2022 AWS Certified Developer Associate Exam Preparation: Questions and Answers Dump

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What is the AWS Certified Developer Associate Exam?

This AWS Certified Developer-Associate Examination is intended for individuals who perform a Developer role. It validates an examinee’s ability to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of core AWS services, uses, and basic AWS architecture best practices
  • Demonstrate proficiency in developing, deploying, and debugging cloud-based applications by using AWS

Recommended general IT knowledge
The target candidate should have the following:
– In-depth knowledge of at least one high-level programming language
– Understanding of application lifecycle management
– The ability to write code for serverless applications
– Understanding of the use of containers in the development process

Recommended AWS knowledge
The target candidate should be able to do the following:

  • Use the AWS service APIs, CLI, and software development kits (SDKs) to write applications
  • Identify key features of AWS services
  • Understand the AWS shared responsibility model
  • Use a continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) pipeline to deploy applications on AWS
  • Use and interact with AWS services
  • Apply basic understanding of cloud-native applications to write code
  • Write code by using AWS security best practices (for example, use IAM roles instead of secret and access keys in the code)
  • Author, maintain, and debug code modules on AWS

What is considered out of scope for the target candidate?
The following is a non-exhaustive list of related job tasks that the target candidate is not expected to be able to perform. These items are considered out of scope for the exam:
– Design architectures (for example, distributed system, microservices)
– Design and implement CI/CD pipelines

  • Administer IAM users and groups
  • Administer Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS)
  • Design AWS networking infrastructure (for example, Amazon VPC, AWS Direct Connect)
  • Understand compliance and licensing

Exam content
Response types
There are two types of questions on the exam:
– Multiple choice: Has one correct response and three incorrect responses (distractors)
– Multiple response: Has two or more correct responses out of five or more response options
Select one or more responses that best complete the statement or answer the question. Distractors, or incorrect answers, are response options that a candidate with incomplete knowledge or skill might choose.
Distractors are generally plausible responses that match the content area.
Unanswered questions are scored as incorrect; there is no penalty for guessing. The exam includes 50 questions that will affect your score.

Unscored content
The exam includes 15 unscored questions that do not affect your score. AWS collects information about candidate performance on these unscored questions to evaluate these questions for future use as scored questions. These unscored questions are not identified on the exam.

Exam results
The AWS Certified Developer – Associate (DVA-C01) exam is a pass or fail exam. The exam is scored against a minimum standard established by AWS professionals who follow certification industry best practices and guidelines.
Your results for the exam are reported as a scaled score of 100–1,000. The minimum passing score is 720.
Your score shows how you performed on the exam as a whole and whether you passed. Scaled scoring models help equate scores across multiple exam forms that might have slightly different difficulty levels.
Your score report could contain a table of classifications of your performance at each section level. This information is intended to provide general feedback about your exam performance. The exam uses a compensatory scoring model, which means that you do not need to achieve a passing score in each section. You need to pass only the overall exam.
Each section of the exam has a specific weighting, so some sections have more questions than other sections have. The table contains general information that highlights your strengths and weaknesses. Use caution when interpreting section-level feedback.

Content outline
This exam guide includes weightings, test domains, and objectives for the exam. It is not a comprehensive listing of the content on the exam. However, additional context for each of the objectives is available to help guide your preparation for the exam. The following table lists the main content domains and their weightings. The table precedes the complete exam content outline, which includes the additional context.
The percentage in each domain represents only scored content.


Domain 1: Deployment 22%
Domain 2: Security 26%
Domain 3: Development with AWS Services 30%
Domain 4: Refactoring 10%
Domain 5: Monitoring and Troubleshooting 12%

Domain 1: Deployment
1.1 Deploy written code in AWS using existing CI/CD pipelines, processes, and patterns.
–  Commit code to a repository and invoke build, test and/or deployment actions
–  Use labels and branches for version and release management
–  Use AWS CodePipeline to orchestrate workflows against different environments
–  Apply AWS CodeCommit, AWS CodeBuild, AWS CodePipeline, AWS CodeStar, and AWS
CodeDeploy for CI/CD purposes
–  Perform a roll back plan based on application deployment policy

1.2 Deploy applications using AWS Elastic Beanstalk.
–  Utilize existing supported environments to define a new application stack
–  Package the application
–  Introduce a new application version into the Elastic Beanstalk environment
–  Utilize a deployment policy to deploy an application version (i.e., all at once, rolling, rolling with batch, immutable)
–  Validate application health using Elastic Beanstalk dashboard
–  Use Amazon CloudWatch Logs to instrument application logging

1.3 Prepare the application deployment package to be deployed to AWS.
–  Manage the dependencies of the code module (like environment variables, config files and static image files) within the package
–  Outline the package/container directory structure and organize files appropriately
–  Translate application resource requirements to AWS infrastructure parameters (e.g., memory, cores)

1.4 Deploy serverless applications.
–  Given a use case, implement and launch an AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM) template
–  Manage environments in individual AWS services (e.g., Differentiate between Development, Test, and Production in Amazon API Gateway)

Domain 2: Security
2.1 Make authenticated calls to AWS services.
–  Communicate required policy based on least privileges required by application.
–  Assume an IAM role to access a service
–  Use the software development kit (SDK) credential provider on-premises or in the cloud to access AWS services (local credentials vs. instance roles)

2.2 Implement encryption using AWS services.
– Encrypt data at rest (client side; server side; envelope encryption) using AWS services
–  Encrypt data in transit

2.3 Implement application authentication and authorization.
– Add user sign-up and sign-in functionality for applications with Amazon Cognito identity or user pools
–  Use Amazon Cognito-provided credentials to write code that access AWS services.
–  Use Amazon Cognito sync to synchronize user profiles and data
–  Use developer-authenticated identities to interact between end user devices, backend
authentication, and Amazon Cognito

Domain 3: Development with AWS Services
3.1 Write code for serverless applications.
– Compare and contrast server-based vs. serverless model (e.g., micro services, stateless nature of serverless applications, scaling serverless applications, and decoupling layers of serverless applications)
– Configure AWS Lambda functions by defining environment variables and parameters (e.g., memory, time out, runtime, handler)
– Create an API endpoint using Amazon API Gateway
–  Create and test appropriate API actions like GET, POST using the API endpoint
–  Apply Amazon DynamoDB concepts (e.g., tables, items, and attributes)
–  Compute read/write capacity units for Amazon DynamoDB based on application requirements
–  Associate an AWS Lambda function with an AWS event source (e.g., Amazon API Gateway, Amazon CloudWatch event, Amazon S3 events, Amazon Kinesis)
–  Invoke an AWS Lambda function synchronously and asynchronously

3.2 Translate functional requirements into application design.
– Determine real-time vs. batch processing for a given use case
– Determine use of synchronous vs. asynchronous for a given use case
– Determine use of event vs. schedule/poll for a given use case
– Account for tradeoffs for consistency models in an application design

Domain 4: Refactoring
4.1 Optimize applications to best use AWS services and features.
 Implement AWS caching services to optimize performance (e.g., Amazon ElastiCache, Amazon API Gateway cache)
 Apply an Amazon S3 naming scheme for optimal read performance

4.2 Migrate existing application code to run on AWS.
– Isolate dependencies
– Run the application as one or more stateless processes
– Develop in order to enable horizontal scalability
– Externalize state

Domain 5: Monitoring and Troubleshooting

5.1 Write code that can be monitored.
– Create custom Amazon CloudWatch metrics
– Perform logging in a manner available to systems operators
– Instrument application source code to enable tracing in AWS X-Ray

5.2 Perform root cause analysis on faults found in testing or production.
– Interpret the outputs from the logging mechanism in AWS to identify errors in logs
– Check build and testing history in AWS services (e.g., AWS CodeBuild, AWS CodeDeploy, AWS CodePipeline) to identify issues
– Utilize AWS services (e.g., Amazon CloudWatch, VPC Flow Logs, and AWS X-Ray) to locate a specific faulty component

Which key tools, technologies, and concepts might be covered on the exam?

The following is a non-exhaustive list of the tools and technologies that could appear on the exam.
This list is subject to change and is provided to help you understand the general scope of services, features, or technologies on the exam.
The general tools and technologies in this list appear in no particular order.
AWS services are grouped according to their primary functions. While some of these technologies will likely be covered more than others on the exam, the order and placement of them in this list is no indication of relative weight or importance:
– Analytics
– Application Integration
– Containers
– Cost and Capacity Management
– Data Movement
– Developer Tools
– Instances (virtual machines)
– Management and Governance
– Networking and Content Delivery
– Security
– Serverless

AWS services and features

Analytics:
– Amazon Elasticsearch Service (Amazon ES)
– Amazon Kinesis
Application Integration:
– Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events)
– Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS)
– Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS)
– AWS Step Functions

Compute:
– Amazon EC2
– AWS Elastic Beanstalk
– AWS Lambda

Containers:
– Amazon Elastic Container Registry (Amazon ECR)
– Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS)
– Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Services (Amazon EKS)

Database:
– Amazon DynamoDB
– Amazon ElastiCache
– Amazon RDS

Developer Tools:
– AWS CodeArtifact
– AWS CodeBuild
– AWS CodeCommit
– AWS CodeDeploy
– Amazon CodeGuru
– AWS CodePipeline
– AWS CodeStar
– AWS Fault Injection Simulator
– AWS X-Ray

Management and Governance:
– AWS CloudFormation
– Amazon CloudWatch

Networking and Content Delivery:
– Amazon API Gateway
– Amazon CloudFront
– Elastic Load Balancing

Security, Identity, and Compliance:
– Amazon Cognito
– AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM)
– AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS)

Storage:
– Amazon S3

Out-of-scope AWS services and features

The following is a non-exhaustive list of AWS services and features that are not covered on the exam.
These services and features do not represent every AWS offering that is excluded from the exam content.
Services or features that are entirely unrelated to the target job roles for the exam are excluded from this list because they are assumed to be irrelevant.
Out-of-scope AWS services and features include the following:
– AWS Application Discovery Service
– Amazon AppStream 2.0
– Amazon Chime
– Amazon Connect
– AWS Database Migration Service (AWS DMS)
– AWS Device Farm
– Amazon Elastic Transcoder
– Amazon GameLift
– Amazon Lex
– Amazon Machine Learning (Amazon ML)
– AWS Managed Services
– Amazon Mobile Analytics
– Amazon Polly

– Amazon QuickSight
– Amazon Rekognition
– AWS Server Migration Service (AWS SMS)
– AWS Service Catalog
– AWS Shield Advanced
– AWS Shield Standard
– AWS Snow Family
– AWS Storage Gateway
– AWS WAF
– Amazon WorkMail
– Amazon WorkSpaces

To succeed with the real exam, do not memorize the answers below. It is very important that you understand why a question is right or wrong and the concepts behind it by carefully reading the reference documents in the answers.

