend data store. The users already exist in a directory that is exposed through a SAML identity provider. Which combination of the following actions should the engineer take to enable users to be authenticated into the web application and call APIs? (Select THREE). 

A) Create a custom authorization service using AWS Lambda.
 
B) Configure a SAML identity provider in Amazon Cognito to map attributes to the Amazon Cognito user pool attributes.
 
C) Configure the SAML identity provider to add the Amazon Cognito user pool as a relying party.
 
D) Configure an Amazon Cognito identity pool to integrate with social login providers.
 
E) Update DynamoDB to store the user email addresses and passwords.
 
F) Update API Gateway to use an Amazon Cognito user pool authorizer.

ANSWER6:

B, C and F

Notes/Hint6: 

When Amazon Cognito receives a SAML assertion, it needs to be able to map SAML attributes to user pool attributes. When configuring Amazon Cognito to receive SAML assertions from an identity provider, you need ensure that the identity provider is configured to have Amazon Cognito as a relying party. Amazon API Gateway will need to be able to understand the authorization being passed from Amazon Cognito, which is a configuration step.

Reference6: user pool attributes Amazon API Gateway 

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Question 7: A company is hosting a web application on AWS and is using an Amazon S3 bucket to store images. Users should have the ability to read objects in the bucket. A security engineer has written the following bucket policy to grant public read access:

Attempts to read an object, however, receive the error: “Action does not apply to any resource(s) in statement.” What should the engineer do to fix the error? 
 
A) Change the IAM permissions by applying PutBucketPolicy permissions.
 
B) Verify that the policy has the same name as the bucket name. If not, make it the same.
 
C) Change the resource section to “arn:aws:s3:::appbucket/*”.
 
D) Add an s3:ListBucket action.
 

ANSWER7:

C

Notes/Hint7: 

The resource section should match with the type of operation. Change the ARN to include /* at the end, as it is an object operation.

Reference7: IAM Policy – Access to S3 bucket

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Question 8: A company decides to place database hosts in its own VPC, and to set up VPC peering to different VPCs containing the application and web tiers. The application servers are unable to connect to the database. Which network troubleshooting steps should be taken to resolve the issue? (Select TWO.)

 A) Check to see if the application servers are in a private subnet or public subnet.
B) Check the route tables for the application server subnets for routes to the VPC peering connection.
C) Check the NACLs for the database subnets for rules that allow traffic from the internet.
D) Check the database security groups for rules that allow traffic from the application servers.
E) Check to see if the database VPC has an internet gateway.
 

ANSWER8:

B and D

Notes/Hint8: 

You must configure the route tables in each VPC to route to each other through the peering connection. You also must add rules to the security group for the databases to accept requests from the application server security group in the other VPC. 

Reference8: route tables ,  rules to the security groupsecurity group in the other VPC

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Question 9: A company is building a data lake on Amazon S3. The data consists of millions of small files containing sensitive information. The security team has the following requirements for the architecture: 

  • Data must be encrypted in transit. 
  • Data must be encrypted at rest. 
  • The bucket must be private, but if the bucket is accidentally made public, the data must remain confidential. 
Which combination of steps would meet the requirements? (Select TWO.) 
 
A) Enable AES-256 encryption using server-side encryption with Amazon S3-managed encryption keys (SSE-S3) on the S3 bucket.
 
B) Enable default encryption with server-side encryption with AWS KMS-managed keys (SSE-KMS) on the S3 bucket.
 
C) Add a bucket policy that includes a deny if a PutObject request does not include aws:SecureTransport.
 
D) Add a bucket policy with aws:SourceIp to allow uploads and downloads from the corporate intranet only.
 
E) Enable Amazon Macie to monitor and act on changes to the data lake’s S3 bucket.

ANSWER9:

B and C

Notes/Hint9: 

Bucket encryption using KMS will protect both in case disks are stolen as well as if the bucket is public. This is because the AWS KMS key would need to have privileges granted to it for users outside of AWS. HTTPS will protect data in transit.

Reference9: Bucket encryption using KMS, privileges granted data in transit

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Question 10: A security engineer must ensure that all API calls are collected across all company accounts, and that they are preserved online and are instantly available for analysis for 90 days. For compliance reasons, this data must be restorable for 7 years. Which steps must be taken to meet the retention needs in a scalable, cost-effective way? 

A) Enable AWS CloudTrail logging across all accounts to a centralized Amazon S3 bucket with versioning enabled. Set a lifecycle policy to move the data to Amazon Glacier daily, and expire the data after 90 days.
 
B) Enable AWS CloudTrail logging across all accounts to S3 buckets. Set a lifecycle policy to expire the data in each bucket after 7 years.
 
C) Enable AWS CloudTrail logging across all accounts to Amazon Glacier. Set a lifecycle policy to expire the data after 7 years.
 
D) Enable AWS CloudTrail logging across all accounts to a centralized Amazon S3 bucket. Set a lifecycle policy to move the data to Amazon Glacier after 90 days, and expire the data after 7 years.
 

ANSWER10:

D

Notes/Hint10: 

Meets all requirements and is cost effective by using lifecycle policies to transition to Amazon Glacier.

Reference10: lifecycle policies

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Question 11: A security engineer has been informed that a user’s access key has been found on GitHub. The engineer must ensure that this access key cannot continue to be used, and must assess whether the access key was used to perform any unauthorized activities. Which steps must be taken to perform these tasks? 

A) Review the user’s IAM permissions and delete any unrecognized or unauthorized resources.
B) Delete the user, review Amazon CloudWatch Logs in all regions, and report the abuse.
C) Delete or rotate the user’s key, review the AWS CloudTrail logs in all regions, and delete any unrecognized or unauthorized resources.
D) Instruct the user to remove the key from the GitHub submission, rotate keys, and re-deploy any instances that were launched.
 

ANSWER11:

C

Notes/Hint11: 

 Removes keys and audits the environment for malicious activities.

Reference11: malicious activities

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Question 12: You have a CloudFront distribution configured with the following path patterns: When users request objects that start with ‘static2/’, they are receiving 404 response codes. What might be the problem?

A) CloudFront distributions cannot have multiple different origin types

B) The ‘*’ path pattern must appear after the ‘static2/*’ path

C) CloudFront distributions cannot have origins in different AWS regions
 
D) The ‘*’ path pattern must appear before ‘static1/*’ path
        

ANSWER12:

C

Notes/Hint12: 

CloudFront distributions cannot have origins in different AWS regions

Reference12: CloudFront

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Question 13: An application running on EC2 instances processes sensitive information stored on Amazon S3. The information is accessed over the Internet. The security team is concerned that the Internet connectivity to Amazon S3 is a security risk. Which solution will resolve the security concern?

A) Access the data through an Internet Gateway.”,
B) Access the data through a VPN connection.”,
C) Access the data through a NAT Gateway.”,
D) Access the data through a VPC endpoint for Amazon S3″,
 

ANSWER13:

D

Notes/Hint13: 

VPC endpoints for Amazon S3 provide secure connections to S3 buckets that do not require a gateway or NAT instances. NAT Gateways and Internet Gateways still route traffic over the Internet to the public endpoint for Amazon S3. There is no way to connect to Amazon S3 via VPN.

Reference13: S3 VPC Endpoints

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Question 14: An organization is building an Amazon Redshift cluster in their shared services VPC. The cluster will host sensitive data. How can the organization control which networks can access the cluster?

A) Run the cluster in a different VPC and connect through VPC peering
B) Create a database user inside the Amazon Redshift cluster only for users on the network
 C) Define a cluster security group for the cluster that allows access from the allowed networks
  D) Only allow access to networks that connect with the shared services network via VPN
 

ANSWER14:

C

Notes/Hint14: 

A security group can grant access to traffic from the allowed networks via the CIDR range for each network. VPC peering and VPN are connectivity services and cannot control traffic for security. Amazon Redshift user accounts address authentication and authorization at the user level and have no control over network traffic

Reference14: AWS Security best practice

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Question 15: From a security perspective, what is a principal?

A) An identity
B) An anonymous user
C) An authenticated user
D) A resource
 

ANSWER15:

B and C

Notes/Hint15: 

An anonymous user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an anonymous user acting on a system.  An authenticated user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an authenticated user acting on a system

Reference15: IAM

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Question 16: A company is storing an access key (access key ID and secret access key) in a text file on a custom AMI. The company uses the access key to access DynamoDB tables from instances created from the AMI. The security team has mandated a more secure solution. Which solution will meet the security team’s mandate?

A) Put the access key in an S3 bucket, and retrieve the access key on boot from the instance.
B) Pass the access key to the instances through instance user data.
C) Obtain the access key from a key server launched in a private subnet
D) Create an IAM role with permissions to access the table, and launch all instances with the new role
 

ANSWER16:

D

Notes/Hint16: 

IAM roles for EC2 instances allow applications running on the instance to access AWS resources without having to create and store any access keys. Any solution involving the creation of an access key then introduces the complexity of managing that secret

Reference16: IAM Roles for EC2

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Question 17: While signing in REST/ Query requests, for additional security, you should transmit your requests using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) by using ____.”,

A) HTTP
B) Internet Protocol Security(IPsec)
C) TLS (Transport Layer Security)
D) HTTPS
 

ANSWER17:

D

Notes/Hint17: 

REST/ Query requests should use HTTPS

Reference17: Rest API

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Question 18: You are using AWS Envelope Encryption for encrypting all sensitive data. Which of the followings is True with regards to Envelope Encryption?

A) Data is encrypted be encrypting Data key which is further encrypted using encrypted Master Key.
B) Data is encrypted by plaintext Data key which is further encrypted using encrypted Master Key.
C) Data is encrypted by encrypted Data key which is further encrypted using plaintext Master Key.
D) Data is encrypted by plaintext Data key which is further encrypted using plaintext Master Key.”,
 

ANSWER18:

D

Notes/Hint18:

With Envelope Encryption, unencrypted data is encrypted using plaintext Data key. This Data is further encrypted using plaintext Master key. This plaintext Master key is securely stored in AWS KMS & known as Customer Master Keys.

Reference18: KMS

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Question 19: Your company has developed a web application and is hosting it in an Amazon S3 bucket configured for static website hosting. The users can log in to this app using their Google/Facebook login accounts. The application is using the AWS SDK for JavaScript in the browser to access data stored in an Amazon DynamoDB table. How can you ensure that API keys for access to your data in DynamoDB are kept secure?

A) Create an Amazon S3 role in IAM with access to the specific DynamoDB tables, and assign it to the bucket hosting your website
B) Configure S3 bucket tags with your AWS access keys for your bucket hosting your website so that the application can query them for access.
C) Configure a web identity federation role within IAM to enable access to the correct DynamoDB resources and retrieve temporary credentials
D) Store AWS keys in global variables within your application and configure the application to use these credentials when making requests.
 

ANSWER2:

C

Notes/Hint19: 

With web identity federation, you don't need to create custom sign-in code or manage your own user identities. Instead, users of your app can sign in using a well-known identity provider (IdP) —such as Login with Amazon, Facebook, Google, or any other OpenID Connect (OIDC)-compatible IdP, receive an authentication token, and then exchange that token for temporary security credentials in AWS that map to an IAM role with permissions to use the resources in your AWS account. Using an IdP helps you keep your AWS account secure, because you don't have to embed and distribute long-term security credentials with your application. Option A is invalid since Roles cannot be assigned to S3 buckets Options B and D are invalid since the AWS Access keys should not be used

Reference19: About Web Identity Federation

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Question 20: Your application currently makes use of AWS Cognito for managing user identities. You want to analyze the information that is stored in AWS Cognito for your application. Which of the following features of AWS Cognito should you use for this purpose?

A) Cognito Data
B) Cognito Events
C) Cognito Streams
D) Cognito Callbacks
 

ANSWER20:

C

Notes/Hint20: 

Amazon Cognito Streams gives developers control and insight into their data stored in Amazon Cognito. Developers can now configure a Kinesis stream to receive events as data is updated and synchronized. Amazon Cognito can push each dataset change to a Kinesis stream you own in real time. All other options are invalid since you should use Cognito Streams

Reference20: Cognito Streams

Question 21: Which of the following statements is correct in relation to kMS / (Choose 2)
A) KMS Encryption keys are regional
B) You cannot export your customer master key
C) You can export your customer master key.
D) KMS encryption Keys are global”,
 

ANSWER21:

A and B

Notes/Hint21:

AWS Key Management Service FAQs: You cannot export your customer master key, KMS Encryption keys are regional

Reference21: AWS Key Management Service FAQs

Question 22: Which of the following statements are correct? (Choose 2)

A) The Customer Master Key is used to encrypt and decrypt the Envelope Key or Data Key
B) The Envelope Key or Data Key is used to encrypt and decrypt plain text files.
C) The envelope Key or Data Key is used to encrypt and decrypt the Customer Master Key.
D) The Customer MasterKey is used to encrypt and decrypt plain text files.
 

ANSWER22:

A and B

Notes/Hint22:

AWS Key Management Service Concepts: The Customer Master Key is used to encrypt and decrypt the Envelope Key or Data Key, The Envelope Key or Data Key is used to encrypt and decrypt plain text files.

Reference22: KMS

Question 23: Which of the following is an encrypted key used by KMS to encrypt your data
A) Customer Managed Key
 B) Encryption Key
C) Envelope Key
D) Customer Master Key
 

ANSWER23:

C

Notes/Hint23:

Your Data key also known as the Enveloppe key is encrypted using the master key. This approach is known as Envelope encryption. Envelope encryption is the practice of encrypting plaintext data with a data key, and then encrypting the data key under another key

Reference23: Envelope encryption

Question 24: Which command can you use to encrypt a plain text file using CMK?

A) aws kms-encrypt
B) aws iam encrypt
C) aws kms encrypt
D) aws encrypt
 

ANSWER24:

C

Notes/Hint24:

aws kms encrypt –key-id 1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab —plaintext fileb://ExamplePlaintextFile –output text –query CiphertextBlob > C:\\Temp\\ExampleEncryptedFile.base64

Reference24: AWS CLI Encrypt

Question 25: If an EC2 instance uses an instance role, key rotation is automatic and handled by __.

A) A script containing a valid IAM username and password stored on the EC2 instance.
B) ssh-keygen on the EC2 instance
C) The EC2 service
D) IAM/STS
 

ANSWER25:

D

Notes/Hint25:

Instance role key rotation is handled by IAM/STS.

Reference25: IAM/STS

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II- SOURCES:

0- Djamga Cloud Security Playlist on Youtube:

1- Developer Certified Exam Prep Pro App

2- Prepare for Your AWS Certification Exam

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III-

1- Security Key Terms:

    • Cryptography:  Practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries.
    • Hacking: catch-all term for any type of misuse of a computer to break the security of another computing system to steal data, corrupt systems or files, commandeer the environment or disrupt data-related activities in any way.
    • Cyberwarfare: Uuse of technology to attack a nation, causing comparable harm to actual warfare. There is significant debate among experts regarding the definition of cyberwarfare, and even if such a thing exists
    • Penetration testing: Colloquially known as a pen test, pentest or ethical hacking, is an authorized simulated cyberattack on a computer system, performed to evaluate the security of the system. Not to be confused with a vulnerability assessment.
      • Malwares: Any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server, client, or computer network. A wide variety of malware types exist, including computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, rogue software, and scareware. 
    • Malware Analysis Tool: Any .Run Malware hunting with live access to the heart of an incident https://any.run/Malware Analysis Total:  VirusTotal – Analyze suspicious files and URLs to detect types of malware, automatically share them with the security community https://www.virustotal.com/gui/
    • VPN: A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network. Applications running across a VPN may therefore benefit from the functionality, security, and management of the private network. Encryption is a common, although not an inherent, part of a VPN connection.
    • Antivirus: Antivirus software, or anti-virus software (abbreviated to AV software), also known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent, detect, and remove malware.
    • DDos: A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is one of the most powerful weapons on the internet. When you hear about a website being “brought down by hackers,” it generally means it has become a victim of a DDoS attack.
    • Fraud Detection: Set of activities undertaken to prevent money or property from being obtained through false pretenses. Fraud detection is applied to many industries such as banking or insurance. In banking, fraud may include forging checks or using stolen credit cards.
    • Spywares: Spyware describes software with malicious behavior that aims to gather information about a person or organization and send such information to another entity in a way that harms the user; for example by violating their privacy or endangering their device's security.
    • Spoofing: Disguising a communication from an unknown source as being from a known, trusted source
    • Pharming: Malicious websites that look legitimate and are used to gather usernames and passwords.
    • Catfishing: Creating a fake profile for fraudulent or deceptive purposes
    • SSL: Stands for secure sockets layer. Protocol for web browsers and servers that allows for the authentication, encryption and decryption of data sent over the Internet.
    • Phishing emails: Disguised as trustworthy entity to lure someone into providing sensitive information
    • Intrusion detection System: Device or software application that monitors a network or systems for malicious activity or policy violations. Any intrusion activity or violation is typically reported either to an administrator or collected centrally using a security information and event management system.
    • Encryption: Encryption is the method by which information is converted into secret code that hides the information's true meaning. The science of encrypting and decrypting information is called cryptography. In computing, unencrypted data is also known as plaintext, and encrypted data is called ciphertext.
    • MFA: Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is defined as a security mechanism that requires an individual to provide two or more credentials in order to authenticate their identity. In IT, these credentials take the form of passwords, hardware tokens, numerical codes, biometrics, time, and location.
    • Vulnerabilities:vulnerability is a hole or a weakness in the application, which can be a design flaw or an implementation bug, that allows an attacker to cause harm to the stakeholders of an application. Stakeholders include the application owner, application users, and other entities that rely on the application.
    • SQL injections: SQL injection is a code injection technique, used to attack data-driven applications, in which malicious SQL statements are inserted into an entry field for execution.
    • Cyber attacks: In computers and computer networks an attack is any attempt to expose, alter, disable, destroy, steal or gain unauthorized access to or make unauthorized use of an asset.
    • Confidentiality: Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.
    • Secure channel: In cryptography, a secure channel is a way of transferring data that is resistant to overhearing and tampering. A confidential channel is a way of transferring data that is resistant to overhearing, but not necessarily resistant to tampering.
    • Tunneling: Communications protocol that allows for the movement of data from one network to another. It involves allowing private network communications to be sent across a public network through a process called encapsulation.
    • SSH: Secure Shell is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network. Typical applications include remote command-line, login, and remote command execution, but any network service can be secured with SSH.
    • SSL Certificates: SSL certificates are what enable websites to move from HTTP to HTTPS, which is more secure. An SSL certificate is a data file hosted in a website's origin server. SSL certificates make SSL/TLS encryption possible, and they contain the website's public key and the website's identity, along with related information.
    • Phishing: Phishing is a cybercrime in which a target or targets are contacted by email, telephone or text message by someone posing as a legitimate institution to lure individuals into providing sensitive data such as personally identifiable information, banking and credit card details, and passwords.
    • Cybercrime: Cybercrime, or computer-oriented crime, is a crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Cybercrime may threaten a person, company or a nation's security and financial health.
    • Backdoor: A backdoor is a means to access a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system's customary security mechanisms. A developer may create a backdoor so that an application or operating system can be accessed for troubleshooting or other purposes.
    • Salt and Hash: A cryptographic salt is made up of random bits added to each password instance before its hashing. Salts create unique passwords even in the instance of two users choosing the same passwords. Salts help us mitigate rainbow table attacks by forcing attackers to re-compute them using the salts.
    • Password: A password, sometimes called a passcode,[1] is a memorized secret, typically a string of characters, usually used to confirm the identity of a user.[2] Using the terminology of the NIST Digital Identity Guidelines,[3] the secret is memorized by a party called the claimant while the party verifying the identity of the claimant is called the verifier. When the claimant successfully demonstrates knowledge of the password to the verifier through an established authentication protocol,[4] the verifier is able to infer the claimant's identity.
    • Fingerprint: fingerprint is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. The recovery of partial fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science. Moisture and grease on a finger result in fingerprints on surfaces such as glass or metal.
    • Facial recognition: Facial recognition works better for a person as compared to fingerprint detection. It releases the person from the hassle of moving their thumb or index finger to a particular place on their mobile phone. A user would just have to bring their phone in level with their eye.
    • Asymmetric key ciphers versus symmetric key ciphers (Difference between symmetric and  Asymmetric encryption): The basic difference between these two types of encryption is that symmetric encryption uses one key for both encryption and decryption, and the asymmetric encryption uses public key for encryption and a private key for decryption.
    • Decryption: The conversion of encrypted data into its original form is called Decryption. It is generally a reverse process of encryption. It decodes the encrypted information so that an authorized user can only decrypt the data because decryption requires a secret key or password.
    • Algorithms: Finite sequence of well-defined, computer-implementable instructions, typically to solve a class of problems or to perform a computation.
    • DFIR: Digital forensic and incident response: Multidisciplinary profession that focuses on identifying, investigating, and remediating computer network exploitation. This can take varied forms and involves a wide variety of skills, kinds of attackers, an kinds of targets. We’ll discuss those more below.
      • OTP: One Time Password: A one-time password, also known as one-time PIN or dynamic password, is a password that is valid for only one login session or transaction, on a computer system or other digital device
    • Proxy Server and Reverse Proxy Server:A proxy server is a go‑between or intermediary server that forwards requests for content from multiple clients to different servers across the Internet. A reverse proxy server is a type of proxy server that typically sits behind the firewall in a private network and directs client requests to the appropriate backend server.

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V- Cybersecurity Certification:  

cybersecurity certification roadmap
cybersecurity certification roadmap

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Wireshark Cheat Sheet
Wireshark Cheat Sheet

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VII- HACKING TOOLS CHEAT SHEET:

hacking Cheat Sheet
hacking Cheat Sheet

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Offensive * Exploit Database – The Exploit Database is maintained by Offensive Security, an information security training company that provides various Information Security Certifications as well as high end penetration testing services. https://www.exploit-db.com/

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CYBERSECURITY NEWS

  • Krebs On Security In depth security news and investigation https://krebsonsecurity.com/
  • Dark Reading Cyber security's comprehensive news site is now an online community for security professionals. https://www.darkreading.com/
  • The Hacker News – The Hacker News (THN) is a leading, trusted, widely-acknowledged dedicated cybersecurity news platform, attracting over 8 million monthly readers including IT professionals, researchers, hackers, technologists, and enthusiasts. https://thehackernews.com
  • SecuriTeam – A free and independent source of vulnerability information. https://securiteam.com/
  • SANS NewsBites – “A semiweekly high-level executive summary of the most important news articles that have been published on computer security during the last week. Each news item is very briefly summarized and includes a reference on the web for detailed information, if possible.” Published for free on Tuesdays and Fridays. https://www.sans.org/newsletters/newsbites

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CYBERSECURITY YOUTUBE CHANNELS

YouTube Channels

This list was originally forked/curated from here: https://wportal.xyz/collection/cybersec-yt1 on (7/29/2020) Attribution and appreciation to d4rckh

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CYBERSECURITY PODCASTS:

Podcasts

  • Risky Business Published weekly, the Risky Business podcast features news and in-depth commentary from security industry luminaries. Hosted by award-winning journalist Patrick Gray, Risky Business has become a must-listen digest for information security professionals. https://risky.biz/
  • Pauls Security Weekly This show features interviews with folks in the security community; technical segments, which are just that, very technical; and security news, which is an open discussion forum for the hosts to express their opinions about the latest security headlines, breaches, new exploits and vulnerabilities, “not” politics, “cyber” policies and more. https://securityweekly.com/category-shows/paul-security-weekly/
  • Security Now – Steve Gibson, the man who coined the term spyware and created the first anti-spyware program, creator of Spinrite and ShieldsUP, discusses the hot topics in security today with Leo Laporte. https://twit.tv/shows/security-now
  • Daily Information Security Podcast (“StormCast”) Stormcasts are daily 5-10 minute information security threat updates. The podcast is produced each work day, and typically released late in the day to be ready for your morning commute. https://isc.sans.edu/podcast.html
  • ShadowTalk Threat Intelligence Podcast by Digital Shadow_. The weekly podcast highlights key findings of primary-source research our Intelligence Team is conducting, along with guest speakers discussing the latest threat actors, campaigns, security events and industry news. https://resources.digitalshadows.com/threat-intelligence-podcast-shadowtalk
  • Don't Panic – The Unit 42 Podcast Don't Panic! is the official podcast from Unit 42 at Palo Alto Networks. We find the big issues that are frustrating cyber security practitioners and help simplify them so they don't need to panic. https://unit42.libsyn.com/
  • Recorded Future Recorded Future takes you inside the world of cyber threat intelligence. We’re sharing stories from the trenches and the operations floor as well as giving you the skinny on established and emerging adversaries. We also talk current events, technical tradecraft, and offer up insights on the big picture issues in our industry. https://www.recordedfuture.com/resources/podcast/
  • The Cybrary Podcast Listen in to the Cybrary Podcast where we discuss a range topics from DevSecOps and Ransomware attacks to diversity and how to retain of talent. Entrepreneurs at all stages of their startup companies join us to share their stories and experience, including how to get funding, hiring the best talent, driving sales, and choosing where to base your business. https://www.cybrary.it/info/cybrary-podcast/
  • Cyber Life The Cyber Life podcast is for cyber security (InfoSec) professionals, people trying to break into the industry, or business owners looking to learn how to secure their data. We will talk about many things, like how to get jobs, cover breakdowns of hot topics, and have special guest interviews with the men and women “in the trenches” of the industry. https://redcircle.com/shows/cyber-life
  • Career Notes Cybersecurity professionals share their personal career journeys and offer tips and advice in this brief, weekly podcast from The CyberWire. https://www.thecyberwire.com/podcasts/career-notes

Below podcasts Added from here: https://infosec-conferences.com/cybersecurity-podcasts/

  • Down the Security Rabbithole http://podcast.wh1t3rabbit.net/ Down the Security Rabbithole is hosted by Rafal Los and James Jardine who discuss, by means of interviewing or news analysis, everything about Cybersecurity which includes Cybercrime, Cyber Law, Cyber Risk, Enterprise Risk & Security and many more. If you want to hear issues that are relevant to your organization, subscribe and tune-in to this podcast.
  • The Privacy, Security, & OSINT Show https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-privacy-security-osint-show/id1165843330 The Privacy, Security, & OSINT Show, hosted by Michael Bazzell, is your weekly dose of digital security, privacy, and Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) opinion and news. This podcast will help listeners learn some ideas on how to stay secure from cyber-attacks and help them become “digitally invisible”.
  • Defensive Security Podcast https://defensivesecurity.org/ Hosted by Andrew Kalat (@lerg) and Jerry Bell (@maliciouslink), the Defensive Security Podcasts aims to look/discuss the latest security news happening around the world and pick out the lessons that can be applied to keeping organizations secured. As of today, they have more than 200 episodes and some of the topics discussed include Forensics, Penetration Testing, Incident Response, Malware Analysis, Vulnerabilities and many more.
  • Darknet Diaries https://darknetdiaries.com/episode/ Darknet Diaries Podcast is hosted and produced by Jack Rhysider that discuss topics related to information security. It also features some true stories from hackers who attacked or have been attacked. If you’re a fan of the show, you might consider buying some of their souvenirs here (https://shop.darknetdiaries.com/).
  • Brakeing Down Security https://www.brakeingsecurity.com/ Brakeing Down Security started in 2014 and is hosted by Bryan Brake, Brian Boettcher, and Amanda Berlin. This podcast discusses everything about the Cybersecurity world, Compliance, Privacy, and Regulatory issues that arise in today’s organizations. The hosts will teach concepts that Information Security Professionals need to know and discuss topics that will refresh the memories of seasoned veterans.
  • Open Source Security Podcast https://www.opensourcesecuritypodcast.com/ Open Source Security Podcast is a podcast that discusses security with an open-source slant. The show started in 2016 and is hosted by Josh Bressers and Kurt Siefried. As of this writing, they now posted around 190+ podcasts
  • Cyber Motherboard https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/cyber/id1441708044 Ben Makuch is the host of the podcast CYBER and weekly talks to Motherboard reporters Lorenzo Franceschi-Bicchierai and Joseph Cox. They tackle topics about famous hackers and researchers about the biggest news in cybersecurity. The Cyber- stuff gets complicated really fast, but Motherboard spends its time fixed in the infosec world so we don’t have to.
  • Hak5 https://shop.hak5.org/pages/videos Hak5 is a brand that is created by a group of security professionals, hardcore gamers and “IT ninjas”. Their podcast, which is mostly uploaded on YouTube discusses everything from open-source software to penetration testing and network infrastructure. Their channel currently has 590,000 subscribers and is one of the most viewed shows when you want to learn something about security networks.
  • Threatpost Podcast Series https://threatpost.com/category/podcasts/ Threatpost is an independent news site which is a leading source of information about IT and business security for hundreds of thousands of professionals worldwide. With an award-winning editorial team produces unique and high-impact content including security news, videos, feature reports and more, with their global editorial activities are driven by industry-leading journalist Tom Spring, editor-in-chief.
  • CISO-Security Vendor Relationship Podcast https://cisoseries.com Co-hosted by the creator of the CISO/Security Vendor Relationship Series, David Spark, and Mike Johnson, in 30 minutes, this weekly program challenges the co-hosts, guests, and listeners to critique, share true stories. This podcast, The CISO/Security Vendor Relationship, targets to enlighten and educate listeners on improving security buyer and seller relationships.
  • Getting Into Infosec Podcast Stories of how Infosec and Cybersecurity pros got jobs in the field so you can be inspired, motivated, and educated on your journey. – https://gettingintoinfosec.com/
  • Unsupervised Learning Weekly podcasts and biweekly newsletters as a curated summary intersection of security, technology, and humans, or a standalone idea to provoke thought, by Daniel Miessler. https://danielmiessler.com/podcast/

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SECURITY BOOKS:

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CYBERSECURITY TRAINING:

Training

  • WebSecurity Academy Free online web security training from the creators of Burp Suite https://portswigger.net/web-security
  • Mosse Cyber Security Institute Introduction to cybersecurity free certification with 100+ hours of training, no expiry/renewals, https://www.mosse-institute.com/certifications/mics-introduction-to-cyber-security.html
  • BugCrowd University Free bug hunting resources and methodologies in form of webinars, education and training. https://www.bugcrowd.com/hackers/bugcrowd-university/
  • Certified Network Security Specialist Certification and training; Expires Aug 31 2020 Use coupon code #StaySafeHome during checkout to claim your free access. Offer is valid till 31/08/2020. £500.00 Value https://www.icsi.co.uk/courses/icsi-cnss-certified-network-security-specialist-covid-19
  • Metasploit Unleashed Most complete and in-depth Metasploit guide available, with contributions from the authors of the No Starch Press Metasploit Book. https://www.offensive-security.com/metasploit-unleashed/
  • AWS Cloud Certified Get skills in AWS to be more marketable. Training is quality and free. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3hLmDS179YE Have to create an AWS account, Exam is $100.
  • SANS Faculty Free Tools List of OSS developed by SANS staff. https://www.sans.org/media/free/free-faculty-tools.pdf?msc=sans-free-lp
  • “Using ATT&CK for Cyber Threat Intelligence Training” – 4 hour training The goal of this training is for students to understand the following: at: https://attack.mitre.org/resources/training/cti/
  • Coursera -“Coursera Together: Free online learning during COVID-19” Lots of different types of free training. https://blog.coursera.org/coursera-together-free-online-learning-during-covid-19/
  • Fortinet Security Appliance Training Free access to the FortiGate Essentials Training Course and Network Security Expert courses 1 and 2 https://www.fortinet.com/training/cybersecurity-professionals.html
  • Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) Workshop Training – The Chief Information Security Office (CISO) workshop contains a collection of security learnings, principles, and recommendations for modernizing security in your organization. This training workshop is a combination of experiences from Microsoft security teams and learnings from customers. – https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/security/ciso-workshop/ciso-workshop
  • CLARK Center Plan C – Free cybersecurity curriculum that is primarily video-based or provide online assignments that can be easily integrated into a virtual learning environments https://clark.center/home
  • Hack.me is a FREE, community based project powered by eLearnSecurity. The community can build, host and share vulnerable web application code for educational and research purposes. It aims to be the largest collection of “runnable” vulnerable web applications, code samples and CMS's online. The platform is available without any restriction to any party interested in Web Application Security. https://hack.me/
  • Hacker101 – Free classes for web security – https://www.hacker101.com/
  • ElasticStack – Free on-demand Elastic Stack, observability, and security courses. https://training.elastic.co/learn-from-home
  • Hoppers Roppers – Community built around a series of free courses that provide training to beginners in the security field. https://www.hoppersroppers.org/training.html
  • IBM Security Learning Academy Free technical training for IBM Security products. https://www.securitylearningacademy.com/
  • M.E. Kabay Free industry courses and course materials for students, teachers and others are welcome to use for free courses and lectures. http://www.mekabay.com/courses/index.htm
  • Open P-TECH Free digital learning on the tech skills of tomorrow. https://www.ptech.org/open-p-tech/
  • Udemy – Online learning course platform “collection from the free courses in our learning marketplace” https://www.udemy.com/courses/free/
  • Enroll Now Free: PCAP Programming Essentials in Python https://www.netacad.com/courses/programming/pcap-programming-essentials-python Python is the very versatile, object-oriented programming language used by startups and tech giants, Google, Facebook, Dropbox and IBM. Python is also recommended for aspiring young developers who are interested in pursuing careers in Security, Networking and Internet-of-Things. Once you complete this course, you are ready to take the PCAP – Certified Associate in Python programming. No prior knowledge of programming is required.
  • Packt Web Development Course Web Development Get to grips with the fundamentals of the modern web Unlock one year of free online access. https://courses.packtpub.com/pages/free?fbclid=IwAR1FtKQcYK8ycCmBMXaBGvW_7SgPVDMKMaRVwXYcSbiwvMfp75gazxRZlzY
  • Stanford University Webinar – Hacked! Security Lessons from Big Name Breaches 50 minute cyber lecture from Stanford.You Will Learn: — The root cause of key breaches and how to prevent them; How to measure your organization’s external security posture; How the attacker lifecycle should influence the way you allocate resources https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V9agUAz0DwI
  • Stanford University Webinar – Hash, Hack, Code: Emerging Trends in Cyber Security Join Professor Dan Boneh as he shares new approaches to these emerging trends and dives deeper into how you can protect networks and prevent harmful viruses and threats. 50 minute cyber lecture from Stanford. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=544rhbcDtc8
  • Kill Chain: The Cyber War on America's Elections (Documentary) (Referenced at GRIMMCON), In advance of the 2020 Presidential Election, Kill Chain: The Cyber War on America’s Elections takes a deep dive into the weaknesses of today’s election technology, an issue that is little understood by the public or even lawmakers. https://www.hbo.com/documentaries/kill-chain-the-cyber-war-on-americas-elections
  • Intro to Cybersecurity Course (15 hours) Learn how to protect your personal data and privacy online and in social media, and why more and more IT jobs require cybersecurity awareness and understanding. Receive a certificate of completion. https://www.netacad.com/portal/web/self-enroll/c/course-1003729
  • Cybersecurity Essentials (30 hours) Foundational knowledge and essential skills for all cybersecurity domains, including info security, systems sec, network sec, ethics and laws, and defense and mitigation techniques used in protecting businesses. https://www.netacad.com/portal/web/self-enroll/c/course-1003733
  • Pluralsight and Microsoft Partnership to help you become an expert in Azure. With skill assessments and over 200+ courses, 40+ Skill IQs and 8 Role IQs, you can focus your time on understanding your strengths and skill gaps and learn Azure as quickly as possible.https://www.pluralsight.com/partners/microsoft/azure
  • Blackhat Webcast Series Monthly webcast of varying cyber topics. I will post specific ones in the training section below sometimes, but this is worth bookmarking and checking back. They always have top tier speakers on relevant, current topics. https://www.blackhat.com/html/webcast/webcast-home.html
  • Federal Virtual Training Environment – US Govt sponsored free courses. There are 6 available, no login required. They are 101 Coding for the Public, 101 Critical Infrastructure Protection for the Public, Cryptocurrency for Law Enforcement for the Public, Cyber Supply Chain Risk Management for the Public, 101 Reverse Engineering for the Public, Fundamentals of Cyber Risk Management. https://fedvte.usalearning.gov/public_fedvte.php
  • Harrisburg University CyberSecurity Collection of 18 curated talks. Scroll down to CYBER SECURITY section. You will see there are 4 categories Resource Sharing, Tools & Techniques, Red Team (Offensive Security) and Blue Teaming (Defensive Security). Lot of content in here; something for everyone. https://professionaled.harrisburgu.edu/online-content/
  • OnRamp 101-Level ICS Security Workshop Starts this 4/28. 10 videos, Q&A / discussion, bonus audio, great links. Get up to speed fast on ICS security. It runs for 5 weeks. 2 videos per week. Then we keep it open for another 3 weeks for 8 in total. https://onramp-3.s4xevents.com
  • HackXOR WebApp CTF Hackxor is a realistic web application hacking game, designed to help players of all abilities develop their skills. All the missions are based on real vulnerabilities I've personally found while doing pentests, bug bounty hunting, and research. https://hackxor.net/
  • Suricata Training 5-part training module using a simulation as a backdrop to teach how to use Suricata. https://rangeforce.com/resource/suricata-challenge-reg/
  • flAWS System Through a series of levels you'll learn about common mistakes and gotchas when using Amazon Web Services (AWS). Multiple levels, “Buckets” of fun. http://flaws.cloud/
  • Stanford CS 253 Web Security A free course from Stanford providing a comprehensive overview of web security. The course begins with an introduction to the fundamentals of web security and proceeds to discuss the most common methods for web attacks and their countermeasures. The course includes video lectures, slides, and links to online reading assignments. https://web.stanford.edu/class/cs253
  • Linux Journey A free, handy guide for learning Linux. Coverage begins with the fundamentals of command line navigation and basic text manipulation. It then extends to more advanced topics, such as file systems and networking. The site is well organized and includes many examples along with code snippets. Exercises and quizzes are provided as well. https://linuxjourney.com
  • Ryan's Tutorials A collection of free, introductory tutorials on several technology topics including: Linux command line, Bash scripting, creating and styling webpages with HTML and CSS, counting and converting between different number systems, and writing regular expressions. https://ryanstutorials.net
  • The Ultimate List of SANS Cheat Sheets Massive collection of free cybersecurity cheat sheets for quick reference (login with free SANS account required for some penetration testing resources). https://www.sans.org/blog/the-ultimate-list-of-sans-cheat-sheets/
  • CYBER INTELLIGENCE ANALYTICS AND OPERATIONS Learn:The ins and outs of all stages of the intelligence cycle from collection to analysis from seasoned intel professionals. How to employ threat intelligence to conduct comprehensive defense strategies to mitigate potential compromise. How to use TI to respond to and minimize impact of cyber incidents. How to generate comprehensive and actionable reports to communicate gaps in defenses and intelligence findings to decision makers. https://www.shadowscape.io/cyber-intelligence-analytics-operat
  • Linux Command Line for Beginners 25 hours of training – In this course, you’ll learn from one of Fullstack’s top instructors, Corey Greenwald, as he guides you through learning the basics of the command line through short, digestible video lectures. Then you’ll use Fullstack’s CyberLab platform to hone your new technical skills while working through a Capture the Flag game, a special kind of cybersecurity game designed to challenge participants to solve computer security problems by solving puzzles. Finally, through a list of carefully curated resources through a series of curated resources, we’ll introduce you to some important cybersecurity topics so that you can understand some of the common language, concepts and tools used in the industry. https://prep.fullstackacademy.com/
  • Hacking 101 6 hours of free training – First, you'll take a tour of the world and watch videos of hackers in action across various platforms (including computers, smartphones, and the power grid). You may be shocked to learn what techniques the good guys are using to fight the bad guys (and which side is winning). Then you'll learn what it's like to work in this world, as we show you the different career paths open to you and the (significant) income you could make as a cybersecurity professional. https://cyber.fullstackacademy.com/prepare/hacking-101
  • Choose Your Own Cyber Adventure Series: Entry Level Cyber Jobs Explained YouTube Playlist (videos from my channel #simplyCyber) This playlist is a collection of various roles within the information security field, mostly entry level, so folks can understand what different opportunities are out there. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4Q-ttyNIRAqog96mt8C8lKWzTjW6f38F
  • NETINSTRUCT.COM Free Cybersecurity, IT and Leadership Courses – Includes OS and networking basics. Critical to any Cyber job. https://netinstruct.com/courses
  • HackerSploit – HackerSploit is the leading provider of free and open-source Infosec and cybersecurity training. https://hackersploit.org/
  • Resources for getting started (Free and Paid)Practice
    • DetectionLab (Free)
    • LetsDefend.io (Free/Paid)
    • DetectionLabELK (Free)

    Log Analysis

    Network Monitoring

    Linux Distributions

    Memory Analysis Tools

    Professional Training

    • FOR578: Cyber Threat Intelligence (Paid)
    • SEC511: Continuous Monitoring & Security Operations (Paid)
    • SEC445: SIEM Design & Implementation (Paid)
    • AEGIS Certification (Paid)

    Conferences

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CYBERSECURITY COURSES: (Multi-week w/Enrollment)

College Courses

  • Computer Science courses with video lectures Intent of this list is to act as Online bookmarks/lookup table for freely available online video courses. Focus would be to keep the list concise so that it is easy to browse. It would be easier to skim through 15 page list, find the course and start learning than having to read 60 pages of text. If you are student or from non-CS background, please try few courses to decide for yourself as to which course suits your learning curve best. https://github.com/Developer-Y/cs-video-courses?utm_campaign=meetedgar&utm_medium=social&utm_source=meetedgar.com
  • Cryptography I -offered by Stanford University – Rolling enrollment – Cryptography is an indispensable tool for protecting information in computer systems. In this course you will learn the inner workings of cryptographic systems and how to correctly use them in real-world applications. The course begins with a detailed discussion of how two parties who have a shared secret key can communicate securely when a powerful adversary eavesdrops and tampers with traffic. We will examine many deployed protocols and analyze mistakes in existing systems. The second half of the course discusses public-key techniques that let two parties generate a shared secret key. https://www.coursera.org/learn/crypto
  • Software Security Rolling enrollment -offered by University of Maryland, College Park via Coursera – This course we will explore the foundations of software security. We will consider important software vulnerabilities and attacks that exploit them — such as buffer overflows, SQL injection, and session hijacking — and we will consider defenses that prevent or mitigate these attacks, including advanced testing and program analysis techniques. Importantly, we take a “build security in” mentality, considering techniques at each phase of the development cycle that can be used to strengthen the security of software systems. https://www.coursera.org/learn/software-security
  • Intro to Information Security Georgia Institute of Technology via Udacity – Rolling Enrollment. This course provides a one-semester overview of information security. It is designed to help students with prior computer and programming knowledge — both undergraduate and graduate — understand this important priority in society today. Offered at Georgia Tech as CS 6035 https://www.udacity.com/course/intro-to-information-security–ud459
  • Cyber-Physical Systems Security Georgia Institute of Technology via Udacity – This course provides an introduction to security issues relating to various cyber-physical systems including industrial control systems and those considered critical infrastructure systems. 16 week course – Offered at Georgia Tech as CS 8803 https://www.udacity.com/course/cyber-physical-systems-security–ud279
  • Finding Your Cybersecurity Career Path – University of Washington via edX – 4 weeks long – self paced – In this course, you will focus on the pathways to cybersecurity career success. You will determine your own incoming skills, talent, and deep interests to apply toward a meaningful and informed exploration of 32 Digital Pathways of Cybersecurity. https://www.edx.org/course/finding-your-cybersecurity-career-path
  • Building a Cybersecurity Toolkit – University of Washington via edX – 4 weeks self-paced The purpose of this course is to give learners insight into these type of characteristics and skills needed for cybersecurity jobs and to provide a realistic outlook on what they really need to add to their “toolkits” – a set of skills that is constantly evolving, not all technical, but fundamentally rooted in problem-solving. https://www.edx.org/course/building-a-cybersecurity-toolkit
  • Cybersecurity: The CISO's View – University of Washington via edX – 4 weeks long self-paced – This course delves into the role that the CISO plays in cybersecurity operations. Throughout the lessons, learners will explore answers to the following questions: How does cybersecurity work across industries? What is the professionals' point of view? How do we keep information secure https://www.edx.org/course/cybersecurity-the-cisos-view
  • Introduction to Cybersecurity – University of Washington via edX – In this course, you will gain an overview of the cybersecurity landscape as well as national (USA) and international perspectives on the field. We will cover the legal environment that impacts cybersecurity as well as predominant threat actors. – https://www.edx.org/course/introduction-to-cybersecurity
  • Cyber Attack Countermeasures New York University (NYU) via Coursera – This course introduces the basics of cyber defense starting with foundational models such as Bell-LaPadula and information flow frameworks. These underlying policy enforcements mechanisms help introduce basic functional protections, starting with authentication methods. Learners will be introduced to a series of different authentication solutions and protocols, including RSA SecureID and Kerberos, in the context of a canonical schema. – https://www.coursera.org/learn/cyber-attack-countermeasures
  • Introduction to Cyber Attacks New York University (NYU) via Coursera – This course provides learners with a baseline understanding of common cyber security threats, vulnerabilities, and risks. An overview of how basic cyber attacks are constructed and applied to real systems is also included. Examples include simple Unix kernel hacks, Internet worms, and Trojan horses in software utilities. Network attacks such as distributed denial of service (DDOS) and botnet- attacks are also described and illustrated using real examples from the past couple of decades. https://www.coursera.org/learn/intro-cyber-attacks
  • Enterprise and Infrastructure Security New York University (NYU) via Coursera – This course introduces a series of advanced and current topics in cyber security, many of which are especially relevant in modern enterprise and infrastructure settings. The basics of enterprise compliance frameworks are provided with introduction to NIST and PCI. Hybrid cloud architectures are shown to provide an opportunity to fix many of the security weaknesses in modern perimeter local area networks. https://www.coursera.org/learn/enterprise-infrastructure-security
  • Network Security Georgia Institute of Technology via Udacity – This course provides an introduction to computer and network security. Students successfully completing this class will be able to evaluate works in academic and commercial security, and will have rudimentary skills in security research. The course begins with a tutorial of the basic elements of cryptography, cryptanalysis, and systems security, and continues by covering a number of seminal papers and monographs in a wide range of security areas. – https://www.udacity.com/course/network-security–ud199
  • Real-Time Cyber Threat Detection and Mitigation – New York University (NYU) via Coursera This course introduces real-time cyber security techniques and methods in the context of the TCP/IP protocol suites. Explanation of some basic TCP/IP security hacks is used to introduce the need for network security solutions such as stateless and stateful firewalls. Learners will be introduced to the techniques used to design and configure firewall solutions such as packet filters and proxies to protect enterprise assets. https://www.coursera.org/learn/real-time-cyber-threat-detection

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SANS Massive List of Cheat Sheets Curated from here: https://www.sans.org/blog/the-ultimate-list-of-sans-cheat-sheets/

General IT Security * Windows and Linux Terminals & Command Lines https://assets.contentstack.io/v3/assets/blt36c2e63521272fdc/bltea7de5267932e94b/5eb08aafcf88d36e47cf0644/Cheatsheet_SEC301-401_R7.pdf

Digital Forensics and Incident Response

Penetration Testing * Swiss Army Knife collection of PenTesting Cheatsheets https://github.com/swisskyrepo/PayloadsAllTheThings

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‎AWS Certified Developer A. PRO

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XXII- What is the best cheap Wi-Fi cracking/hacking adapter?