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AWS Certified Developer – Associate Practice Questions And Answers Dump

Q0: Your application reads commands from an SQS queue and sends them to web services hosted by your
partners. When a partner’s endpoint goes down, your application continually returns their commands to the queue. The repeated attempts to deliver these commands use up resources. Commands that can’t be delivered must not be lost.
How can you accommodate the partners’ broken web services without wasting your resources?

  • A. Create a delay queue and set DelaySeconds to 30 seconds
  • B. Requeue the message with a VisibilityTimeout of 30 seconds.
  • C. Create a dead letter queue and set the Maximum Receives to 3.
  • D. Requeue the message with a DelaySeconds of 30 seconds.
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C. After a message is taken from the queue and returned for the maximum number of retries, it is
automatically sent to a dead letter queue, if one has been configured. It stays there until you retrieve it for forensic purposes.

Reference: Amazon SQS Dead-Letter Queues


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Q1: A developer is writing an application that will store data in a DynamoDB table. The ratio of reads operations to write operations will be 1000 to 1, with the same data being accessed frequently.
What should the Developer enable on the DynamoDB table to optimize performance and minimize costs?

  • A. Amazon DynamoDB auto scaling
  • B. Amazon DynamoDB cross-region replication
  • C. Amazon DynamoDB Streams
  • D. Amazon DynamoDB Accelerator


D. The AWS Documentation mentions the following:

DAX is a DynamoDB-compatible caching service that enables you to benefit from fast in-memory performance for demanding applications. DAX addresses three core scenarios

  1. As an in-memory cache, DAX reduces the response times of eventually-consistent read workloads by an order of magnitude, from single-digit milliseconds to microseconds.
  2. DAX reduces operational and application complexity by providing a managed service that is API-compatible with Amazon DynamoDB, and thus requires only minimal functional changes to use with an existing application.
  3. For read-heavy or bursty workloads, DAX provides increased throughput and potential operational cost savings by reducing the need to over-provision read capacity units. This is especially beneficial for applications that require repeated reads for individual keys.

Reference: AWS DAX


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Q2: You are creating a DynamoDB table with the following attributes:

  • PurchaseOrderNumber (partition key)
  • CustomerID
  • PurchaseDate
  • TotalPurchaseValue

One of your applications must retrieve items from the table to calculate the total value of purchases for a
particular customer over a date range. What secondary index do you need to add to the table?

  • A. Local secondary index with a partition key of CustomerID and sort key of PurchaseDate; project the
    TotalPurchaseValue attribute
  • B. Local secondary index with a partition key of PurchaseDate and sort key of CustomerID; project the
    TotalPurchaseValue attribute
  • C. Global secondary index with a partition key of CustomerID and sort key of PurchaseDate; project the
    TotalPurchaseValue attribute
  • D. Global secondary index with a partition key of PurchaseDate and sort key of CustomerID; project the
    TotalPurchaseValue attribute


C. The query is for a particular CustomerID, so a Global Secondary Index is needed for a different partition
key. To retrieve only the desired date range, the PurchaseDate must be the sort key. Projecting the
TotalPurchaseValue into the index provides all the data needed to satisfy the use case.

Reference: AWS DynamoDB Global Secondary Indexes

Difference between local and global indexes in DynamoDB

    • Global secondary index — an index with a hash and range key that can be different from those on the table. A global secondary index is considered “global” because queries on the index can span all of the data in a table, across all partitions.
    • Local secondary index — an index that has the same hash key as the table, but a different range key. A local secondary index is “local” in the sense that every partition of a local secondary index is scoped to a table partition that has the same hash key.
    • Local Secondary Indexes still rely on the original Hash Key. When you supply a table with hash+range, think about the LSI as hash+range1, hash+range2.. hash+range6. You get 5 more range attributes to query on. Also, there is only one provisioned throughput.
    • Global Secondary Indexes defines a new paradigm – different hash/range keys per index.
      This breaks the original usage of one hash key per table. This is also why when defining GSI you are required to add a provisioned throughput per index and pay for it.
    • Local Secondary Indexes can only be created when you are creating the table, there is no way to add Local Secondary Index to an existing table, also once you create the index you cannot delete it.
    • Global Secondary Indexes can be created when you create the table and added to an existing table, deleting an existing Global Secondary Index is also allowed.

Throughput :

  • Local Secondary Indexes consume throughput from the table. When you query records via the local index, the operation consumes read capacity units from the table. When you perform a write operation (create, update, delete) in a table that has a local index, there will be two write operations, one for the table another for the index. Both operations will consume write capacity units from the table.
  • Global Secondary Indexes have their own provisioned throughput, when you query the index the operation will consume read capacity from the index, when you perform a write operation (create, update, delete) in a table that has a global index, there will be two write operations, one for the table another for the index*.


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Q3: When referencing the remaining time left for a Lambda function to run within the function’s code you would use:

  • A. The event object
  • B. The timeLeft object
  • C. The remains object
  • D. The context object


D. The context object.

Reference: AWS Lambda


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Q4: What two arguments does a Python Lambda handler function require?

  • A. invocation, zone
  • B. event, zone
  • C. invocation, context
  • D. event, context
D. event, context
def handler_name(event, context):

return some_value

Reference: AWS Lambda Function Handler in Python

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Q5: Lambda allows you to upload code and dependencies for function packages:

  • A. Only from a directly uploaded zip file
  • B. Only via SFTP
  • C. Only from a zip file in AWS S3
  • D. From a zip file in AWS S3 or uploaded directly from elsewhere

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D. From a zip file in AWS S3 or uploaded directly from elsewhere

Reference: AWS Lambda Deployment Package

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Q6: A Lambda deployment package contains:

  • A. Function code, libraries, and runtime binaries
  • B. Only function code
  • C. Function code and libraries not included within the runtime
  • D. Only libraries not included within the runtime

C. Function code and libraries not included within the runtime

Reference: AWS Lambda Deployment Package in PowerShell

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Q7: You are attempting to SSH into an EC2 instance that is located in a public subnet. However, you are currently receiving a timeout error trying to connect. What could be a possible cause of this connection issue?

  • A. The security group associated with the EC2 instance has an inbound rule that allows SSH traffic, but does not have an outbound rule that allows SSH traffic.
  • B. The security group associated with the EC2 instance has an inbound rule that allows SSH traffic AND has an outbound rule that explicitly denies SSH traffic.
  • C. The security group associated with the EC2 instance has an inbound rule that allows SSH traffic AND the associated NACL has both an inbound and outbound rule that allows SSH traffic.
  • D. The security group associated with the EC2 instance does not have an inbound rule that allows SSH traffic AND the associated NACL does not have an outbound rule that allows SSH traffic.


D. Security groups are stateful, so you do NOT have to have an explicit outbound rule for return requests. However, NACLs are stateless so you MUST have an explicit outbound rule configured for return request.

Reference: Comparison of Security Groups and Network ACLs

AWS Security Groups and NACL


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Q8: You have instances inside private subnets and a properly configured bastion host instance in a public subnet. None of the instances in the private subnets have a public or Elastic IP address. How can you connect an instance in the private subnet to the open internet to download system updates?

  • A. Create and assign EIP to each instance
  • B. Create and attach a second IGW to the VPC.
  • C. Create and utilize a NAT Gateway
  • D. Connect to a VPN


C. You can use a network address translation (NAT) gateway in a public subnet in your VPC to enable instances in the private subnet to initiate outbound traffic to the Internet, but prevent the instances from receiving inbound traffic initiated by someone on the Internet.

Reference: AWS Network Address Translation Gateway


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Q9: What feature of VPC networking should you utilize if you want to create “elasticity” in your application’s architecture?

  • A. Security Groups
  • B. Route Tables
  • C. Elastic Load Balancer
  • D. Auto Scaling


D. Auto scaling is designed specifically with elasticity in mind. Auto scaling allows for the increase and decrease of compute power based on demand, thus creating elasticity in the architecture.

Reference: AWS Autoscalling


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Q10: Lambda allows you to upload code and dependencies for function packages:

  • A. Only from a directly uploaded zip file
  • B. Only from a directly uploaded zip file
  • C. Only from a zip file in AWS S3
  • D. From a zip file in AWS S3 or uploaded directly from elsewhere

D. From a zip file in AWS S3 or uploaded directly from elsewhere

Reference: AWS Lambda

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Q11: You’re writing a script with an AWS SDK that uses the AWS API Actions and want to create AMIs for non-EBS backed AMIs for you. Which API call should occurs in the final process of creating an AMI?