Source: What is the best cheap Wi-Fi cracking/hacking adapter?

Hey everyone, I've started getting into hacking, and would like to know the cheapest but best Wi-Fi cracking/deauthing/hacking adapter. I'm on a fairly tight budget of 20AUD and am willing to compromise if needed. Priority is a card with monitor mode, then cracking capabilities, then deauthing, etc. Thank you guys! By the way, if there are any beginner tips you are willing to give, please let me know!

 

 

 

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XXIII-

How SSL Certificates Work

  • A browser or server attempts to connect to a website (i.e. a web server) secured with SSL. The browser/server requests that the web server identify itself.
  • The web server sends the browser/server a copy of its SSL certificate.
  • The browser/server checks to see whether or not it trusts the SSL certificate. If so, it sends a message to the web server.
  • The web server sends back a digitally signed acknowledgement to start an SSL encrypted session.
  • Encrypted data is shared between the browser/server and the web server.

diagram of how ssl certificates work

There are many benefits to using SSL certificates. Namely, SSL customers can:

  • Utilize HTTPs, which elicits a stronger Google ranking
  • Create safer experiences for your customers
  • Build customer trust and improve conversions
  • Protect both customer and internal data
  • Encrypt browser-to-server and server-to-server communication
  • Increase security of your mobile and cloud apps

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Penetration Testing Terms to know:

  • Authentication — The process of checking if a user is allowed to gain access to a system. eg. Login forms with username and password.
  • Authorization — Checking if the authenticated user has access to perform an action. eg. user, admin, super admin roles.
  • Audit — Conduct a complete inspection of an organization’s network to find vulnerable endpoints or malicious software.
  • Access Control List — A list that contains users and their level of access to a system.
  • Aircrack-ng — Wifi penetration testing software suite. Contains sniffing, password cracking, and general wireless attacking tools.
  • Backdoor — A piece of code that lets hackers get into the system easily after it has been compromised.
  • Burp Suite — Web application security software, helps test web apps for vulnerabilities. Used in bug bounty hunting.
  • Banner Grabbing — Capturing basic information about a server like the type of web server software (eg. apache) and services running on it.
  • Botnet — A network of computers controlled by a hacker to perform attacks such as Distributed Denial of Service.
  • Brute-Force Attack — An attack where the hacker tries different login combinations to gain access. eg. trying to crack a 9 -digit numeric password by trying all the numbers from 000000000 to 999999999
  • Buffer Overflow — When a program tries to store more information than it is allowed to, it overflows into other buffers (memory partitions) corrupting existing data.
  • Cache — Storing the response to a particular operation in temporary high-speed storage is to serve other incoming requests better. eg. you can store a database request in a cache till it is updated to reduce calling the database again for the same query.
  • Cipher — Cryptographic algorithm for encrypting and decrypting data.
  • Code Injection — Injecting malicious code into a system by exploiting a bug or vulnerability.
  • Cross-Site Scripting — Executing a script on the client-side through a legitimate website. This can be prevented if the website sanitizes user input.
  • Compliance — A set of rules defined by the government or other authorities on how to protect your customer’s data. Common ones include HIPAA, PCI-DSS, and FISMA.
  • Dictionary Attack — Attacking a system with a pre-defined list of usernames and passwords. eg. admin/admin is a common username/password combination used by amateur sysadmins.
  • Dumpster Diving — Looking into a company’s trash cans for useful information.
  • Denial of Service & Distributed Denial of Service — Exhausting a server’s resources by sending too many requests is Denial of Service. If a botnet is used to do the same, its called Distributed Denial of Service.
  • DevSecOps — Combination of development and operations by considering security as a key ingredient from the initial system design.
  • Directory Traversal — Vulnerability that lets attackers list al the files and folders within a server. This can include system configuration and password files.
  • Domain Name System (DNS) — Helps convert domain names into server IP addresses. eg. Google.com -> 216.58.200.142
  • DNS Spoofing — Trikcnig a system's DNS to point to a malicious server. eg. when you enter ‘facebook.com’, you might be redirected to the attacker’s website that looks like Facebook.
  • Encryption — Encoding a message with a key so that only the parties with the key can read the message.
  • Exploit — A piece of code that takes advantage of a vulnerability in the target system. eg. Buffer overflow exploits can get you to root access to a system.
  • Enumeration — Mapping out all the components of a network by gaining access to a single system.
  • Footprinting — Gathering information about a target using active methods such as scanning and enumeration.
  • Flooding — Sending too many packets of data to a target system to exhaust its resources and cause a Denial of Service or similar attacks.
  • Firewall — A software or hardware filter that can be configured to prevent common types of attacks.
  • Fork Bomb — Forking a process indefinitely to exhaust system resources. Related to a Denial of Service attack.
  • Fuzzing — Sending automated random input to a software program to test its exception handling capacity.
  • Hardening — Securing a system from attacks like closing unused ports. Usually done using scripts for servers.
  • Hash Function — Mapping a piece of data into a fixed value string. Hashes are used to confirm data integrity.
  • Honey Pot — An intentionally vulnerable system used to lure attackers. This is then used to understand the attacker’s strategies.
  • HIPAA — The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. If you are working with healthcare data, you need to make sure you are HIPAA compliant. This is to protect the customer’s privacy.
  • Input Validation — Checking user inputs before sending them to the database. eg. sanitizing form input to prevent SQL injection attacks.
  • Integrity — Making sure the data that was sent from the server is the same that was received by the client. This ensures there was no tampering and integrity is achieved usually by hashing and encryption.
  • Intrusion Detection System — A software similar to a firewall but with advanced features. Helps in defending against Nmap scans, DDoS attacks, etc.
  • IP Spoofing — Changing the source IP address of a packet to fool the target into thinking a request is coming from a legitimate server.
  • John The Ripper — Brilliant password cracking tool, runs on all major platforms.
  • Kerberos — Default authorization software used by Microsoft, uses a stronger encryption system.
  • KeyLogger — A software program that captures all keystrokes that a user performs on the system.
  • Logic Bombs — A piece of code (usually malicious) that runs when a condition is satisfied.
  • Light Weight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) — Lightweight client-server protocol on Windows, central place for authentication. Stores usernames and passwords to validate users on a network.
  • Malware — Short for “Malicious Software”. Everything from viruses to backdoors is malware.
  • MAC Address — Unique address assigned to a Network Interface Card and is used as an identifier for local area networks. Easy to spoof.
  • Multi-factor Authentication — Using more than one method of authentication to access a service. eg. username/password with mobile OTP to access a bank account (two-factor authentication)
  • MD5 — Widely used hashing algorithm. Once a favorite, it has many vulnerabilities.
  • Metasploit — All in one penetration testing framework that helps to successfully exploit vulnerabilities and gain access to target systems.
  • Meterpreter — An advanced Metasploit payload that lives in memory and hard to trace.
  • Null-Byte Injection — An older exploit, uses null bytes (i.e. %00, or 0x00 in hexadecimal) to URLs. This makes web servers return random/unwanted data which might be useful for the attacker. Easily prevented by doing sanity checks.
  • Network Interface Card(NIC) — Hardware that helps a device connect to a network.
  • Network Address Translation — Utility that translates your local IP address into a global IP address. eg. your local IP might be 192.168.1.4 but to access the internet, you need a global IP address (from your router).
  • Nmap — Popular network scanning tool that gives information about systems, open ports, services, and operating system versions.
  • Netcat — Simple but powerful tool that can view and record data on a TCP or UDP network connections. Since it is not actively maintained, NCat is preferred.
  • Nikto — A popular web application scanner, helps to find over 6700 vulnerabilities including server configurations and installed web server software.
  • Nessus — Commercial alternative to NMap, provides a detailed list of vulnerabilities based on scan results.
  • Packet — Data is sent and received by systems via packets. Contains information like source IP, destination IP, protocol, and other information.
  • Password Cracking — Cracking an encrypted password using tools like John the Ripper when you don't have access to the key.
  • Password Sniffing — Performing man-in-the-middle attacks using tools like Wireshark to find password hashes.
  • Patch — A software update released by a vendor to fix a bug or vulnerability in a software system.
  • Phishing — Building fake web sites that look remarkably similar to legitimate websites (like Facebook) to capture sensitive information.
  • Ping Sweep — A technique that tries to ping a system to see if it is alive on the network.
  • Public Key Cryptography — Encryption mechanism that users a pair of keys, one private and one public. The sender will encrypt a message using your public key which then you can decrypt using your private key.
  • Public Key Infrastructure — A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a system to create, store, and distribute digital certificates. This helps sysadmins verify that a particular public key belongs to a certain authorized entity.
  • Personally Identifiable Information (PII) — Any information that identified a user. eg. Address, Phone number, etc.
  • Payload — A piece of code (usually malicious) that performs a specific function. eg. Keylogger.
  • PCI-DSS — Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard. If you are working with customer credit cards, you should be PCI-DSS compliant.
  • Ransomware — Malware that locks your system using encryption and asks you to pay a price to get the key to unlock it.
  • Rainbow Table — Pre calculated password hashes that will help you crack password hashes of the target easily.
  • Reconnaissance — Finding data about the target using methods such as google search, social media, and other publicly available information.
  • Reverse Engineering — Rebuilding a piece of software based on its functions.
  • Role-Based Access — Providing a set of authorizations for a role other than a user. eg. “Managers” role will have a set of permissions while the “developers” role will have a different set of permissions.
  • Rootkit — A rootkit is a malware that provides unauthorized users admin privileges. Rootkits include keyloggers, password sniffers, etc.
  • Scanning — Sending packets to a system and gaining information about the target system using the packets received. This involved the 3-way-handshake.
  • Secure Shell (SSH) — Protocol that establishes an encrypted communication channel between a client and a server. You can use ssh to login to remote servers and perform system administration.
  • Session — A session is a duration in which a communication channel is open between a client and a server. eg. the time between logging into a website and logging out is a session.
  • Session Hijacking — Taking over someone else’s session by pretending to the client. This is achieved by stealing cookies and session tokens. eg. after you authenticate with your bank, an attacker can steal your session to perform financial transactions on your behalf.
  • Social Engineering — The art of tricking people into making them do something that is not in their best interest. eg. convincing someone to provide their password over the phone.
  • Secure Hashing Algorithm (SHA) — Widely used family of encryption algorithms. SHA256 is considered highly secure compared to earlier versions like SHA 1. It is also a one-way algorithm, unlike an encryption algorithm that you can decrypt. Once you hash a message, you can only compare with another hash, you cannot re-hash it to its earlier format.
  • Sniffing — performing man-in-the-middle attacks on networks. Includes wired and wireless networks.
  • Spam — Unwanted digital communication, including email, social media messages, etc. Usually tries to get you into a malicious website.
  • Syslog — System logging protocol, used by system administrators to capture all activity on a server. Usually stored on a separate server to retain logs in the event of an attack.
  • Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) — Establishes an encrypted tunnel between the client and server. eg. when you submit passwords on Facebook, only the encrypted text will be visible for sniffers and not your original password.
  • Snort — Lightweight open-source Intrusion Detection System for Windows and Linux.
  • SQL Injection — A type of attack that can be performed on web applications using SQL databases. Happens when the site does not validate user input.
  • Trojan — A malware hidden within useful software. eg. a pirated version of MS office can contain trojans that will execute when you install and run the software.
  • Traceroute — Tool that maps the route a packet takes between the source and destination.
  • Tunnel — Creating a private encrypted channel between two or more computers. Only allowed devices on the network can communicate through this tunnel.
  • Virtual Private Network — A subnetwork created within a network, mainly to encrypt traffic. eg. connecting to a VPN to access a blocked third-party site.
  • Virus — A piece of code that is created to perform a specific action on the target systems. A virus has to be triggered to execute eg. autoplaying a USB drive.
  • Vulnerability — A point of attack that is caused by a bug / poor system design. eg. lack of input validation causes attackers to perform SQL injection attacks on a website.
  • War Driving — Travelling through a neighborhood looking for unprotected wifi networks to attack.
  • WHOIS — Helps to find information about IP addresses, its owners, DNS records, etc.
  • Wireshark — Open source program to analyze network traffic and filter requests and responses for network debugging.
  • Worm — A malware program capable of replicating itself and spreading to other connected systems. eg. a worm to built a botnet. Unlike Viruses, Worms don't need a trigger.
  • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) — Protocol that helps mobile devices connect to the internet.
  • Web Application Firewall (WAF) — Firewalls for web applications that help with cross-site scripting, Denial of Service, etc.
  • Zero-Day — A newly discovered vulnerability in a system for which there is no patch yet. Zero-day vulnerabilities are the most dangerous type of vulnerabilities since there is no possible way to protect against one.
  • Zombie — A compromised computer, controlled by an attacker. A group of zombies is called a Botnet.

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How does Covid19 affect cyber risk?

  1. Increased distributed working: With organizations embracing work from home, incremental risks have been observed due to a surge in Bring Your Own Device (BYOD), Virtual Private Network (VPN), Software As A Service (SaaS), O365 and Shadow IT, as it could be exploited by various Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack vectors.
  2. Reimagine Business Models: Envisioning new business opportunities, modes of working, and renewed investment priorities. With reduced workforce capability, compounded with skill shortages, staff who are focusing on business as usual tasks can be victimized, via social engineering.
  3. Digital Transformation and new digital infrastructure: With the change in nature for organizations across the industrial and supply chain sector – security is deprioritized. Hardening of the industrial systems and cloud based infrastructure is crucial as cyber threats exploit these challenges via vulnerability available for unpatched systems.
  4. With an extreme volume of digital communication, security awareness is lowered with increased susceptibility. Malicious actors are using phishing techniques to exploit such situations.

Re-evaluate your approach to cyber

    • Which cyber scenarios your organization appears to be preparing for or is prepared?
    •  Is there a security scenario that your organization is currently ignoring – but shouldn’t be?
    • What would your organization need to do differently in order to win, in each of the identified cyber scenarios?
  • What capabilities, cyber security partnerships, and workforce strategies do you need to strengthen?

The organizations should reflect the following scenarios at a minimum and consider:

    • Which cyber scenarios your organization appears to be preparing for or is prepared?
    •  Is there a security scenario that your organization is currently ignoring – but shouldn’t be?
    • What would your organization need to do differently in order to win, in each of the identified cyber scenarios?
    • What capabilities, cyber security partnerships, and workforce strategies do you need to strengthen?
  • To tackle the outcome from the above scenarios, the following measures are the key:

Inoculation through education: Educate and / or remind your employees about –

    • Your organization’s defense – remote work cyber security policies and best practices
    • Potential threats to your organization and how will it attack – with a specific focus on social engineering scams and identifying COVID-19 phishing campaigns
  • Assisting remote employees with enabling MFA across the organization assets

Adjust your defenses: Gather cyber threat intelligence and execute a patching sprint:

    • Set intelligence collection priorities
    • Share threat intelligence with other organizations
    • Use intelligence to move at the speed of the threat
  • Focus on known tactics, such as phishing and C-suite fraud.
  • Prioritize unpatched critical systems and common vulnerabilities.

Enterprise recovery: If the worst happens and an attack is successful, follow a staged approach to recovering critical business operations which may include tactical items such as:

    • Protect key systems through isolation
    • Fully understand and contain the incident
    • Eradicate any malware
    • Implement appropriate protection measures to improve overall system posture
    • Identify and prioritize the recovery of key business processes to deliver operations
  • Implement a prioritized recovery plan

Cyber Preparedness and Response: It is critical to optimize the detection capability thus, re-evaluation of the detection strategy aligned with the changing landscape is crucial. Some key trends include:

    • Secure and monitor your cloud environments and remote working applications
    • Increase monitoring to identify threats from shadow IT
  • Analyze behavior patterns to improve detection content

Finding the right cyber security partner: To be ready to respond identify the right partner with experience and skillset in Social Engineering, Cyber Response, Cloud Security, and Data Security.

Critical actions to address

At this point, as the organizations are setting the direction towards the social enterprise, it is an unprecedented opportunity to lead with cyber discussions and initiatives. Organizations should immediately gain an understanding of newly introduced risks and relevant controls by:

    • Getting a seat at the table
    • Understanding the risk prioritization:
    • Remote workforce/technology performance
    • Operational and financial implications
    • Emerging insider and external threats
  • Business continuity capabilities

Assessing cyber governance and security awareness in the new operating environment

Assessing the highest areas of risk and recommend practical mitigation strategies that minimize impact to constrained resources.

Keeping leadership and the Board apprised of ever-changing risk profile

Given the complexity of the pandemic and associated cyber challenges, there is reason to believe that the recovery phase post-COVID-19 will require unprecedented levels of cyber orchestration, communication, and changing of existing configurations across the organization.

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    • Use two factor authentication when possible. If not possible, use strong unique passwords that are difficult to guess or crack. This means avoiding passwords that use of common words, your birthdate, your SSN, names and birthdays of close associates, etc.
    • Make sure the devices you are using are up-to-date and have some form of reputable anti-virus/malware software installed.
    • Never open emails, attachments, programs unless they are from a trusted source (i.e., a source that can be verified). Also disregard email or web requests that ask you to share your personal or account information unless you are sure the request and requestor are legitimate.
    • Try to only use websites that are encrypted. To do this, look for either the trusted security lock symbol before the website address and/or the extra “s” at the end of http in the URL address bar.
    • Avoid using an administrator level account when using the internet.
    • Only enable cookies when absolutely required by a website.
    • Make social media accounts private or don't use social media at all.
    • Consider using VPNs and encrypting any folders/data that contains sensitive data.
  • Stay away from using unprotected public Wi-Fi networks.
    • Social media is genetically engineered in Area 51 to harvest as much data from you as possible. Far beyond just having your name and age and photograph.

    • Never use the same username twice anywhere, or the same password twice anywhere.

    • Use Tor/Tor Browser whenever possible. It's not perfect, but it is a decent default attempt at anonymity.

    • Use a VPN. Using VPN and Tor can be even better.

    • Search engines like DuckDuckGo offer better privacy (assuming they're honest, which you can never be certain of) than Google which, like social media, works extremely hard to harvest every bit of data from you that they can.

    • Never give your real details anywhere. Certainly not things like your name or pictures of yourself, but even less obvious things like your age or country of origin. Even things like how you spell words and grammatical quirks can reveal where you're from.

    • Erase your comments from websites after a few days/weeks. It might not erase them from the website's servers, but it will at least remove them from public view. If you don't, you can forget they exist and you never know how or when they can and will be used against you.

  • With Reddit, you can create an account fairly easily over Tor using no real information. Also, regularly nuke your accounts in case Reddit or some crazy stalker is monitoring your posts to build a profile of who you might be. Source: Reddit

XXVI-

  • Adrian Lamo – gained media attention for breaking into several high-profile computer networks, including those of The New York Times, Yahoo!, and Microsoft, culminating in his 2003 arrest. Lamo was best known for reporting U.S. soldier Chelsea Manning to Army criminal investigators in 2010 for leaking hundreds of thousands of sensitive U.S. government documents to WikiLeaks.
  • Albert Gonzales – an American computer hacker and computer criminal who is accused of masterminding the combined credit card theft and subsequent reselling of more than 170 million card and ATM numbers from 2005 to 2007: the biggest such fraud in history.
  • Andrew Auernheimer (known as Weev) – Went to jail for using math against AT&T website.
  • Barnaby Jack – was a New Zealand hacker, programmer and computer security expert. He was known for his presentation at the Black Hat computer security conference in 2010, during which he exploited two ATMs and made them dispense fake paper currency on the stage. Among his other most notable works were the exploitation of various medical devices, including pacemakers and insulin pumps.
  • Benjamin Delpy – Mimikatz
  • DVD-Jon – He wrote the DeCSS software, which decodes the Content Scramble System used for DVD licensing enforcement.
  • Eric Corley (known as Emmanuel Goldstein) – 2600
  • Gary McKinnon – a Scottish systems administrator and hacker who was accused in 2002 of perpetrating the “biggest military computer hack of all time,” although McKinnon himself states that he was merely looking for evidence of free energy suppression and a cover-up of UFO activity and other technologies potentially useful to the public. 👽🛸
  • George Hotz aka geohot – “The former Facebook engineer took on the giants of the tech world by developing the first iPhone carrier-unlock techniques,” says Mark Greenwood, head of data science at Netacea, “followed a few years later by reverse engineering Sony’s PlayStation 3, clearing the way for users to run their own code on locked-down hardware. George sparked an interest in a younger generation frustrated with hardware and software restrictions being imposed on them and led to a new scene of opening up devices, ultimately leading to better security and more openness.”
  • Guccifer 2.0 – a persona which claimed to be the hacker(s) that hacked into the Democratic National Committee (DNC) computer network and then leaked its documents to the media, the website WikiLeaks, and a conference event.
  • Hector Monsegur (known as Sabu) – an American computer hacker and co-founder of the hacking group LulzSec. He Monsegur became an informant for the FBI, working with the agency for over ten months to aid them in identifying the other hackers from LulzSec and related groups.
  • Jacob Appelbaum – an American independent journalist, computer security researcher, artist, and hacker. He has been employed by the University of Washington, and was a core member of the Tor project, a free software network designed to provide online anonymity.
  • James Forshaw – one of the world's foremost bug bounty huners
  • Jeanson James Ancheta – On May 9, 2006, Jeanson James Ancheta (born 1985) became the first person to be charged for controlling large numbers of hijacked computers or botnets.
  • Jeremy Hammond – He was convicted of computer fraud in 2013 for hacking the private intelligence firm Stratfor and releasing data to the whistle-blowing website WikiLeaks, and sentenced to 10 years in prison.
  • John Draper – also known as Captain Crunch, Crunch or Crunchman (after the Cap'n Crunch breakfast cereal mascot), is an American computer programmer and former legendary phone phreak.
  • Kevin Mitnick – Free Kevin
  • Kimberley Vanvaeck (known as Gigabyte) – a virus writer from Belgium known for a long-standing dispute which involved the internet security firm Sophos and one of its employees, Graham Cluley. Vanvaeck wrote several viruses, including Quis, Coconut and YahaSux (also called Sahay). She also created a Sharp virus (also called “Sharpei”), credited as being the first virus to be written in C#.
  • Lauri Love – a British activist charged with stealing data from United States Government computers including the United States Army, Missile Defense Agency, and NASA via computer intrusion.
  • Michael Calce (known as MafiaBoy) – a security expert from Île Bizard, Quebec who launched a series of highly publicized denial-of-service attacks in February 2000 against large commercial websites, including Yahoo!, Fifa.com, Amazon.com, Dell, Inc., E*TRADE, eBay, and CNN.
  • Mudge – Peiter C. Zatko, better known as Mudge, is a network security expert, open source programmer, writer, and a hacker. He was the most prominent member of the high-profile hacker think tank the L0pht as well as the long-lived computer and culture hacking cooperative the Cult of the Dead Cow.
  • Phineas Fisher – vigilante hacker god
  • PRAGMA – Also known as Impragma or PHOENiX, PRAGMA is the author of Snipr, one of the most prolific credential stuffing tools available online.
  • The 414s – The 414s were a group of computer hackers who broke into dozens of high-profile computer systems, including ones at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and Security Pacific Bank, in 1982 and 1983.
  • The Shadow Brokers – is a hacker group who first appeared in the summer of 2016. They published several leaks containing hacking tools from the National Security Agency (NSA), including several zero-day exploits. Specifically, these exploits and vulnerabilities targeted enterprise firewalls, antivirus software, and Microsoft products.[6] The Shadow Brokers originally attributed the leaks to the Equation Group threat actor, who have been tied to the NSA's Tailored Access Operations unit.

Notable Viruses & Worms

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XXVII- History

  • The Strange History of Ransomware
    The first ransomware virus predates e-mail, even the Internet as we know it, and was distributed on floppy disk by the postal service. It sounds quaint, but in some ways this horse-and-buggy version was even more insidious than its modern descendants. Contemporary ransomware tends to bait victims using legitimate-looking email attachments — a fake invoice from UPS, or a receipt from Delta airlines. But the 20,000 disks dispatched to 90 countries in December of 1989 were masquerading as something far more evil: AIDS education software.


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XXVIII- How to protect sensitive data for its entire lifecycle in AWS

How to protect sensitive data for its entire lifecycle in AWS
How to protect sensitive data for its entire lifecycle in AWS

You can protect data in-transit over individual communications channels using transport layer security (TLS), and at-rest in individual storage silos using volume encryption, object encryption or database table encryption. However, if you have sensitive workloads, you might need additional protection that can follow the data as it moves through the application stack. Fine-grained data protection techniques such as field-level encryption allow for the protection of sensitive data fields in larger application payloads while leaving non-sensitive fields in plaintext. This approach lets an application perform business functions on non-sensitive fields without the overhead of encryption, and allows fine-grained control over what fields can be accessed by what parts of the application. Read m ore here…

What are the corresponding Azure and Google Cloud services for each of the AWS services?

Azure Administrator AZ-104 Exam Questions and Answers Dumps

What are unique distinctions and similarities between AWS, Azure and Google Cloud services? For each AWS service, what is the equivalent Azure and Google Cloud service? For each Azure service, what is the corresponding Google Service? AWS Services vs Azure vs Google Services? Side by side comparison between AWS, Google Cloud and Azure Service?

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AWS vs Azure vs Google
AWS vs Azure vs Google Mobile App
Cloud Practitioner Exam Prep:  AWS vs Azure vs Google
Cloud Practitioner Exam Prep: AWS vs Azure vs Google

1

Category: Marketplace
Easy-to-deploy and automatically configured third-party applications, including single virtual machine or multiple virtual machine solutions.
References:
[AWS]:AWS Marketplace
[Azure]:Azure Marketplace
[Google]:Google Cloud Marketplace
Tags: #AWSMarketplace, #AzureMarketPlace, #GoogleMarketplace
Differences: They are both digital catalog with thousands of software listings from independent software vendors that make it easy to find, test, buy, and deploy software that runs on their respective cloud platform.

3

Category: AI and machine learning
Build and connect intelligent bots that interact with your users using text/SMS, Skype, Teams, Slack, Office 365 mail, Twitter, and other popular services.
References:
[AWS]:Alexa Skills Kit (enables a developer to build skills, also called conversational applications, on the Amazon Alexa artificial intelligence assistant.)
[Azure]:Microsoft Bot Framework (building enterprise-grade conversational AI experiences.)
[Google]:Google Assistant Actions ( developer platform that lets you create software to extend the functionality of the Google Assistant, Google’s virtual personal assistant,)

Tags: #AlexaSkillsKit, #MicrosoftBotFramework, #GoogleAssistant
Differences: One major advantage Google gets over Alexa is that Google Assistant is available to almost all Android devices.

4

Category: AI and machine learning
Description:API capable of converting speech to text, understanding intent, and converting text back to speech for natural responsiveness.
References:
[AWS]:Amazon Lex (building conversational interfaces into any application using voice and text.)
[Azure]:Azure Speech Services(unification of speech-to-text, text-to-speech, and speech translation into a single Azure subscription)
[Google]:Google APi.ai, AI Hub (Hosted repo of plug-and-play AI component), AI building blocks(for developers to add sight, language, conversation, and structured data to their applications.), AI Platform(code-based data science development environment, lets ML developers and data scientists quickly take projects from ideation to deployment.), DialogFlow (Google-owned developer of human–computer interaction technologies based on natural language conversations. ), TensorFlow(Open Source Machine Learning platform)

Tags: #AmazonLex, #CogintiveServices, #AzureSpeech, #Api.ai, #DialogFlow, #Tensorflow
Differences: api.ai provides us with such a platform which is easy to learn and comprehensive to develop conversation actions. It is a good example of the simplistic approach to solving complex man to machine communication problem using natural language processing in proximity to machine learning. Api.ai supports context based conversations now, which reduces the overhead of handling user context in session parameters. On the other hand in Lex this has to be handled in session. Also, api.ai can be used for both voice and text based conversations (assistant actions can be easily created using api.ai).

5

Category: AI and machine learning
Description:Computer Vision: Extract information from images to categorize and process visual data.
References:
[AWS]:Amazon Rekognition (based on the same proven, highly scalable, deep learning technology developed by Amazon’s computer vision scientists to analyze billions of images and videos daily. It requires no machine learning expertise to use.)
[Azure]:Cognitive Services(bring AI within reach of every developer—without requiring machine-learning expertise.)
[Google]:Google Vision (offers powerful pre-trained machine learning models through REST and RPC APIs.)
Tags: AmazonRekognition, #GoogleVision, #AzureSpeech
Differences: For now, only Google Cloud Vision supports batch processing. Videos are not natively supported by Google Cloud Vision or Amazon Rekognition. The Object Detection functionality of Google Cloud Vision and Amazon Rekognition is almost identical, both syntactically and semantically.
Differences:
Google Cloud Vision and Amazon Rekognition offer a broad spectrum of solutions, some of which are comparable in terms of functional details, quality, performance, and costs.