  • A. RegisterImage
  • B. CreateImage
  • C. ami-register-image
  • D. ami-create-image

A. It is actually – RegisterImage. All AWS API Actions will follow the capitalization like this and don’t have hyphens in them.

Reference: API RegisterImage

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Q12: When dealing with session state in EC2-based applications using Elastic load balancers which option is generally thought of as the best practice for managing user sessions?

  • A. Having the ELB distribute traffic to all EC2 instances and then having the instance check a caching solution like ElastiCache running Redis or Memcached for session information
  • B. Permenantly assigning users to specific instances and always routing their traffic to those instances
  • C. Using Application-generated cookies to tie a user session to a particular instance for the cookie duration
  • D. Using Elastic Load Balancer generated cookies to tie a user session to a particular instance

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Q13: Which API call would best be used to describe an Amazon Machine Image?

  • A. ami-describe-image
  • B. ami-describe-images
  • C. DescribeImage
  • D. DescribeImages

D. In general, API actions stick to the PascalCase style with the first letter of every word capitalized.

Reference: API DescribeImages

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Q14: What is one key difference between an Amazon EBS-backed and an instance-store backed instance?

  • A. Autoscaling requires using Amazon EBS-backed instances
  • B. Virtual Private Cloud requires EBS backed instances
  • C. Amazon EBS-backed instances can be stopped and restarted without losing data
  • D. Instance-store backed instances can be stopped and restarted without losing data

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C. Instance-store backed images use “ephemeral” storage (temporary). The storage is only available during the life of an instance. Rebooting an instance will allow ephemeral data stay persistent. However, stopping and starting an instance will remove all ephemeral storage.

Reference: What is the difference between EBS and Instance Store?

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Q15: After having created a new Linux instance on Amazon EC2, and downloaded the .pem file (called Toto.pem) you try and SSH into your IP address (54.1.132.33) using the following command.
ssh -i my_key.pem ec2-user@52.2.222.22
However you receive the following error.
@@@@@@@@ WARNING: UNPROTECTED PRIVATE KEY FILE! @ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
What is the most probable reason for this and how can you fix it?

  • A. You do not have root access on your terminal and need to use the sudo option for this to work.
  • B. You do not have enough permissions to perform the operation.
  • C. Your key file is encrypted. You need to use the -u option for unencrypted not the -i option.
  • D. Your key file must not be publicly viewable for SSH to work. You need to modify your .pem file to limit permissions.

D. You need to run something like: chmod 400 my_key.pem

Reference:

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Q16: You have an EBS root device on /dev/sda1 on one of your EC2 instances. You are having trouble with this particular instance and you need to either Stop/Start, Reboot or Terminate the instance but you do NOT want to lose any data that you have stored on /dev/sda1. However, you are unsure if changing the instance state in any of the aforementioned ways will cause you to lose data stored on the EBS volume. Which of the below statements best describes the effect each change of instance state would have on the data you have stored on /dev/sda1?

  • A. Whether you stop/start, reboot or terminate the instance it does not matter because data on an EBS volume is not ephemeral and the data will not be lost regardless of what method is used.
  • B. If you stop/start the instance the data will not be lost. However if you either terminate or reboot the instance the data will be lost.
  • C. Whether you stop/start, reboot or terminate the instance it does not matter because data on an EBS volume is ephemeral and it will be lost no matter what method is used.
  • D. The data will be lost if you terminate the instance, however the data will remain on /dev/sda1 if you reboot or stop/start the instance because data on an EBS volume is not ephemeral.

D. The question states that an EBS-backed root device is mounted at /dev/sda1, and EBS volumes maintain information regardless of the instance state. If it was instance store, this would be a different answer.

Reference: AWS Root Device Storage

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Q17: EC2 instances are launched from Amazon Machine Images (AMIs). A given public AMI:

  • A. Can only be used to launch EC2 instances in the same AWS availability zone as the AMI is stored
  • B. Can only be used to launch EC2 instances in the same country as the AMI is stored
  • C. Can only be used to launch EC2 instances in the same AWS region as the AMI is stored
  • D. Can be used to launch EC2 instances in any AWS region

C. AMIs are only available in the region they are created. Even in the case of the AWS-provided AMIs, AWS has actually copied the AMIs for you to different regions. You cannot access an AMI from one region in another region. However, you can copy an AMI from one region to another

Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/

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Q18: Which of the following statements is true about the Elastic File System (EFS)?

  • A. EFS can scale out to meet capacity requirements and scale back down when no longer needed
  • B. EFS can be used by multiple EC2 instances simultaneously
  • C. EFS cannot be used by an instance using EBS
  • D. EFS can be configured on an instance before launch just like an IAM role or EBS volumes

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A. and B.

Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/efs/

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Q19: IAM Policies, at a minimum, contain what elements?

  • A. ID
  • B. Effects
  • C. Resources
  • D. Sid
  • E. Principle
  • F. Actions

B. C. and F.

Effect – Use Allow or Deny to indicate whether the policy allows or denies access.

Resource – Specify a list of resources to which the actions apply.

Action – Include a list of actions that the policy allows or denies.

Id, Sid aren’t required fields in IAM Policies. But they are optional fields

Reference: AWS IAM Access Policies

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Q20: What are the main benefits of IAM groups?

  • A. The ability to create custom permission policies.
  • B. Assigning IAM permission policies to more than one user at a time.
  • C. Easier user/policy management.
  • D. Allowing EC2 instances to gain access to S3.

B. and C.

A. is incorrect: This is a benefit of IAM generally or a benefit of IAM policies. But IAM groups don’t create policies, they have policies attached to them.

Reference: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/IAM/latest/UserGuide/id_groups.html

 

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Q21: What are benefits of using AWS STS?

  • A. Grant access to AWS resources without having to create an IAM identity for them
  • B. Since credentials are temporary, you don’t have to rotate or revoke them
  • C. Temporary security credentials can be extended indefinitely
  • D. Temporary security credentials can be restricted to a specific region

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Q22: What should the Developer enable on the DynamoDB table to optimize performance and minimize costs?

  • A. Amazon DynamoDB auto scaling
  • B. Amazon DynamoDB cross-region replication
  • C. Amazon DynamoDB Streams
  • D. Amazon DynamoDB Accelerator


D. DAX is a DynamoDB-compatible caching service that enables you to benefit from fast in-memory performance for demanding applications. DAX addresses three core scenarios:

  1. As an in-memory cache, DAX reduces the response times of eventually-consistent read workloads by an order of magnitude, from single-digit milliseconds to microseconds.
  2. DAX reduces operational and application complexity by providing a managed service that is API-compatible with Amazon DynamoDB, and thus requires only minimal functional changes to use with an existing application.
  3. For read-heavy or bursty workloads, DAX provides increased throughput and potential operational cost savings by reducing the need to over-provision read capacity units. This is especially beneficial for applications that require repeated reads for individual keys.

Reference: AWS DAX


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Q23: A Developer has been asked to create an AWS Elastic Beanstalk environment for a production web application which needs to handle thousands of requests. Currently the dev environment is running on a t1 micro instance. How can the Developer change the EC2 instance type to m4.large?

  • A. Use CloudFormation to migrate the Amazon EC2 instance type of the environment from t1 micro to m4.large.
  • B. Create a saved configuration file in Amazon S3 with the instance type as m4.large and use the same during environment creation.
  • C. Change the instance type to m4.large in the configuration details page of the Create New Environment page.
  • D. Change the instance type value for the environment to m4.large by using update autoscaling group CLI command.

B. The Elastic Beanstalk console and EB CLI set configuration options when you create an environment. You can also set configuration options in saved configurations and configuration files. If the same option is set in multiple locations, the value used is determined by the order of precedence.
Configuration option settings can be composed in text format and saved prior to environment creation, applied during environment creation using any supported client, and added, modified or removed after environment creation.
During environment creation, configuration options are applied from multiple sources with the following precedence, from highest to lowest:

  • Settings applied directly to the environment – Settings specified during a create environment or update environment operation on the Elastic Beanstalk API by any client, including the AWS Management Console, EB CLI, AWS CLI, and SDKs. The AWS Management Console and EB CLI also applyrecommended values for some options that apply at this level unless overridden.
  • Saved Configurations
    Settings for any options that are not applied directly to the
    environment are loaded from a saved configuration, if specified.
  • Configuration Files (.ebextensions)– Settings for any options that are not applied directly to the
    environment, and also not specified in a saved configuration, are loaded from configuration files in the .ebextensions folder at the root of the application source bundle.

     

    Configuration files are executed in alphabetical order. For example,.ebextensions/01run.configis executed before.ebextensions/02do.config.

  • Default Values– If a configuration option has a default value, it only applies when the option is not set at any of the above levels.

If the same configuration option is defined in more than one location, the setting with the highest precedence is applied. When a setting is applied from a saved configuration or settings applied directly to the environment, the setting is stored as part of the environment’s configuration. These settings can be removed with the AWS CLI or with the EB CLI
.
Settings in configuration files are not applied
directly to the environment and cannot be removed without modifying the configuration files and deploying a new application version.
If a setting applied with one of the other methods is removed, the same setting will be loaded from configuration files in the source bundle.

Reference: Managing ec2 features – Elastic beanstalk

Q24: What statements are true about Availability Zones (AZs) and Regions?

  • A. There is only one AZ in each AWS Region
  • B. AZs are geographically separated inside a region to help protect against natural disasters affecting more than one at a time.
  • C. AZs can be moved between AWS Regions based on your needs
  • D. There are (almost always) two or more AZs in each AWS Region

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B and D.

Reference: AWS global infrastructure/

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Q25: An AWS Region contains:

  • A. Edge Locations
  • B. Data Centers
  • C. AWS Services
  • D. Availability Zones


B. C. D. Edge locations are actually distinct locations that don’t explicitly fall within AWS regions.

Reference: AWS Global Infrastructure


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Q26: Which read request in DynamoDB returns a response with the most up-to-date data, reflecting the updates from all prior write operations that were successful?

  • A. Eventual Consistent Reads
  • B. Conditional reads for Consistency
  • C. Strongly Consistent Reads
  • D. Not possible


C. This is provided very clearly in the AWS documentation as shown below with regards to the read consistency for DynamoDB. Only in Strong Read consistency can you be guaranteed that you get the write read value after all the writes are completed.

Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/dynamodb/faqs/


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Q27: You’ ve been asked to move an existing development environment on the AWS Cloud. This environment consists mainly of Docker based containers. You need to ensure that minimum effort is taken during the migration process. Which of the following step would you consider for this requirement?

  • A. Create an Opswork stack and deploy the Docker containers
  • B. Create an application and Environment for the Docker containers in the Elastic Beanstalk service
  • C. Create an EC2 Instance. Install Docker and deploy the necessary containers.
  • D. Create an EC2 Instance. Install Docker and deploy the necessary containers. Add an Autoscaling Group for scalability of the containers.


B. The Elastic Beanstalk service is the ideal service to quickly provision development environments. You can also create environments which can be used to host Docker based containers.

Reference: Create and Deploy Docker in AWS


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Q28: You’ve written an application that uploads objects onto an S3 bucket. The size of the object varies between 200 – 500 MB. You’ve seen that the application sometimes takes a longer than expected time to upload the object. You want to improve the performance of the application. Which of the following would you consider?

  • A. Create multiple threads and upload the objects in the multiple threads
  • B. Write the items in batches for better performance
  • C. Use the Multipart upload API
  • D. Enable versioning on the Bucket

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C. All other options are invalid since the best way to handle large object uploads to the S3 service is to use the Multipart upload API. The Multipart upload API enables you to upload large objects in parts. You can use this API to upload new large objects or make a copy of an existing object. Multipart uploading is a three-step process: You initiate the upload, you upload the object parts, and after you have uploaded all the parts, you complete the multipart upload. Upon receiving the complete multipart upload request, Amazon S3 constructs the object from the uploaded parts, and you can then access the object just as you would any other object in your bucket.

Reference: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/mpuoverview.html


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Q29: A security system monitors 600 cameras, saving image metadata every 1 minute to an Amazon DynamoDb table. Each sample involves 1kb of data, and the data writes are evenly distributed over time. How much write throughput is required for the target table?

  • A. 6000
  • B. 10
  • C. 3600
  • D. 600

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B. When you mention the write capacity of a table in Dynamo DB, you mention it as the number of 1KB writes per second. So in the above question, since the write is happening every minute, we need to divide the value of 600 by 60, to get the number of KB writes per second. This gives a value of 10.

You can specify the Write capacity in the Capacity tab of the DynamoDB table.

Reference: AWS working with tables

Q30: What two arguments does a Python Lambda handler function require?

  • A. invocation, zone
  • B. event, zone
  • C. invocation, context
  • D. event, context


D. event, context def handler_name(event, context):

return some_value
Reference: AWS Lambda Function Handler in Python

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Q31: Lambda allows you to upload code and dependencies for function packages:

  • A. Only from a directly uploaded zip file
  • B. Only via SFTP
  • C. Only from a zip file in AWS S3
  • D. From a zip file in AWS S3 or uploaded directly from elsewhere


D. From a zip file in AWS S3 or uploaded directly from elsewhere
Reference: AWS Lambda Deployment Package

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Q32: A Lambda deployment package contains:

  • A. Function code, libraries, and runtime binaries
  • B. Only function code
  • C. Function code and libraries not included within the runtime
  • D. Only libraries not included within the runtime


C. Function code and libraries not included within the runtime
Reference: AWS Lambda Deployment Package in PowerShell

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Q33: You have instances inside private subnets and a properly configured bastion host instance in a public subnet. None of the instances in the private subnets have a public or Elastic IP address. How can you connect an instance in the private subnet to the open internet to download system updates?

  • A. Create and assign EIP to each instance
  • B. Create and attach a second IGW to the VPC.
  • C. Create and utilize a NAT Gateway
  • D. Connect to a VPN


C. You can use a network address translation (NAT) gateway in a public subnet in your VPC to enable instances in the private subnet to initiate outbound traffic to the Internet, but prevent the instances from receiving inbound traffic initiated by someone on the Internet.
Reference: AWS Network Address Translation Gateway

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Q34: What feature of VPC networking should you utilize if you want to create “elasticity” in your application’s architecture?

  • A. Security Groups
  • B. Route Tables
  • C. Elastic Load Balancer
  • D. Auto Scaling


D. Auto scaling is designed specifically with elasticity in mind. Auto scaling allows for the increase and decrease of compute power based on demand, thus creating elasticity in the architecture.
Reference: AWS Autoscalling

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Q30: Lambda allows you to upload code and dependencies for function packages:

  • A. Only from a directly uploaded zip file
  • B. Only from a directly uploaded zip file
  • C. Only from a zip file in AWS S3
  • D. From a zip file in AWS S3 or uploaded directly from elsewhere

Answer:


D. From a zip file in AWS S3 or uploaded directly from elsewhere
Reference: AWS Lambda

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Q31: An organization is using an Amazon ElastiCache cluster in front of their Amazon RDS instance. The organization would like the Developer to implement logic into the code so that the cluster only retrieves data from RDS when there is a cache miss. What strategy can the Developer implement to achieve this?

  • A. Lazy loading
  • B. Write-through
  • C. Error retries
  • D. Exponential backoff

Answer:


Answer – A
Whenever your application requests data, it first makes the request to the ElastiCache cache. If the data exists in the cache and is current, ElastiCache returns the data to your application. If the data does not exist in the cache, or the data in the cache has expired, your application requests data from your data store which returns the data to your application. Your application then writes the data received from the store to the cache so it can be more quickly retrieved next time it is requested. All other options are incorrect.
Reference: Caching Strategies

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Q32: A developer is writing an application that will run on Ec2 instances and read messages from SQS queue. The nessages will arrive every 15-60 seconds. How should the Developer efficiently query the queue for new messages?

  • A. Use long polling
  • B. Set a custom visibility timeout
  • C. Use short polling
  • D. Implement exponential backoff


Answer – A Long polling will help insure that the applications make less requests for messages in a shorter period of time. This is more cost effective. Since the messages are only going to be available after 15 seconds and we don’t know exacly when they would be available, it is better to use Long Polling.
Reference: Amazon SQS Long Polling

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Q33: You are using AWS SAM to define a Lambda function and configure CodeDeploy to manage deployment patterns. With new Lambda function working as per expectation which of the following will shift traffic from original Lambda function to new Lambda function in the shortest time frame?

  • A. Canary10Percent5Minutes
  • B. Linear10PercentEvery10Minutes
  • C. Canary10Percent15Minutes
  • D. Linear10PercentEvery1Minute


Answer – A
With Canary Deployment Preference type, Traffic is shifted in two intervals. With Canary10Percent5Minutes, 10 percent of traffic is shifted in the first interval while remaining all traffic is shifted after 5 minutes.
Reference: Gradual Code Deployment

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Q34: You are using AWS SAM templates to deploy a serverless application. Which of the following resource will embed application from Amazon S3 buckets?

  • A. AWS::Serverless::Api
  • B. AWS::Serverless::Application
  • C. AWS::Serverless::Layerversion
  • D. AWS::Serverless::Function


Answer – B
AWS::Serverless::Application resource in AWS SAm template is used to embed application frm Amazon S3 buckets.
Reference: Declaring Serverless Resources

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Q35: You are using AWS Envelope Encryption for encrypting all sensitive data. Which of the followings is True with regards to Envelope Encryption?

  • A. Data is encrypted be encrypting Data key which is further encrypted using encrypted Master Key.
  • B. Data is encrypted by plaintext Data key which is further encrypted using encrypted Master Key.
  • C. Data is encrypted by encrypted Data key which is further encrypted using plaintext Master Key.
  • D. Data is encrypted by plaintext Data key which is further encrypted using plaintext Master Key.


Answer – D
With Envelope Encryption, unencrypted data is encrypted using plaintext Data key. This Data is further encrypted using plaintext Master key. This plaintext Master key is securely stored in AWS KMS & known as Customer Master Keys.
Reference: AWS Key Management Service Concepts

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Q36: You are developing an application that will be comprised of the following architecture –

  1. A set of Ec2 instances to process the videos.
  2. These (Ec2 instances) will be spun up by an autoscaling group.
  3. SQS Queues to maintain the processing messages.
  4. There will be 2 pricing tiers.

How will you ensure that the premium customers videos are given more preference?

  • A. Create 2 Autoscaling Groups, one for normal and one for premium customers
  • B. Create 2 set of Ec2 Instances, one for normal and one for premium customers
  • C. Create 2 SQS queus, one for normal and one for premium customers
  • D. Create 2 Elastic Load Balancers, one for normal and one for premium customers.