7

Category: Big data and analytics: Data warehouse
Description: Apache Spark-based analytics platform. Managed Hadoop service. Data orchestration, ETL, Analytics and visualization
References:
[AWS]:EMR, Data Pipeline, Kinesis Stream, Kinesis Firehose, Glue, QuickSight, Athena, CloudSearch
[Azure]:Azure Databricks, Data Catalog Cortana Intelligence, HDInsight, Power BI, Azure Datafactory, Azure Search, Azure Data Lake Anlytics, Stream Analytics, Azure Machine Learning
[Google]:Cloud DataProc, Machine Learning, Cloud Datalab
Tags:#EMR, #DataPipeline, #Kinesis, #Cortana, AzureDatafactory, #AzureDataAnlytics, #CloudDataProc, #MachineLearning, #CloudDatalab
Differences: All three providers offer similar building blocks; data processing, data orchestration, streaming analytics, machine learning and visualisations. AWS certainly has all the bases covered with a solid set of products that will meet most needs. Azure offers a comprehensive and impressive suite of managed analytical products. They support open source big data solutions alongside new serverless analytical products such as Data Lake. Google provide their own twist to cloud analytics with their range of services. With Dataproc and Dataflow, Google have a strong core to their proposition. Tensorflow has been getting a lot of attention recently and there will be many who will be keen to see Machine Learning come out of preview.

8

Category: Virtual servers
Description:Virtual servers allow users to deploy, manage, and maintain OS and server software. Instance types provide combinations of CPU/RAM. Users pay for what they use with the flexibility to change sizes.
Batch: Run large-scale parallel and high-performance computing applications efficiently in the cloud.
References:
[AWS]:Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Amazon Bracket(Explore and experiment with quantum computing), Amazon Ec2 M6g Instances (Achieve up to 40% better price performance), Amazon Ec2 Inf1 instancs (Deliver cost-effective ML inference), AWS Graviton2 Processors (Optimize price performance for cloud workloads), AWS Batch, AWS AutoScaling, VMware Cloud on AWS, AWS Local Zones (Run low latency applications at the edge), AWS Wavelength (Deliver ultra-low latency applications for 5G devices), AWS Nitro Enclaves (Further protect highly sensitive data), AWS Outposts (Run AWS infrastructure and services on-premises)
[Azure]:Azure Virtual Machines, Azure Batch, Virtual Machine Scale Sets, Azure VMware by CloudSimple
[Google]:Compute Engine, Preemptible Virtual Machines, Managed instance groups (MIGs), Google Cloud VMware Solution by CloudSimple
Tags: #AWSEC2, #AWSBatch, #AWSAutoscaling, #AzureVirtualMachine, #AzureBatch, #VirtualMachineScaleSets, #AzureVMWare, #ComputeEngine, #MIGS, #VMWare
Differences: There is very little to choose between the 3 providers when it comes to virtual servers. Amazon has some impressive high end kit, on the face of it this sound like it would make AWS a clear winner. However, if your only option is to choose the biggest box available you will need to make sure you have very deep pockets, and perhaps your money may be better spent re-architecting your apps for horizontal scale.Azure’s remains very strong in the PaaS space and now has a IaaS that can genuinely compete with AWS
Google offers a simple and very capable set of services that are easy to understand. However, with availability in only 5 regions it does not have the coverage of the other players.

9

Category: Containers and container orchestrators
Description: A container is a standard unit of software that packages up code and all its dependencies so the application runs quickly and reliably from one computing environment to another.
Container orchestration is all about managing the lifecycles of containers, especially in large, dynamic environments.
References:
[AWS]:EC2 Container Service (ECS), Fargate(Run containers without anaging servers or clusters), EC2 Container Registry(managed AWS Docker registry service that is secure, scalable, and reliable.), Elastic Container Service for Kubernetes (EKS: runs the Kubernetes management infrastructure across multiple AWS Availability Zones), App Mesh( application-level networking to make it easy for your services to communicate with each other across multiple types of compute infrastructure)
[Azure]:Azure Container Instances, Azure Container Registry, Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS), Service Fabric Mesh
[Google]:Google Container Engine, Container Registry, Kubernetes Engine
Tags:#ECS, #Fargate, #EKS, #AppMesh, #ContainerEngine, #ContainerRegistry, #AKS
Differences: Google Container Engine, AWS Container Services, and Azure Container Instances can be used to run docker containers. Google offers a simple and very capable set of services that are easy to understand. However, with availability in only 5 regions it does not have the coverage of the other players.

10

Category: Serverless
Description: Integrate systems and run backend processes in response to events or schedules without provisioning or managing servers.
References:
[AWS]:AWS Lambda
[Azure]:Azure Functions
[Google]:Google Cloud Functions
Tags:#AWSLAmbda, #AzureFunctions, #GoogleCloudFunctions
Differences: Both AWS Lambda and Microsoft Azure Functions and Google Cloud Functions offer dynamic, configurable triggers that you can use to invoke your functions on their platforms. AWS Lambda, Azure and Google Cloud Functions support Node.js, Python, and C#. The beauty of serverless development is that, with minor changes, the code you write for one service should be portable to another with little effort – simply modify some interfaces, handle any input/output transforms, and an AWS Lambda Node.JS function is indistinguishable from a Microsoft Azure Node.js Function. AWS Lambda provides further support for Python and Java, while Azure Functions provides support for F# and PHP. AWS Lambda is built from the AMI, which runs on Linux, while Microsoft Azure Functions run in a Windows environment. AWS Lambda uses the AWS Machine architecture to reduce the scope of containerization, letting you spin up and tear down individual pieces of functionality in your application at will.

11

Category: Relational databases
Description: Managed relational database service where resiliency, scale, and maintenance are primarily handled by the platform.
References:
[AWS]:AWS RDS(MySQL and PostgreSQL-compatible relational database built for the cloud,), Aurora(MySQL and PostgreSQL-compatible relational database built for the cloud)
[Azure]:SQL Database, Azure Database for MySQL, Azure Database for PostgreSQL
[Google]:Cloud SQL
Tags: #AWSRDS, #AWSAUrora, #AzureSQlDatabase, #AzureDatabaseforMySQL, #GoogleCloudSQL
Differences: All three providers boast impressive relational database offering. RDS supports an impressive range of managed relational stores while Azure SQL Database is probably the most advanced managed relational database available today. Azure also has the best out-of-the-box support for cross-region geo-replication across its database offerings.

12

Category: NoSQL, Document Databases
Description:A globally distributed, multi-model database that natively supports multiple data models: key-value, documents, graphs, and columnar.
References:
[AWS]:DynamoDB (key-value and document database that delivers single-digit millisecond performance at any scale.), SimpleDB ( a simple web services interface to create and store multiple data sets, query your data easily, and return the results.), Managed Cassandra Services(MCS)
[Azure]:Table Storage, DocumentDB, Azure Cosmos DB
[Google]:Cloud Datastore (handles sharding and replication in order to provide you with a highly available and consistent database. )
Tags:#AWSDynamoDB, #SimpleDB, #TableSTorage, #DocumentDB, AzureCosmosDB, #GoogleCloudDataStore
Differences:DynamoDB and Cloud Datastore are based on the document store database model and are therefore similar in nature to open-source solutions MongoDB and CouchDB. In other words, each database is fundamentally a key-value store. With more workloads moving to the cloud the need for NoSQL databases will become ever more important, and again all providers have a good range of options to satisfy most performance/cost requirements. Of all the NoSQL products on offer it’s hard not to be impressed by DocumentDB; Azure also has the best out-of-the-box support for cross-region geo-replication across its database offerings.

13

Category:Caching
Description:An in-memory–based, distributed caching service that provides a high-performance store typically used to offload non transactional work from a database.
References:
[AWS]:AWS ElastiCache (works as an in-memory data store and cache to support the most demanding applications requiring sub-millisecond response times.)
[Azure]:Azure Cache for Redis (based on the popular software Redis. It is typically used as a cache to improve the performance and scalability of systems that rely heavily on backend data-stores.)
[Google]:Memcache (In-memory key-value store, originally intended for caching)
Tags:#Redis, #Memcached
<Differences: They all support horizontal scaling via sharding.They all improve the performance of web applications by allowing you to retrive information from fast, in-memory caches, instead of relying on slower disk-based databases.”, “Differences”: “ElastiCache supports Memcached and Redis. Memcached Cloud provides various data persistence options as well as remote backups for disaster recovery purposes. Redis offers persistence to disk, Memcache does not. This can be very helpful if you cache lots of data, since you remove the slowness around having a fully cold cache. Redis also offers several extra data structures that Memcache doesn’t— Lists, Sets, Sorted Sets, etc. Memcache only has Key/Value pairs. Memcache is multi-threaded. Redis is single-threaded and event driven. Redis is very fast, but it’ll never be multi-threaded. At hight scale, you can squeeze more connections and transactions out of Memcache. Memcache tends to be more memory efficient. This can make a big difference around the magnitude of 10s of millions or 100s of millions of keys. ElastiCache supports Memcached and Redis. Memcached Cloud provides various data persistence options as well as remote backups for disaster recovery purposes. Redis offers persistence to disk, Memcache does not. This can be very helpful if you cache lots of data, since you remove the slowness around having a fully cold cache. Redis also offers several extra data structures that Memcache doesn’t— Lists, Sets, Sorted Sets, etc. Memcache only has Key/Value pairs. Memcache is multi-threaded. Redis is single-threaded and event driven. Redis is very fast, but it’ll never be multi-threaded. At hight scale, you can squeeze more connections and transactions out of Memcache. Memcache tends to be more memory efficient. This can make a big difference around the magnitude of 10s of millions or 100s of millions of keys.

14

Category: Security, identity, and access
Description:Authentication and authorization: Allows users to securely control access to services and resources while offering data security and protection. Create and manage users and groups, and use permissions to allow and deny access to resources.
References:
[AWS]:Identity and Access Management (IAM), AWS Organizations, Multi-Factor Authentication, AWS Directory Service, Cognito(provides solutions to control access to backend resources from your app), Amazon Detective (Investigate potential security issues), AWS IAM Access Analyzer(Easily analyze resource accessibility)
[Azure]:Azure Active Directory, Azure Subscription Management + Azure RBAC, Multi-Factor Authentication, Azure Active Directory Domain Services, Azure Active Directory B2C, Azure Policy, Management Groups
[Google]:Cloud Identity, Identity Platform, Cloud IAM, Policy Intelligence, Cloud Resource Manager, Cloud Identity-Aware Proxy, Context-aware accessManaged Service for Microsoft Active Directory, Security key enforcement, Titan Security Key
Tags: #IAM, #AWSIAM, #AzureIAM, #GoogleIAM, #Multi-factorAuthentication
Differences: One unique thing about AWS IAM is that accounts created in the organization (not through federation) can only be used within that organization. This contrasts with Google and Microsoft. On the good side, every organization is self-contained. On the bad side, users can end up with multiple sets of credentials they need to manage to access different organizations. The second unique element is that every user can have a non-interactive account by creating and using access keys, an interactive account by enabling console access, or both. (Side note: To use the CLI, you need to have access keys generated.)

15

Category: Object Storage and Content delivery
Description:Object storage service, for use cases including cloud applications, content distribution, backup, archiving, disaster recovery, and big data analytics.
References:
[AWS]:Simple Storage Services (S3), Import/Export(used to move large amounts of data into and out of the Amazon Web Services public cloud using portable storage devices for transport.), Snowball( petabyte-scale data transport solution that uses devices designed to be secure to transfer large amounts of data into and out of the AWS Cloud), CloudFront( content delivery network (CDN) is massively scaled and globally distributed), Elastic Block Store (EBS: high performance block storage service), Elastic File System(shared, elastic file storage system that grows and shrinks as you add and remove files.), S3 Infrequent Access (IA: is for data that is accessed less frequently, but requires rapid access when needed. ), S3 Glacier( long-term storage of data that is infrequently accessed and for which retrieval latency times of 3 to 5 hours are acceptable.), AWS Backup( makes it easy to centralize and automate the back up of data across AWS services in the cloud as well as on-premises using the AWS Storage Gateway.), Storage Gateway(hybrid cloud storage service that gives you on-premises access to virtually unlimited cloud storage), AWS Import/Export Disk(accelerates moving large amounts of data into and out of AWS using portable storage devices for transport)
[Azure]:
Azure Blob storage, File Storage, Data Lake Store, Azure Backup, Azure managed disks, Azure Files, Azure Storage cool tier, Azure Storage archive access tier, Azure Backup, StorSimple, Import/Export
[Google]:
Cloud Storage, GlusterFS, CloudCDN
Tags:#S3, #AzureBlobStorage, #CloudStorage
Differences:
Source: All providers have good object storage options and so storage alone is unlikely to be a deciding factor when choosing a cloud provider. The exception perhaps is for hybrid scenarios, in this case Azure and AWS clearly win. AWS and Google’s support for automatic versioning is a great feature that is currently missing from Azure; however Microsoft’s fully managed Data Lake Store offers an additional option that will appeal to organisations who are looking to run large scale analytical workloads. If you are prepared to wait 4 hours for your data and you have considerable amounts of the stuff then AWS Glacier storage might be a good option. If you use the common programming patterns for atomic updates and consistency, such as etags and the if-match family of headers, then you should be aware that AWS does not support them, though Google and Azure do. Azure also supports blob leasing, which can be used to provide a distributed lock.

16

Category:Internet of things (IoT)
Description:A cloud gateway for managing bidirectional communication with billions of IoT devices, securely and at scale. Deploy cloud intelligence directly on IoT devices to run in on-premises scenarios.
References:
[AWS]:AWS IoT (Internet of Things), AWS Greengrass, Kinesis Firehose, Kinesis Streams, AWS IoT Things Graph
[Azure]:Azure IoT Hub, Azure IoT Edge, Event Hubs, Azure Digital Twins, Azure Sphere
[Google]:Google Cloud IoT Core, Firebase, Brillo, Weave, CLoud Pub/SUb, Stream Analysis, Big Query, Big Query Streaming API
Tags:#IoT, #InternetOfThings, #Firebase
Differences:AWS and Azure have a more coherent message with their products clearly integrated into their respective platforms, whereas Google Firebase feels like a distinctly separate product.

17

Category:Web Applications
Description:Managed hosting platform providing easy to use services for deploying and scaling web applications and services. API Gateway is a a turnkey solution for publishing APIs to external and internal consumers. Cloudfront is a global content delivery network that delivers audio, video, applications, images, and other files.
References:
[AWS]:Elastic Beanstalk (for deploying and scaling web applications and services developed with Java, .NET, PHP, Node.js, Python, Ruby, Go, and Docker on familiar servers such as Apache, Nginx, Passenger, and IIS), AWS Wavelength (for delivering ultra-low latency applications for 5G), API Gateway (makes it easy for developers to create, publish, maintain, monitor, and secure APIs at any scale.), CloudFront (web service that speeds up distribution of your static and dynamic web content, such as .html, .css, .js, and image files, to your users. CloudFront delivers your content through a worldwide network of data centers called edge locations.),Global Accelerator ( improves the availability and performance of your applications with local or global users. It provides static IP addresses that act as a fixed entry point to your application endpoints in a single or multiple AWS Regions, such as your Application Load Balancers, Network Load Balancers or Amazon EC2 instances.)AWS AppSync (simplifies application development by letting you create a flexible API to securely access, manipulate, and combine data from one or more data sources: GraphQL service with real-time data synchronization and offline programming features. )
[Azure]:App Service, API Management, Azure Content Delivery Network, Azure Content Delivery Network
[Google]:App Engine, Cloud API, Cloud Enpoint, APIGee
Tags: #AWSElasticBeanstalk, #AzureAppService, #GoogleAppEngine, #CloudEnpoint, #CloudFront, #APIgee
Differences: With AWS Elastic Beanstalk, developers retain full control over the AWS resources powering their application. If developers decide they want to manage some (or all) of the elements of their infrastructure, they can do so seamlessly by using Elastic Beanstalk’s management capabilities. AWS Elastic Beanstalk integrates with more apps than Google App Engines (Datadog, Jenkins, Docker, Slack, Github, Eclipse, etc..). Google App Engine has more features than AWS Elastic BEanstalk (App Identity, Java runtime, Datastore, Blobstore, Images, Go Runtime, etc..). Developers describe Amazon API Gateway as “Create, publish, maintain, monitor, and secure APIs at any scale”. Amazon API Gateway handles all the tasks involved in accepting and processing up to hundreds of thousands of concurrent API calls, including traffic management, authorization and access control, monitoring, and API version management. On the other hand, Google Cloud Endpoints is detailed as “Develop, deploy and manage APIs on any Google Cloud backend”. An NGINX-based proxy and distributed architecture give unparalleled performance and scalability. Using an Open API Specification or one of our API frameworks, Cloud Endpoints gives you the tools you need for every phase of API development and provides insight with Google Cloud Monitoring, Cloud Trace, Google Cloud Logging and Cloud Trace.