Answer – C
The ideal option would be to create 2 SQS queues. Messages can then be processed by the application from the high priority queue first.<br? The other options are not the ideal options. They would lead to extra costs and also extra maintenance.
Reference: SQS

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Q37: You are developing an application that will interact with a DynamoDB table. The table is going to take in a lot of read and write operations. Which of the following would be the ideal partition key for the DynamoDB table to ensure ideal performance?

  • A. CustomerID
  • B. CustomerName
  • C. Location
  • D. Age


Answer- A
Use high-cardinality attributes. These are attributes that have distinct values for each item, like e-mailid, employee_no, customerid, sessionid, orderid, and so on..
Use composite attributes. Try to combine more than one attribute to form a unique key.
Reference: Choosing the right DynamoDB Partition Key

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Q38: A developer is making use of AWS services to develop an application. He has been asked to develop the application in a manner to compensate any network delays. Which of the following two mechanisms should he implement in the application?

  • A. Multiple SQS queues
  • B. Exponential backoff algorithm
  • C. Retries in your application code
  • D. Consider using the Java sdk.


Answer- B. and C.
In addition to simple retries, each AWS SDK implements exponential backoff algorithm for better flow control. The idea behind exponential backoff is to use progressively longer waits between retries for consecutive error responses. You should implement a maximum delay interval, as well as a maximum number of retries. The maximum delay interval and maximum number of retries are not necessarily fixed values, and should be set based on the operation being performed, as well as other local factors, such as network latency.
Reference: Error Retries and Exponential Backoff in AWS

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Q39: An application is being developed that is going to write data to a DynamoDB table. You have to setup the read and write throughput for the table. Data is going to be read at the rate of 300 items every 30 seconds. Each item is of size 6KB. The reads can be eventual consistent reads. What should be the read capacity that needs to be set on the table?

  • A. 10
  • B. 20
  • C. 6
  • D. 30


Answer – A

Since there are 300 items read every 30 seconds , that means there are (300/30) = 10 items read every second.
Since each item is 6KB in size , that means , 2 reads will be required for each item.
So we have total of 2*10 = 20 reads for the number of items per second
Since eventual consistency is required , we can divide the number of reads(20) by 2 , and in the end we get the Read Capacity of 10.

Reference: Read/Write Capacity Mode


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Q40: You are in charge of deploying an application that will be hosted on an EC2 Instance and sit behind an Elastic Load balancer. You have been requested to monitor the incoming connections to the Elastic Load Balancer. Which of the below options can suffice this requirement?

  • A. Use AWS CloudTrail with your load balancer
  • B. Enable access logs on the load balancer
  • C. Use a CloudWatch Logs Agent
  • D. Create a custom metric CloudWatch lter on your load balancer


Answer – B
Elastic Load Balancing provides access logs that capture detailed information about requests sent to your load balancer. Each log contains information such as the time the request was received, the client’s IP address, latencies, request paths, and server responses. You can use these access logs to analyze traffic patterns and troubleshoot issues.
Reference: Access Logs for Your Application Load Balancer

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Q41: A static web site has been hosted on a bucket and is now being accessed by users. One of the web pages javascript section has been changed to access data which is hosted in another S3 bucket. Now that same web page is no longer loading in the browser. Which of the following can help alleviate the error?

  • A. Enable versioning for the underlying S3 bucket.
  • B. Enable Replication so that the objects get replicated to the other bucket
  • C. Enable CORS for the bucket
  • D. Change the Bucket policy for the bucket to allow access from the other bucket


Answer – C

Cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) defines a way for client web applications that are loaded in one domain to interact with resources in a different domain. With CORS support, you can build rich client-side web applications with Amazon S3 and selectively allow cross-origin access to your Amazon S3 resources.

Cross-Origin Resource Sharing: Use-case Scenarios The following are example scenarios for using CORS:

Scenario 1: Suppose that you are hosting a website in an Amazon S3 bucket named website as described in Hosting a Static Website on Amazon S3. Your users load the website endpoint http://website.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com. Now you want to use JavaScript on the webpages that are stored in this bucket to be able to make authenticated GET and PUT requests against the same bucket by using the Amazon S3 API endpoint for the bucket, website.s3.amazonaws.com. A browser would normally block JavaScript from allowing those requests, but with CORS you can configure your bucket to explicitly enable cross-origin requests from website.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com.

Scenario 2: Suppose that you want to host a web font from your S3 bucket. Again, browsers require a CORS check (also called a preight check) for loading web fonts. You would configure the bucket that is hosting the web font to allow any origin to make these requests.

Reference: Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)


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Q42: Your mobile application includes a photo-sharing service that is expecting tens of thousands of users at launch. You will leverage Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) for storage of the user Images, and you must decide how to authenticate and authorize your users for access to these images. You also need to manage the storage of these images. Which two of the following approaches should you use? Choose two answers from the options below

  • A. Create an Amazon S3 bucket per user, and use your application to generate the S3 URL for the appropriate content.
  • B. Use AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) user accounts as your application-level user database, and offload the burden of authentication from your application code.
  • C. Authenticate your users at the application level, and use AWS Security Token Service (STS)to grant token-based authorization to S3 objects.
  • D. Authenticate your users at the application level, and send an SMS token message to the user. Create an Amazon S3 bucket with the same name as the SMS message token, and move the user’s objects to that bucket.


Answer- C
The AWS Security Token Service (STS) is a web service that enables you to request temporary, limited-privilege credentials for AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) users or for users that you authenticate (federated users). The token can then be used to grant access to the objects in S3.
You can then provides access to the objects based on the key values generated via the user id.

Reference: The AWS Security Token Service (STS)


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Q43: Your current log analysis application takes more than four hours to generate a report of the top 10 users of your web application. You have been asked to implement a system that can report this information in real time, ensure that the report is always up to date, and handle increases in the number of requests to your web application. Choose the option that is cost-effective and can fulfill the requirements.

  • A. Publish your data to CloudWatch Logs, and congure your application to Autoscale to handle the load on demand.
  • B. Publish your log data to an Amazon S3 bucket.  Use AWS CloudFormation to create an Auto Scaling group to scale your post-processing application which is congured to pull down your log les stored an Amazon S3
  • C. Post your log data to an Amazon Kinesis data stream, and subscribe your log-processing application so that is congured to process your logging data.
  • D. Create a multi-AZ Amazon RDS MySQL cluster, post the logging data to MySQL, and run a map reduce job to retrieve the required information on user counts.

Answer:


Answer – C
Amazon Kinesis makes it easy to collect, process, and analyze real-time, streaming data so you can get timely insights and react quickly to new information. Amazon Kinesis offers key capabilities to cost effectively process streaming data at any scale, along with the flexibility to choose the tools that best suit the requirements of your application. With Amazon Kinesis, you can ingest real-time data such as application logs, website clickstreams, IoT telemetry data, and more into your databases, data lakes and data warehouses, or build your own real-time applications using this data.
Reference: Amazon Kinesis

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Q44: You’ve been instructed to develop a mobile application that will make use of AWS services. You need to decide on a data store to store the user sessions. Which of the following would be an ideal data store for session management?

  • A. AWS Simple Storage Service
  • B. AWS DynamoDB
  • C. AWS RDS
  • D. AWS Redshift

Answer:


Answer – B
DynamoDB is a alternative solution which can be used for storage of session management. The latency of access to data is less , hence this can be used as a data store for session management
Reference: Scalable Session Handling in PHP Using Amazon DynamoDB

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Q45: Your application currently interacts with a DynamoDB table. Records are inserted into the table via the application. There is now a requirement to ensure that whenever items are updated in the DynamoDB primary table , another record is inserted into a secondary table. Which of the below feature should be used when developing such a solution?

  • A. AWS DynamoDB Encryption
  • B. AWS DynamoDB Streams
  • C. AWS DynamoDB Accelerator
  • D. AWSTable Accelerator


Answer – B
DynamoDB Streams Use Cases and Design Patterns This post describes some common use cases you might encounter, along with their design options and solutions, when migrating data from relational data stores to Amazon DynamoDB. We will consider how to manage the following scenarios:

  • How do you set up a relationship across multiple tables in which, based on the value of an item from one table, you update the item in a second table?
  • How do you trigger an event based on a particular transaction?
  • How do you audit or archive transactions?
  • How do you replicate data across multiple tables (similar to that of materialized views/streams/replication in relational data stores)?

Relational databases provide native support for transactions, triggers, auditing, and replication. Typically, a transaction in a database refers to performing create, read, update, and delete (CRUD) operations against multiple tables in a block. A transaction can have only two states—success or failure. In other words, there is no partial completion. As a NoSQL database, DynamoDB is not designed to support transactions. Although client-side libraries are available to mimic the transaction capabilities, they are not scalable and cost-effective. For example, the Java Transaction Library for DynamoDB creates 7N+4 additional writes for every write operation. This is partly because the library holds metadata to manage the transactions to ensure that it’s consistent and can be rolled back before commit. You can use DynamoDB Streams to address all these use cases. DynamoDB Streams is a powerful service that you can combine with other AWS services to solve many similar problems. When enabled, DynamoDB Streams captures a time-ordered sequence of item-level modifications in a DynamoDB table and durably stores the information for up to 24 hours. Applications can access a series of stream records, which contain an item change, from a DynamoDB stream in near real time. AWS maintains separate endpoints for DynamoDB and DynamoDB Streams. To work with database tables and indexes, your application must access a DynamoDB endpoint. To read and process DynamoDB Streams records, your application must access a DynamoDB Streams endpoint in the same Region. All of the other options are incorrect since none of these would meet the core requirement.
Reference: DynamoDB Streams Use Cases and Design Patterns


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Q46: An application has been making use of AWS DynamoDB for its back-end data store. The size of the table has now grown to 20 GB , and the scans on the table are causing throttling errors. Which of the following should now be implemented to avoid such errors?

  • A. Large Page size
  • B. Reduced page size
  • C. Parallel Scans
  • D. Sequential scans

Answer – B
When you scan your table in Amazon DynamoDB, you should follow the DynamoDB best practices for avoiding sudden bursts of read activity. You can use the following technique to minimize the impact of a scan on a table’s provisioned throughput. Reduce page size Because a Scan operation reads an entire page (by default, 1 MB), you can reduce the impact of the scan operation by setting a smaller page size. The Scan operation provides a Limit parameter that you can use to set the page size for your request. Each Query or Scan request that has a smaller page size uses fewer read operations and creates a “pause” between each request. For example, suppose that each item is 4 KB and you set the page size to 40 items. A Query request would then consume only 20 eventually consistent read operations or 40 strongly consistent read operations. A larger number of smaller Query or Scan operations would allow your other critical requests to succeed without throttling.
Reference1: Rate-Limited Scans in Amazon DynamoDB

Reference2: Best Practices for Querying and Scanning Data


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Q47: Which of the following is correct way of passing a stage variable to an HTTP URL ? (Select TWO.)

  • A. http://example.com/${}/prod
  • B. http://example.com/${stageVariables.}/prod
  • C. http://${stageVariables.}.example.com/dev/operation
  • D. http://${stageVariables}.example.com/dev/operation
  • E. http://${}.example.com/dev/operation
  • F. http://example.com/${stageVariables}/prod


Answer – B. and C.
A stage variable can be used as part of HTTP integration URL as in following cases, ·         A full URI without protocol ·         A full domain ·         A subdomain ·         A path ·         A query string In the above case , option B & C displays stage variable as a path & sub-domain.
Reference: Amazon API Gateway Stage Variables Reference

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Q48: Your company is planning on creating new development environments in AWS. They want to make use of their existing Chef recipes which they use for their on-premise configuration for servers in AWS. Which of the following service would be ideal to use in this regard?

  • A. AWS Elastic Beanstalk
  • B. AWS OpsWork
  • C. AWS Cloudformation
  • D. AWS SQS


Answer – B
AWS OpsWorks is a configuration management service that provides managed instances of Chef and Puppet. Chef and Puppet are automation platforms that allow you to use code to automate the configurations of your servers. OpsWorks lets you use Chef and Puppet to automate how servers are configured, deployed, and managed across your Amazon EC2 instances or on-premises compute environments All other options are invalid since they cannot be used to work with Chef recipes for configuration management.
Reference: AWS OpsWorks

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Q49: Your company has developed a web application and is hosting it in an Amazon S3 bucket configured for static website hosting. The users can log in to this app using their Google/Facebook login accounts. The application is using the AWS SDK for JavaScript in the browser to access data stored in an Amazon DynamoDB table. How can you ensure that API keys for access to your data in DynamoDB are kept secure?

  • A. Create an Amazon S3 role in IAM with access to the specific DynamoDB tables, and assign it to the bucket hosting your website
  • B. Configure S3 bucket tags with your AWS access keys for your bucket hosing your website so that the application can query them for access.
  • C. Configure a web identity federation role within IAM to enable access to the correct DynamoDB resources and retrieve temporary credentials
  • D. Store AWS keys in global variables within your application and configure the application to use these credentials when making requests.


Answer – C
With web identity federation, you don’t need to create custom sign-in code or manage your own user identities. Instead, users of your app can sign in using a well-known identity provider (IdP) —such as Login with Amazon, Facebook, Google, or any other OpenID Connect (OIDC)-compatible IdP, receive an authentication token, and then exchange that token for temporary security credentials in AWS that map to an IAM role with permissions to use the resources in your AWS account. Using an IdP helps you keep your AWS account secure, because you don’t have to embed and distribute long-term security credentials with your application. Option A is invalid since Roles cannot be assigned to S3 buckets Options B and D are invalid since the AWS Access keys should not be used
Reference: About Web Identity Federation

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Q50: Your application currently makes use of AWS Cognito for managing user identities. You want to analyze the information that is stored in AWS Cognito for your application. Which of the following features of AWS Cognito should you use for this purpose?

  • A. Cognito Data
  • B. Cognito Events
  • C. Cognito Streams
  • D. Cognito Callbacks


Answer – C
Amazon Cognito Streams gives developers control and insight into their data stored in Amazon Cognito. Developers can now configure a Kinesis stream to receive events as data is updated and synchronized. Amazon Cognito can push each dataset change to a Kinesis stream you own in real time. All other options are invalid since you should use Cognito Streams
Reference:

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Q51: You’ve developed a set of scripts using AWS Lambda. These scripts need to access EC2 Instances in a VPC. Which of the following needs to be done to ensure that the AWS Lambda function can access the resources in the VPC. Choose 2 answers from the options given below

  • A. Ensure that the subnet ID’s are mentioned when conguring the Lambda function
  • B. Ensure that the NACL ID’s are mentioned when conguring the Lambda function
  • C. Ensure that the Security Group ID’s are mentioned when conguring the Lambda function
  • D. Ensure that the VPC Flow Log ID’s are mentioned when conguring the Lambda function


Answer: A and C.
AWS Lambda runs your function code securely within a VPC by default. However, to enable your Lambda function to access resources inside your private VPC, you must provide additional VPCspecific configuration information that includes VPC subnet IDs and security group IDs. AWS Lambda uses this information to set up elastic network interfaces (ENIs) that enable your function to connect securely to other resources within your private VPC.
Reference: Configuring a Lambda Function to Access Resources in an Amazon VPC

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Q52: You’ve currently been tasked to migrate an existing on-premise environment into Elastic Beanstalk. The application does not make use of Docker containers. You also can’t see any relevant environments in the beanstalk service that would be suitable to host your application. What should you consider doing in this case?

  • A. Migrate your application to using Docker containers and then migrate the app to the Elastic Beanstalk environment.
  • B. Consider using Cloudformation to deploy your environment to Elastic Beanstalk
  • C. Consider using Packer to create a custom platform
  • D. Consider deploying your application using the Elastic Container Service


Answer – C
Elastic Beanstalk supports custom platforms. A custom platform is a more advanced customization than a Custom Image in several ways. A custom platform lets you develop an entire new platform from scratch, customizing the operating system, additional software, and scripts that Elastic Beanstalk runs on platform instances. This flexibility allows you to build a platform for an application that uses a language or other infrastructure software, for which Elastic Beanstalk doesn’t provide a platform out of the box. Compare that to custom images, where you modify an AMI for use with an existing Elastic Beanstalk platform, and Elastic Beanstalk still provides the platform scripts and controls the platform’s software stack. In addition, with custom platforms you use an automated, scripted way to create and maintain your customization, whereas with custom images you make the changes manually over a running instance. To create a custom platform, you build an Amazon Machine Image (AMI) from one of the supported operating systems—Ubuntu, RHEL, or Amazon Linux (see the flavor entry in Platform.yaml File Format for the exact version numbers)—and add further customizations. You create your own Elastic Beanstalk platform using Packer, which is an open-source tool for creating machine images for many platforms, including AMIs for use with Amazon EC2. An Elastic Beanstalk platform comprises an AMI configured to run a set of software that supports an application, and metadata that can include custom configuration options and default configuration option settings.
Reference: AWS Elastic Beanstalk Custom Platforms

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Q53: Company B is writing 10 items to the Dynamo DB table every second. Each item is 15.5Kb in size. What would be the required provisioned write throughput for best performance? Choose the correct answer from the options below.

  • A. 10
  • B. 160
  • C. 155
  • D. 16


Answer – B.
Company B is writing 10 items to the Dynamo DB table every second. Each item is 15.5Kb in size. What would be the required provisioned write throughput for best performance? Choose the correct answer from the options below.
Reference: Read/Write Capacity Mode

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Q54: Which AWS Service can be used to automatically install your application code onto EC2, on premises systems and Lambda?

  • A. CodeCommit
  • B. X-Ray
  • C. CodeBuild
  • D. CodeDeploy


Answer: D

Reference: AWS CodeDeploy


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Q55: Which AWS service can be used to compile source code, run tests and package code?

  • A. CodePipeline
  • B. CodeCommit
  • C. CodeBuild
  • D. CodeDeploy


Answer: D

Reference: AWS CodeDeploy Answer: B.

Reference: AWS CodeBuild


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Q56: How can your prevent CloudFormation from deleting your entire stack on failure? (Choose 2)

  • A. Set the Rollback on failure radio button to No in the CloudFormation console
  • B. Set Termination Protection to Enabled in the CloudFormation console
  • C. Use the –disable-rollback flag with the AWS CLI
  • D. Use the –enable-termination-protection protection flag with the AWS CLI

Answer: A. and C.

Reference: Protecting a Stack From Being Deleted

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Q57: Which of the following practices allows multiple developers working on the same application to merge code changes frequently, without impacting each other and enables the identification of bugs early on in the release process?

  • A. Continuous Integration
  • B. Continuous Deployment
  • C. Continuous Delivery
  • D. Continuous Development

Answer: A

Reference: What is Continuous Integration?

Top

Q58: When deploying application code to EC2, the AppSpec file can be written in which language?

  • A. JSON
  • B. JSON or YAML
  • C. XML
  • D. YAML

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Q59: Part of your CloudFormation deployment fails due to a mis-configuration, by defaukt what will happen?