18

Category:Encryption
Description:Helps you protect and safeguard your data and meet your organizational security and compliance commitments.
References:
[AWS]:Key Management Service AWS KMS, CloudHSM
[Azure]:Key Vault
[Google]:Encryption By Default at Rest, Cloud KMS
Tags:#AWSKMS, #Encryption, #CloudHSM, #EncryptionAtRest, #CloudKMS
Differences: AWS KMS, is an ideal solution for organizations that want to manage encryption keys in conjunction with other AWS services. In contrast to AWS CloudHSM, AWS KMS provides a complete set of tools to manage encryption keys, develop applications and integrate with other AWS services. Google and Azure offer 4096 RSA. AWS and Google offer 256 bit AES. With AWs, you can bring your own key

19

Category:Internet of things (IoT)
Description:A cloud gateway for managing bidirectional communication with billions of IoT devices, securely and at scale. Deploy cloud intelligence directly on IoT devices to run in on-premises scenarios.
References:
[AWS]:AWS IoT, AWS Greengrass, Kinesis Firehose ( captures and loads streaming data in storage and business intelligence (BI) tools to enable near real-time analytics in the AWS cloud), Kinesis Streams (for rapid and continuous data intake and aggregation.), AWS IoT Things Graph (makes it easy to visually connect different devices and web services to build IoT applications.)
[Azure]:Azure IoT Hub, Azure IoT Edge, Event Hubs, Azure Digital Twins, Azure Sphere
[Google]:Google Cloud IoT Core, Firebase, Brillo, Weave, CLoud Pub/SUb, Stream Analysis, Big Query, Big Query Streaming API
Tags:#IoT, #InternetOfThings, #Firebase
Differences:AWS and Azure have a more coherent message with their products clearly integrated into their respective platforms, whereas Google Firebase feels like a distinctly separate product.

20

Category:Object Storage and Content delivery
Description: Object storage service, for use cases including cloud applications, content distribution, backup, archiving, disaster recovery, and big data analytics.
References:
[AWS]:Simple Storage Services (S3), Import/Export Snowball, CloudFront, Elastic Block Store (EBS), Elastic File System, S3 Infrequent Access (IA), S3 Glacier, AWS Backup, Storage Gateway, AWS Import/Export Disk, Amazon S3 Access Points(Easily manage access for shared data)
[Azure]:Azure Blob storage, File Storage, Data Lake Store, Azure Backup, Azure managed disks, Azure Files, Azure Storage cool tier, Azure Storage archive access tier, Azure Backup, StorSimple, Import/Export
[Google]:Cloud Storage, GlusterFS, CloudCDN
Tags:#S3, #AzureBlobStorage, #CloudStorage
Differences:All providers have good object storage options and so storage alone is unlikely to be a deciding factor when choosing a cloud provider. The exception perhaps is for hybrid scenarios, in this case Azure and AWS clearly win. AWS and Google’s support for automatic versioning is a great feature that is currently missing from Azure; however Microsoft’s fully managed Data Lake Store offers an additional option that will appeal to organisations who are looking to run large scale analytical workloads. If you are prepared to wait 4 hours for your data and you have considerable amounts of the stuff then AWS Glacier storage might be a good option. If you use the common programming patterns for atomic updates and consistency, such as etags and the if-match family of headers, then you should be aware that AWS does not support them, though Google and Azure do. Azure also supports blob leasing, which can be used to provide a distributed lock.

21

Category: Backend process logic
Description: Cloud technology to build distributed applications using out-of-the-box connectors to reduce integration challenges. Connect apps, data and devices on-premises or in the cloud.
References:
[AWS]:AWS Step Functions ( lets you build visual workflows that enable fast translation of business requirements into technical requirements. You can build applications in a matter of minutes, and when needs change, you can swap or reorganize components without customizing any code.)
[Azure]:Logic Apps (cloud service that helps you schedule, automate, and orchestrate tasks, business processes, and workflows when you need to integrate apps, data, systems, and services across enterprises or organizations.)
[Google]:Dataflow ( fully managed service for executing Apache Beam pipelines within the Google Cloud Platform ecosystem.)
Tags:#AWSStepFunctions, #LogicApps, #Dataflow
Differences: AWS Step Functions makes it easy to coordinate the components of distributed applications and microservices using visual workflows. Building applications from individual components that each perform a discrete function lets you scale and change applications quickly. AWS Step Functions belongs to \”Cloud Task Management\” category of the tech stack, while Google Cloud Dataflow can be primarily classified under \”Real-time Data Processing\”. According to the StackShare community, Google Cloud Dataflow has a broader approval, being mentioned in 32 company stacks & 8 developers stacks; compared to AWS Step Functions, which is listed in 19 company stacks and 7 developer stacks.

22

Category: Enterprise application services
Description:Fully integrated Cloud service providing communications, email, document management in the cloud and available on a wide variety of devices.
References:
[AWS]:Amazon WorkMail, Amazon WorkDocs, Amazon Kendra (Sync and Index)
[Azure]:Office 365
[Google]:G Suite
Tags: #AmazonWorkDocs, #Office365, #GoogleGSuite
Differences: G suite document processing applications like Google Docs are far behind Office 365 popular Word and Excel software, but G Suite User interface is intuite, simple and easy to navigate. Office 365 is too clunky. Get 20% off G-Suite Business Plan with Promo Code: PCQ49CJYK7EATNC

23

Category: Networking
Description: Provides an isolated, private environment in the cloud. Users have control over their virtual networking environment, including selection of their own IP address range, creation of subnets, and configuration of route tables and network gateways.
References:
[AWS]:Virtual Private Cloud (VPC), Cloud virtual networking, Subnets, Elastic Network Interface (ENI), Route Tables, Network ACL, Secutity Groups, Internet Gateway, NAT Gateway, AWS VPN Gateway, AWS Route 53, AWS Direct Connect, AWS Network Load Balancer, VPN CloudHub, AWS Local Zones, AWS Transit Gateway network manager (Centrally manage global networks)
[Azure]:Virtual Network(provide services for building networks within Azure.),Subnets (network resources can be grouped by subnet for organisation and security.), Network Interface (Each virtual machine can be assigned one or more network interfaces (NICs)), Network Security Groups (NSG: contains a set of prioritised ACL rules that explicitly grant or deny access), Azure VPN Gateway ( allows connectivity to on-premise networks), Azure DNS, Traffic Manager (DNS based traffic routing solution.), ExpressRoute (provides connections up to 10 Gbps to Azure services over a dedicated fibre connection), Azure Load Balancer, Network Peering, Azure Stack (Azure Stack allows organisations to use Azure services running in private data centers.), Azure Load Balancer , Azure Log Analytics, Azure DNS,
[Google]:Cloud Virtual Network, Subnets, Network Interface, Protocol fowarding, Cloud VPN, Cloud DNS, Virtual Private Network, Cloud Interconnect, CDN interconnect, Cloud DNS, Stackdriver, Google Cloud Load Balancing,
Tags:#VPC, #Subnets, #ACL, #VPNGateway, #CloudVPN, #NetworkInterface, #ENI, #RouteTables, #NSG, #NetworkACL, #InternetGateway, #NatGateway, #ExpressRoute, #CloudInterConnect, #StackDriver
Differences: Subnets group related resources, however, unlike AWS and Azure, Google do not constrain the private IP address ranges of subnets to the address space of the parent network. Like Azure, Google has a built in internet gateway that can be specified from routing rules.

24

Category: Management
Description: A unified management console that simplifies building, deploying, and operating your cloud resources.
References:
[AWS]: AWS Management Console, Trusted Advisor, AWS Usage and Billing Report, AWS Application Discovery Service, Amazon EC2 Systems Manager, AWS Personal Health Dashboard, AWS Compute Optimizer (Identify optimal AWS Compute resources)
[Azure]:Azure portal, Azure Advisor, Azure Billing API, Azure Migrate, Azure Monitor, Azure Resource Health
[Google]:Google CLoud Platform, Cost Management, Security Command Center, StackDriver
Tags: #AWSConsole, #AzurePortal, #GoogleCloudConsole, #TrustedAdvisor, #AzureMonitor, #SecurityCommandCenter
Differences: AWS Console categorizes its Infrastructure as a Service offerings into Compute, Storage and Content Delivery Network (CDN), Database, and Networking to help businesses and individuals grow. Azure excels in the Hybrid Cloud space allowing companies to integrate onsite servers with cloud offerings. Google has a strong offering in containers, since Google developed the Kubernetes standard that AWS and Azure now offer. GCP specializes in high compute offerings like Big Data, analytics and machine learning. It also offers considerable scale and load balancing – Google knows data centers and fast response time.

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Category: DevOps and application monitoring
Description: Comprehensive solution for collecting, analyzing, and acting on telemetry from your cloud and on-premises environments; Cloud services for collaborating on code development; Collection of tools for building, debugging, deploying, diagnosing, and managing multiplatform scalable apps and services; Fully managed build service that supports continuous integration and deployment.
References:
[AWS]:AWS CodePipeline(orchestrates workflow for continuous integration, continuous delivery, and continuous deployment), AWS CloudWatch (monitor your AWS resources and the applications you run on AWS in real time. ), AWS X-Ray (application performance management service that enables a developer to analyze and debug applications in aws), AWS CodeDeploy (automates code deployments to Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and on-premises servers. ), AWS CodeCommit ( source code storage and version-control service), AWS Developer Tools, AWS CodeBuild (continuous integration service that compiles source code, runs tests, and produces software packages that are ready to deploy. ), AWS Command Line Interface (unified tool to manage your AWS services), AWS OpsWorks (Chef-based), AWS CloudFormation ( provides a common language for you to describe and provision all the infrastructure resources in your cloud environment.), Amazon CodeGuru (for automated code reviews and application performance recommendations)
[Azure]:Azure Monitor, Azure DevOps, Azure Developer Tools, Azure CLI Azure PowerShell, Azure Automation, Azure Resource Manager , VM extensions , Azure Automation
[Google]:DevOps Solutions (Infrastructure as code, Configuration management, Secrets management, Serverless computing, Continuous delivery, Continuous integration , Stackdriver (combines metrics, logs, and metadata from all of your cloud accounts and projects into a single comprehensive view of your environment)
Tags: #CloudWatch, #StackDriver, #AzureMonitor, #AWSXray, #AWSCodeDeploy, #AzureDevOps, #GoogleDevopsSolutions
Differences: CodeCommit eliminates the need to operate your own source control system or worry about scaling its infrastructure. Azure DevOps provides unlimited private Git hosting, cloud build for continuous integration, agile planning, and release management for continuous delivery to the cloud and on-premises. Includes broad IDE support.

SageMakerAzure Machine Learning Studio

A collaborative, drag-and-drop tool to build, test, and deploy predictive analytics solutions on your data.

Alexa Skills KitMicrosoft Bot Framework

Build and connect intelligent bots that interact with your users using text/SMS, Skype, Teams, Slack, Office 365 mail, Twitter, and other popular services.

Amazon LexSpeech Services

API capable of converting speech to text, understanding intent, and converting text back to speech for natural responsiveness.

Amazon LexLanguage Understanding (LUIS)

Allows your applications to understand user commands contextually.

Amazon Polly, Amazon Transcribe | Azure Speech Services

Enables both Speech to Text, and Text into Speech capabilities.
The Speech Services are the unification of speech-to-text, text-to-speech, and speech-translation into a single Azure subscription. It’s easy to speech enable your applications, tools, and devices with the Speech SDK, Speech Devices SDK, or REST APIs.
Amazon Polly is a Text-to-Speech (TTS) service that uses advanced deep learning technologies to synthesize speech that sounds like a human voice. With dozens of lifelike voices across a variety of languages, you can select the ideal voice and build speech-enabled applications that work in many different countries.
Amazon Transcribe is an automatic speech recognition (ASR) service that makes it easy for developers to add speech-to-text capability to their applications. Using the Amazon Transcribe API, you can analyze audio files stored in Amazon S3 and have the service return a text file of the transcribed speech.

Amazon RekognitionCognitive Services

Computer Vision: Extract information from images to categorize and process visual data.
Amazon Rekognition is a simple and easy to use API that can quickly analyze any image or video file stored in Amazon S3. Amazon Rekognition is always learning from new data, and we are continually adding new labels and facial recognition features to the service.

Face: Detect, identy, and analyze faces in photos.

Emotions: Recognize emotions in images.

Alexa Skill SetAzure Virtual Assistant

The Virtual Assistant Template brings together a number of best practices we’ve identified through the building of conversational experiences and automates integration of components that we’ve found to be highly beneficial to Bot Framework developers.

Big data and analytics

Data warehouse

AWS RedshiftSQL Data Warehouse

Cloud-based Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW) that uses Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) to quickly run complex queries across petabytes of data.

Big data processing
EMR | Azure Databricks
Apache Spark-based analytics platform.

EMR HDInsight

Managed Hadoop service. Deploy and manage Hadoop clusters in Azure.

Data orchestration / ETL

AWS Data Pipeline, AWS Glue | Data Factory

Processes and moves data between different compute and storage services, as well as on-premises data sources at specified intervals. Create, schedule, orchestrate, and manage data pipelines.

AWS GlueData Catalog

A fully managed service that serves as a system of registration and system of discovery for enterprise data sources

Analytics and visualization

AWS Kinesis Analytics | Stream Analytics

Data Lake Analytics | Data Lake Store

Storage and analysis platforms that create insights from large quantities of data, or data that originates from many sources.

QuickSightPower BI

Business intelligence tools that build visualizations, perform ad hoc analysis, and develop business insights from data.

CloudSearchAzure Search

Delivers full-text search and related search analytics and capabilities.

Amazon AthenaAzure Data Lake Analytics

Provides a serverless interactive query service that uses standard SQL for analyzing databases.

Compute

Virtual servers

Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)Azure Virtual Machines

Virtual servers allow users to deploy, manage, and maintain OS and server software. Instance types provide combinations of CPU/RAM. Users pay for what they use with the flexibility to change sizes.

AWS BatchAzure Batch

Run large-scale parallel and high-performance computing applications efficiently in the cloud.

AWS Auto ScalingVirtual Machine Scale Sets

Allows you to automatically change the number of VM instances. You set defined metric and thresholds that determine if the platform adds or removes instances.

VMware Cloud on AWSAzure VMware by CloudSimple

Redeploy and extend your VMware-based enterprise workloads to Azure with Azure VMware Solution by CloudSimple. Keep using the VMware tools you already know to manage workloads on Azure without disrupting network, security, or data protection policies.

Containers and container orchestrators

EC2 Container Service (ECS), FargateAzure Container Instances

Azure Container Instances is the fastest and simplest way to run a container in Azure, without having to provision any virtual machines or adopt a higher-level orchestration service.