  • A. CloudFormation will rollback only the failed components
  • B. CloudFormation will rollback the entire stack
  • C. Failed component will remain available for debugging purposes
  • D. CloudFormation will ask you if you want to continue with the deployment

Answer: B

Reference: Troubleshooting AWS CloudFormation


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Q60: You want to receive an email whenever a user pushes code to CodeCommit repository, how can you configure this?

  • A. Create a new SNS topic and configure it to poll for CodeCommit eveents. Ask all users to subscribe to the topic to receive notifications
  • B. Configure a CloudWatch Events rule to send a message to SES which will trigger an email to be sent whenever a user pushes code to the repository.
  • C. Configure Notifications in the console, this will create a CloudWatch events rule to send a notification to a SNS topic which will trigger an email to be sent to the user.
  • D. Configure a CloudWatch Events rule to send a message to SQS which will trigger an email to be sent whenever a user pushes code to the repository.

Answer: C

Reference: Getting Started with Amazon SNS


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Q61: Which AWS service can be used to centrally store and version control your application source code, binaries and libraries

  • A. CodeCommit
  • B. CodeBuild
  • C. CodePipeline
  • D. ElasticFileSystem

Answer: A

Reference: AWS CodeCommit


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Q62: You are using CloudFormation to create a new S3 bucket, which of the following sections would you use to define the properties of your bucket?

  • A. Conditions
  • B. Parameters
  • C. Outputs
  • D. Resources

Answer: D

Reference: Resources


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Q63: You are deploying a number of EC2 and RDS instances using CloudFormation. Which section of the CloudFormation template would you use to define these?

  • A. Transforms
  • B. Outputs
  • C. Resources
  • D. Instances

Answer: C.
The Resources section defines your resources you are provisioning. Outputs is used to output user defines data relating to the reources you have built and can also used as input to another CloudFormation stack. Transforms is used to reference code located in S3.
Reference: Resources

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Q64: Which AWS service can be used to fully automate your entire release process?

  • A. CodeDeploy
  • B. CodePipeline
  • C. CodeCommit
  • D. CodeBuild

Answer: B.
AWS CodePipeline is a fully managed continuous delivery service that helps you automate your release pipelines for fast and reliable application and infrastructure updates

Reference: AWS CodePipeline


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Q65: You want to use the output of your CloudFormation stack as input to another CloudFormation stack. Which sections of the CloudFormation template would you use to help you configure this?

  • A. Outputs
  • B. Transforms
  • C. Resources
  • D. Exports

Answer: A.
Outputs is used to output user defines data relating to the reources you have built and can also used as input to another CloudFormation stack.
Reference: CloudFormation Outputs

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Q66: You have some code located in an S3 bucket that you want to reference in your CloudFormation template. Which section of the template can you use to define this?

  • A. Inputs
  • B. Resources
  • C. Transforms
  • D. Files

Answer: C.
Transforms is used to reference code located in S3 and also specififying the use of the Serverless Application Model (SAM) for Lambda deployments.
Reference: Transforms

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Q67: You are deploying an application to a number of Ec2 instances using CodeDeploy. What is the name of the file
used to specify source files and lifecycle hooks?

  • A. buildspec.yml
  • B. appspec.json
  • C. appspec.yml
  • D. buildspec.json

Answer: C.

Reference: CodeDeploy AppSpec File Reference

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Q68: Which of the following approaches allows you to re-use pieces of CloudFormation code in multiple templates, for common use cases like provisioning a load balancer or web server?

  • A. Share the code using an EBS volume
  • B. Copy and paste the code into the template each time you need to use it
  • C. Use a cloudformation nested stack
  • D. Store the code you want to re-use in an AMI and reference the AMI from within your CloudFormation template.

Answer: C.

Reference: Working with Nested Stacks

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Q69: In the CodeDeploy AppSpec file, what are hooks used for?

  • A. To reference AWS resources that will be used during the deployment
  • B. Hooks are reserved for future use
  • C. To specify files you want to copy during the deployment.
  • D. To specify, scripts or function that you want to run at set points in the deployment lifecycle

Answer: D.
The ‘hooks’ section for an EC2/On-Premises deployment contains mappings that link deployment lifecycle event hooks to one or more scripts.

Reference: AppSpec ‘hooks’ Section

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Q70: Which command can you use to encrypt a plain text file using CMK?

  • A. aws kms-encrypt
  • B. aws iam encrypt
  • C. aws kms encrypt
  • D. aws encrypt

Answer: C.
aws kms encrypt –key-id 1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab –plaintext fileb://ExamplePlaintextFile –output text –query CiphertextBlob > C:\Temp\ExampleEncryptedFile.base64

Reference: AWS CLI Encrypt

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Q72: Which of the following is an encrypted key used by KMS to encrypt your data

  • A. Custmoer Mamaged Key
  • B. Encryption Key
  • C. Envelope Key
  • D. Customer Master Key

Answer: C.
Your Data key also known as the Enveloppe key is encrypted using the master key.This approach is known as Envelope encryption.
Envelope encryption is the practice of encrypting plaintext data with a data key, and then encrypting the data key under another key.

Reference: Envelope Encryption

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Q73: Which of the following statements are correct? (Choose 2)

  • A. The Customer Master Key is used to encrypt and decrypt the Envelope Key or Data Key
  • B. The Envelope Key or Data Key is used to encrypt and decrypt plain text files.
  • C. The envelope Key or Data Key is used to encrypt and decrypt the Customer Master Key.
  • D. The Customer MasterKey is used to encrypt and decrypt plain text files.

Answer: A. and B.

Reference: AWS Key Management Service Concepts

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Q74: Which of the following statements is correct in relation to kMS/ (Choose 2)

  • A. KMS Encryption keys are regional
  • B. You cannot export your customer master key
  • C. You can export your customer master key.
  • D. KMS encryption Keys are global

Answer: A. and B.

Reference: AWS Key Management Service FAQs

Q75:  A developer is preparing a deployment package for a Java implementation of an AWS Lambda function. What should the developer include in the deployment package? (Select TWO.)
A. Compiled application code
B. Java runtime environment
C. References to the event sources
D. Lambda execution role
E. Application dependencies


Answer: C. E.
Notes: To create a Lambda function, you first create a Lambda function deployment package. This package is a .zip or .jar file consisting of your code and any dependencies.
Reference: Lambda deployment packages.

Q76: A developer uses AWS CodeDeploy to deploy a Python application to a fleet of Amazon EC2 instances that run behind an Application Load Balancer. The instances run in an Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group across multiple Availability Zones. What should the developer include in the CodeDeploy deployment package?
A. A launch template for the Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group
B. A CodeDeploy AppSpec file
C. An EC2 role that grants the application access to AWS services
D. An IAM policy that grants the application access to AWS services


Answer: B.
Notes: The CodeDeploy AppSpec (application specific) file is unique to CodeDeploy. The AppSpec file is used to manage each deployment as a series of lifecycle event hooks, which are defined in the file.
Reference: CodeDeploy application specification (AppSpec) files.
Category: Deployment

Q76: A company is working on a project to enhance its serverless application development process. The company hosts applications on AWS Lambda. The development team regularly updates the Lambda code and wants to use stable code in production. Which combination of steps should the development team take to configure Lambda functions to meet both development and production requirements? (Select TWO.)

A. Create a new Lambda version every time a new code release needs testing.
B. Create two Lambda function aliases. Name one as Production and the other as Development. Point the Production alias to a production-ready unqualified Amazon Resource Name (ARN) version. Point the Development alias to the $LATEST version.
C. Create two Lambda function aliases. Name one as Production and the other as Development. Point the Production alias to the production-ready qualified Amazon Resource Name (ARN) version. Point the Development alias to the variable LAMBDA_TASK_ROOT.
D. Create a new Lambda layer every time a new code release needs testing.
E. Create two Lambda function aliases. Name one as Production and the other as Development. Point the Production alias to a production-ready Lambda layer Amazon Resource Name (ARN). Point the Development alias to the $LATEST layer ARN.


Answer: A. B.
Notes: Lambda function versions are designed to manage deployment of functions. They can be used for code changes, without affecting the stable production version of the code. By creating separate aliases for Production and Development, systems can initiate the correct alias as needed. A Lambda function alias can be used to point to a specific Lambda function version. Using the functionality to update an alias and its linked version, the development team can update the required version as needed. The $LATEST version is the newest published version.
Reference: Lambda function versions.

For more information about Lambda layers, see Creating and sharing Lambda layers.

For more information about Lambda function aliases, see Lambda function aliases.

Category: Deployment

Q77: Each time a developer publishes a new version of an AWS Lambda function, all the dependent event source mappings need to be updated with the reference to the new version’s Amazon Resource Name (ARN). These updates are time consuming and error-prone. Which combination of actions should the developer take to avoid performing these updates when publishing a new Lambda version? (Select TWO.)
A. Update event source mappings with the ARN of the Lambda layer.
B. Point a Lambda alias to a new version of the Lambda function.
C. Create a Lambda alias for each published version of the Lambda function.
D. Point a Lambda alias to a new Lambda function alias.
E. Update the event source mappings with the Lambda alias ARN.