EC2 Container RegistryAzure Container Registry

Allows customers to store Docker formatted images. Used to create all types of container deployments on Azure.

Elastic Container Service for Kubernetes (EKS)Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)

Deploy orchestrated containerized applications with Kubernetes. Simplify monitoring and cluster management through auto upgrades and a built-in operations console.

App MeshService Fabric Mesh

Fully managed service that enables developers to deploy microservices applications without managing virtual machines, storage, or networking.
AWS App Mesh is a service mesh that provides application-level networking to make it easy for your services to communicate with each other across multiple types of compute infrastructure. App Mesh standardizes how your services communicate, giving you end-to-end visibility and ensuring high-availability for your applications.

Serverless

AWS Lambda | Azure Functions

Integrate systems and run backend processes in response to events or schedules without provisioning or managing servers.
AWS Lambda is an event-driven, serverless computing platform provided by Amazon as a part of the Amazon Web Services. It is a computing service that runs code in response to events and automatically manages the computing resources required by that code

Database

Relational database

AWS RDS | SQL Database Azure Database for MySQL Azure Database for PostgreSQL

Managed relational database service where resiliency, scale, and maintenance are primarily handled by the platform.
Amazon Relational Database Service is a distributed relational database service by Amazon Web Services. It is a web service running “in the cloud” designed to simplify the setup, operation, and scaling of a relational database for use in applications. Administration processes like patching the database software, backing up databases and enabling point-in-time recovery are managed automatically. Scaling storage and compute resources can be performed by a single API call as AWS does not offer an ssh connection to RDS instances.

NoSQL / Document

DynamoDB and SimpleDBAzure Cosmos DB

A globally distributed, multi-model database that natively supports multiple data models: key-value, documents, graphs, and columnar.

Caching

AWS ElastiCache | Azure Cache for Redis

An in-memory–based, distributed caching service that provides a high-performance store typically used to offload non transactional work from a database.
Amazon ElastiCache is a fully managed in-memory data store and cache service by Amazon Web Services. The service improves the performance of web applications by retrieving information from managed in-memory caches, instead of relying entirely on slower disk-based databases. ElastiCache supports two open-source in-memory caching engines: Memcached and Redis.

Database migration

AWS Database Migration ServiceAzure Database Migration Service

Migration of database schema and data from one database format to a specific database technology in the cloud.
AWS Database Migration Service helps you migrate databases to AWS quickly and securely. The source database remains fully operational during the migration, minimizing downtime to applications that rely on the database. The AWS Database Migration Service can migrate your data to and from most widely used commercial and open-source databases.

DevOps and application monitoring

AWS CloudWatch, AWS X-Ray | Azure Monitor

Comprehensive solution for collecting, analyzing, and acting on telemetry from your cloud and on-premises environments.
Amazon CloudWatch is a monitoring and observability service built for DevOps engineers, developers, site reliability engineers (SREs), and IT managers. CloudWatch provides you with data and actionable insights to monitor your applications, respond to system-wide performance changes, optimize resource utilization, and get a unified view of operational health. CloudWatch collects monitoring and operational data in the form of logs, metrics, and events, providing you with a unified view of AWS resources, applications, and services that run on AWS and on-premises servers.
AWS X-Ray is an application performance management service that enables a developer to analyze and debug applications in the Amazon Web Services (AWS) public cloud. A developer can use AWS X-Ray to visualize how a distributed application is performing during development or production, and across multiple AWS regions and accounts.

AWS CodeDeploy, AWS CodeCommit, AWS CodePipeline | Azure DevOps

A cloud service for collaborating on code development.
AWS CodeDeploy is a fully managed deployment service that automates software deployments to a variety of compute services such as Amazon EC2, AWS Fargate, AWS Lambda, and your on-premises servers. AWS CodeDeploy makes it easier for you to rapidly release new features, helps you avoid downtime during application deployment, and handles the complexity of updating your applications.
AWS CodePipeline is a fully managed continuous delivery service that helps you automate your release pipelines for fast and reliable application and infrastructure updates. CodePipeline automates the build, test, and deploy phases of your release process every time there is a code change, based on the release model you define.
AWS CodeCommit is a source code storage and version-control service for Amazon Web Services’ public cloud customers. CodeCommit was designed to help IT teams collaborate on software development, including continuous integration and application delivery.

AWS Developer ToolsAzure Developer Tools

Collection of tools for building, debugging, deploying, diagnosing, and managing multiplatform scalable apps and services.
The AWS Developer Tools are designed to help you build software like Amazon. They facilitate practices such as continuous delivery and infrastructure as code for serverless, containers, and Amazon EC2.

AWS CodeBuild | Azure DevOps

Fully managed build service that supports continuous integration and deployment.

AWS Command Line Interface | Azure CLI Azure PowerShell

Built on top of the native REST API across all cloud services, various programming language-specific wrappers provide easier ways to create solutions.
The AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) is a unified tool to manage your AWS services. With just one tool to download and configure, you can control multiple AWS services from the command line and automate them through scripts.

AWS OpsWorks (Chef-based)Azure Automation

Configures and operates applications of all shapes and sizes, and provides templates to create and manage a collection of resources.
AWS OpsWorks is a configuration management service that provides managed instances of Chef and Puppet. Chef and Puppet are automation platforms that allow you to use code to automate the configurations of your servers.

AWS CloudFormation | Azure Resource Manager , VM extensions , Azure Automation

Provides a way for users to automate the manual, long-running, error-prone, and frequently repeated IT tasks.
AWS CloudFormation provides a common language for you to describe and provision all the infrastructure resources in your cloud environment. CloudFormation allows you to use a simple text file to model and provision, in an automated and secure manner, all the resources needed for your applications across all regions and accounts.

Networking

Area

Cloud virtual networking, Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) | Virtual Network

Provides an isolated, private environment in the cloud. Users have control over their virtual networking environment, including selection of their own IP address range, creation of subnets, and configuration of route tables and network gateways.

Cross-premises connectivity

AWS VPN Gateway | Azure VPN Gateway

Connects Azure virtual networks to other Azure virtual networks, or customer on-premises networks (Site To Site). Allows end users to connect to Azure services through VPN tunneling (Point To Site).

DNS management

AWS Route 53 | Azure DNS

Manage your DNS records using the same credentials and billing and support contract as your other Azure services

Route 53 | Traffic Manager

A service that hosts domain names, plus routes users to Internet applications, connects user requests to datacenters, manages traffic to apps, and improves app availability with automatic failover.

Dedicated network

AWS Direct Connect | ExpressRoute

Establishes a dedicated, private network connection from a location to the cloud provider (not over the Internet).

Load balancing

AWS Network Load Balancer | Azure Load Balancer

Azure Load Balancer load-balances traffic at layer 4 (TCP or UDP).

Application Load Balancer | Application Gateway

Application Gateway is a layer 7 load balancer. It supports SSL termination, cookie-based session affinity, and round robin for load-balancing traffic.

Internet of things (IoT)

AWS IoT | Azure IoT Hub

A cloud gateway for managing bidirectional communication with billions of IoT devices, securely and at scale.

AWS Greengrass | Azure IoT Edge

Deploy cloud intelligence directly on IoT devices to run in on-premises scenarios.

Kinesis Firehose, Kinesis Streams | Event Hubs

Services that allow the mass ingestion of small data inputs, typically from devices and sensors, to process and route the data.

AWS IoT Things Graph | Azure Digital Twins

Azure Digital Twins is an IoT service that helps you create comprehensive models of physical environments. Create spatial intelligence graphs to model the relationships and interactions between people, places, and devices. Query data from a physical space rather than disparate sensors.

Management

Trusted Advisor | Azure Advisor

Provides analysis of cloud resource configuration and security so subscribers can ensure they’re making use of best practices and optimum configurations.

AWS Usage and Billing Report | Azure Billing API

Services to help generate, monitor, forecast, and share billing data for resource usage by time, organization, or product resources.

AWS Management Console | Azure portal

A unified management console that simplifies building, deploying, and operating your cloud resources.

AWS Application Discovery Service | Azure Migrate

Assesses on-premises workloads for migration to Azure, performs performance-based sizing, and provides cost estimations.

Amazon EC2 Systems Manager | Azure Monitor

Comprehensive solution for collecting, analyzing, and acting on telemetry from your cloud and on-premises environments.

AWS Personal Health Dashboard | Azure Resource Health

Provides detailed information about the health of resources as well as recommended actions for maintaining resource health.

Security, identity, and access

Authentication and authorization

Identity and Access Management (IAM) | Azure Active Directory

Allows users to securely control access to services and resources while offering data security and protection. Create and manage users and groups, and use permissions to allow and deny access to resources.

Identity and Access Management (IAM) | Azure Role Based Access Control

Role-based access control (RBAC) helps you manage who has access to Azure resources, what they can do with those resources, and what areas they have access to.

AWS Organizations | Azure Subscription Management + Azure RBAC

Security policy and role management for working with multiple accounts.

Multi-Factor Authentication | Multi-Factor Authentication

Safeguard access to data and applications while meeting user demand for a simple sign-in process.

AWS Directory Service | Azure Active Directory Domain Services

Provides managed domain services such as domain join, group policy, LDAP, and Kerberos/NTLM authentication that are fully compatible with Windows Server Active Directory.

Cognito | Azure Active Directory B2C

A highly available, global, identity management service for consumer-facing applications that scales to hundreds of millions of identities.

AWS Organizations | Azure Policy

Azure Policy is a service in Azure that you use to create, assign, and manage policies. These policies enforce different rules and effects over your resources, so those resources stay compliant with your corporate standards and service level agreements.

AWS Organizations | Management Groups

Azure management groups provide a level of scope above subscriptions. You organize subscriptions into containers called “management groups” and apply your governance conditions to the management groups. All subscriptions within a management group automatically inherit the conditions applied to the management group. Management groups give you enterprise-grade management at a large scale, no matter what type of subscriptions you have.

Encryption

Server-side encryption with Amazon S3 Key Management Service | Azure Storage Service Encryption

Helps you protect and safeguard your data and meet your organizational security and compliance commitments.

Key Management Service AWS KMS, CloudHSM | Key Vault

Provides security solution and works with other services by providing a way to manage, create, and control encryption keys stored in hardware security modules (HSM).

Firewall

Web Application Firewall | Application Gateway – Web Application Firewall

A firewall that protects web applications from common web exploits.

Web Application Firewall | Azure Firewall

Provides inbound protection for non-HTTP/S protocols, outbound network-level protection for all ports and protocols, and application-level protection for outbound HTTP/S.

Security

Inspector | Security Center

An automated security assessment service that improves the security and compliance of applications. Automatically assess applications for vulnerabilities or deviations from best practices.

Certificate Manager | App Service Certificates available on the Portal

Service that allows customers to create, manage, and consume certificates seamlessly in the cloud.

GuardDuty | Azure Advanced Threat Protection

Detect and investigate advanced attacks on-premises and in the cloud.

AWS Artifact | Service Trust Portal

Provides access to audit reports, compliance guides, and trust documents from across cloud services.

AWS Shield | Azure DDos Protection Service

Provides cloud services with protection from distributed denial of services (DDoS) attacks.

Storage

Object storage

Simple Storage Services (S3) | Azure Blob storage

Object storage service, for use cases including cloud applications, content distribution, backup, archiving, disaster recovery, and big data analytics.

Virtual server disks

Elastic Block Store (EBS) | Azure managed disks

SSD storage optimized for I/O intensive read/write operations. For use as high-performance Azure virtual machine storage.

Shared files

Elastic File System | Azure Files

Provides a simple interface to create and configure file systems quickly, and share common files. Can be used with traditional protocols that access files over a network.

Archiving and backup

S3 Infrequent Access (IA) | Azure Storage cool tier

Cool storage is a lower-cost tier for storing data that is infrequently accessed and long-lived.

S3 Glacier | Azure Storage archive access tier

Archive storage has the lowest storage cost and higher data retrieval costs compared to hot and cool storage.

AWS Backup | Azure Backup

Back up and recover files and folders from the cloud, and provide offsite protection against data loss.

Hybrid storage

Storage Gateway | StorSimple

Integrates on-premises IT environments with cloud storage. Automates data management and storage, plus supports disaster recovery.

Bulk data transfer

AWS Import/Export Disk | Import/Export

A data transport solution that uses secure disks and appliances to transfer large amounts of data. Also offers data protection during transit.

AWS Import/Export Snowball, Snowball Edge, Snowmobile | Azure Data Box

Petabyte- to exabyte-scale data transport solution that uses secure data storage devices to transfer large amounts of data to and from Azure.

Web applications

Elastic Beanstalk | App Service

Managed hosting platform providing easy to use services for deploying and scaling web applications and services.

API Gateway | API Management

A turnkey solution for publishing APIs to external and internal consumers.

CloudFront | Azure Content Delivery Network

A global content delivery network that delivers audio, video, applications, images, and other files.

Global Accelerator | Azure Front Door

Easily join your distributed microservice architectures into a single global application using HTTP load balancing and path-based routing rules. Automate turning up new regions and scale-out with API-driven global actions, and independent fault-tolerance to your back end microservices in Azure—or anywhere.

Miscellaneous

Backend process logic

AWS Step Functions | Logic Apps

Cloud technology to build distributed applications using out-of-the-box connectors to reduce integration challenges. Connect apps, data and devices on-premises or in the cloud.

Enterprise application services

Amazon WorkMail, Amazon WorkDocs | Office 365

Fully integrated Cloud service providing communications, email, document management in the cloud and available on a wide variety of devices.

Gaming

GameLift, GameSparks | PlayFab

Managed services for hosting dedicated game servers.

Media transcoding

Elastic Transcoder | Media Services

Services that offer broadcast-quality video streaming services, including various transcoding technologies.

Workflow

Simple Workflow Service (SWF) | Logic Apps

Serverless technology for connecting apps, data and devices anywhere, whether on-premises or in the cloud for large ecosystems of SaaS and cloud-based connectors.

Hybrid

Outposts | Azure Stack

Azure Stack is a hybrid cloud platform that enables you to run Azure services in your company’s or service provider’s datacenter. As a developer, you can build apps on Azure Stack. You can then deploy them to either Azure Stack or Azure, or you can build truly hybrid apps that take advantage of connectivity between an Azure Stack cloud and Azure.

How does a business decide between Microsoft Azure or AWS?

Basically, it all comes down to what your organizational needs are and if there’s a particular area that’s especially important to your business (ex. serverless, or integration with Microsoft applications).

Some of the main things it comes down to is compute options, pricing, and purchasing options.

Here’s a brief comparison of the compute option features across cloud providers:

Here’s an example of a few instances’ costs (all are Linux OS):

Each provider offers a variety of options to lower costs from the listed On-Demand prices. These can fall under reservations, spot and preemptible instances and contracts.

Both AWS and Azure offer a way for customers to purchase compute capacity in advance in exchange for a discount: AWS Reserved Instances and Azure Reserved Virtual Machine Instances. There are a few interesting variations between the instances across the cloud providers which could affect which is more appealing to a business.

Another discounting mechanism is the idea of spot instances in AWS and low-priority VMs in Azure. These options allow users to purchase unused capacity for a steep discount.

With AWS and Azure, enterprise contracts are available. These are typically aimed at enterprise customers, and encourage large companies to commit to specific levels of usage and spend in exchange for an across-the-board discount – for example, AWS EDPs and Azure Enterprise Agreements.

You can read more about the differences between AWS and Azure to help decide which your business should use in this blog post

Source: AWS to Azure services comparison – Azure Architecture