Answer: B. E.
Notes: A Lambda alias is a pointer to a specific Lambda function version. Instead of using ARNs for the Lambda function in event source mappings, you can use an alias ARN. You do not need to update your event source mappings when you promote a new version or roll back to a previous version.
Reference: Lambda function aliases.
Category: Deployment

Q78:  A company wants to store sensitive user data in Amazon S3 and encrypt this data at rest. The company must manage the encryption keys and use Amazon S3 to perform the encryption. How can a developer meet these requirements?
A. Enable default encryption for the S3 bucket by using the option for server-side encryption with customer-provided encryption keys (SSE-C).
B. Enable client-side encryption with an encryption key. Upload the encrypted object to the S3 bucket.
C. Enable server-side encryption with Amazon S3 managed encryption keys (SSE-S3). Upload an object to the S3 bucket.
D. Enable server-side encryption with customer-provided encryption keys (SSE-C). Upload an object to the S3 bucket.


Answer: D.
Notes: When you upload an object, Amazon S3 uses the encryption key you provide to apply AES-256 encryption to your data and removes the encryption key from memory.
Reference: Protecting data using server-side encryption with customer-provided encryption keys (SSE-C).

Category: Security

Q79: A company is developing a Python application that submits data to an Amazon DynamoDB table. The company requires client-side encryption of specific data items and end-to-end protection for the encrypted data in transit and at rest. Which combination of steps will meet the requirement for the encryption of specific data items? (Select TWO.)

A. Generate symmetric encryption keys with AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS).
B. Generate asymmetric encryption keys with AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS).
C. Use generated keys with the DynamoDB Encryption Client.
D. Use generated keys to configure DynamoDB table encryption with AWS managed customer master keys (CMKs).
E. Use generated keys to configure DynamoDB table encryption with AWS owned customer master keys (CMKs).


Answer: A. C.
Notes: When the DynamoDB Encryption Client is configured to use AWS KMS, it uses a customer master key (CMK) that is always encrypted when used outside of AWS KMS. This cryptographic materials provider returns a unique encryption key and signing key for every table item. This method of encryption uses a symmetric CMK.
Reference: Direct KMS Materials Provider.
Category: Deployment

Q80: A company is developing a REST API with Amazon API Gateway. Access to the API should be limited to users in the existing Amazon Cognito user pool. Which combination of steps should a developer perform to secure the API? (Select TWO.)
A. Create an AWS Lambda authorizer for the API.
B. Create an Amazon Cognito authorizer for the API.
C. Configure the authorizer for the API resource.
D. Configure the API methods to use the authorizer.
E. Configure the authorizer for the API stage.


Answer: B. D.
Notes: An Amazon Cognito authorizer should be used for integration with Amazon Cognito user pools. In addition to creating an authorizer, you are required to configure an API method to use that authorizer for the API.
Reference: Control access to a REST API using Amazon Cognito user pools as authorizer.
Category: Security

Q81: A developer is implementing a mobile app to provide personalized services to app users. The application code makes calls to Amazon S3 and Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS). Which options can the developer use to authenticate the app users? (Select TWO.)
A. Authenticate to the Amazon Cognito identity pool directly.
B. Authenticate to AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) directly.
C. Authenticate to the Amazon Cognito user pool directly.
D. Federate authentication by using Login with Amazon with the users managed with AWS Security Token Service (AWS STS).
E. Federate authentication by using Login with Amazon with the users managed with the Amazon Cognito user pool.


Answer: C. E.
Notes: The Amazon Cognito user pool provides direct user authentication. The Amazon Cognito user pool provides a federated authentication option with third-party identity provider (IdP), including amazon.com.
Reference: Adding User Pool Sign-in Through a Third Party.
Category: Security

Question: A company is implementing several order processing workflows. Each workflow is implemented by using AWS Lambda functions for each task. Which combination of steps should a developer follow to implement these workflows? (Select TWO.)
A. Define a AWS Step Functions task for each Lambda function.
B. Define a AWS Step Functions task for each workflow.
C. Write code that polls the AWS Step Functions invocation to coordinate each workflow.
D. Define an AWS Step Functions state machine for each workflow.
E. Define an AWS Step Functions state machine for each Lambda function.
Answer: A. D.
Notes: Step Functions is based on state machines and tasks. A state machine is a workflow. Tasks perform work by coordinating with other AWS services, such as Lambda. A state machine is a workflow. It can be used to express a workflow as a number of states, their relationships, and their input and output. You can coordinate individual tasks with Step Functions by expressing your workflow as a finite state machine, written in the Amazon States Language.
ReferenceText: Getting Started with AWS Step Functions.
ReferenceUrl: https://aws.amazon.com/step-functions/getting-started/
Category: Development

Welcome to AWS Certified Developer Associate Exam Preparation: Definition and Objectives, Top 100 Questions and Answers dump, White papers, Courses, Labs and Training Materials, Exam info and details, References, Jobs, Others AWS Certificates

AWS Developer Associate DVA-C01 Exam Prep
AWS Developer Associate DVA-C01 Exam Prep
 
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What is the AWS Certified Developer Associate Exam?

This AWS Certified Developer-Associate Examination is intended for individuals who perform a Developer role. It validates an examinee’s ability to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of core AWS services, uses, and basic AWS architecture best practices
  • Demonstrate proficiency in developing, deploying, and debugging cloud-based applications by using AWS

Recommended general IT knowledge
The target candidate should have the following:
– In-depth knowledge of at least one high-level programming language
– Understanding of application lifecycle management
– The ability to write code for serverless applications
– Understanding of the use of containers in the development process

Recommended AWS knowledge
The target candidate should be able to do the following:

  • Use the AWS service APIs, CLI, and software development kits (SDKs) to write applications
  • Identify key features of AWS services
  • Understand the AWS shared responsibility model
  • Use a continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) pipeline to deploy applications on AWS
  • Use and interact with AWS services
  • Apply basic understanding of cloud-native applications to write code
  • Write code by using AWS security best practices (for example, use IAM roles instead of secret and access keys in the code)
  • Author, maintain, and debug code modules on AWS

What is considered out of scope for the target candidate?
The following is a non-exhaustive list of related job tasks that the target candidate is not expected to be able to perform. These items are considered out of scope for the exam:
– Design architectures (for example, distributed system, microservices)
– Design and implement CI/CD pipelines

  • Administer IAM users and groups
  • Administer Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS)
  • Design AWS networking infrastructure (for example, Amazon VPC, AWS Direct Connect)
  • Understand compliance and licensing

Exam content
Response types
There are two types of questions on the exam:
– Multiple choice: Has one correct response and three incorrect responses (distractors)
– Multiple response: Has two or more correct responses out of five or more response options
Select one or more responses that best complete the statement or answer the question. Distractors, or incorrect answers, are response options that a candidate with incomplete knowledge or skill might choose.
Distractors are generally plausible responses that match the content area.
Unanswered questions are scored as incorrect; there is no penalty for guessing. The exam includes 50 questions that will affect your score.

Unscored content
The exam includes 15 unscored questions that do not affect your score. AWS collects information about candidate performance on these unscored questions to evaluate these questions for future use as scored questions. These unscored questions are not identified on the exam.

Exam results
The AWS Certified Developer – Associate (DVA-C01) exam is a pass or fail exam. The exam is scored against a minimum standard established by AWS professionals who follow certification industry best practices and guidelines.
Your results for the exam are reported as a scaled score of 100–1,000. The minimum passing score is 720.
Your score shows how you performed on the exam as a whole and whether you passed. Scaled scoring models help equate scores across multiple exam forms that might have slightly different difficulty levels.
Your score report could contain a table of classifications of your performance at each section level. This information is intended to provide general feedback about your exam performance. The exam uses a compensatory scoring model, which means that you do not need to achieve a passing score in each section. You need to pass only the overall exam.
Each section of the exam has a specific weighting, so some sections have more questions than other sections have. The table contains general information that highlights your strengths and weaknesses. Use caution when interpreting section-level feedback.

Content outline
This exam guide includes weightings, test domains, and objectives for the exam. It is not a comprehensive listing of the content on the exam. However, additional context for each of the objectives is available to help guide your preparation for the exam. The following table lists the main content domains and their weightings. The table precedes the complete exam content outline, which includes the additional context.
The percentage in each domain represents only scored content.

Domain 1: Deployment 22%
Domain 2: Security 26%
Domain 3: Development with AWS Services 30%
Domain 4: Refactoring 10%
Domain 5: Monitoring and Troubleshooting 12%

Domain 1: Deployment
1.1 Deploy written code in AWS using existing CI/CD pipelines, processes, and patterns.
–  Commit code to a repository and invoke build, test and/or deployment actions
–  Use labels and branches for version and release management
–  Use AWS CodePipeline to orchestrate workflows against different environments
–  Apply AWS CodeCommit, AWS CodeBuild, AWS CodePipeline, AWS CodeStar, and AWS
CodeDeploy for CI/CD purposes
–  Perform a roll back plan based on application deployment policy

1.2 Deploy applications using AWS Elastic Beanstalk.
–  Utilize existing supported environments to define a new application stack
–  Package the application
–  Introduce a new application version into the Elastic Beanstalk environment
–  Utilize a deployment policy to deploy an application version (i.e., all at once, rolling, rolling with batch, immutable)
–  Validate application health using Elastic Beanstalk dashboard
–  Use Amazon CloudWatch Logs to instrument application logging

1.3 Prepare the application deployment package to be deployed to AWS.
–  Manage the dependencies of the code module (like environment variables, config files and static image files) within the package
–  Outline the package/container directory structure and organize files appropriately
–  Translate application resource requirements to AWS infrastructure parameters (e.g., memory, cores)

1.4 Deploy serverless applications.
–  Given a use case, implement and launch an AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM) template
–  Manage environments in individual AWS services (e.g., Differentiate between Development, Test, and Production in Amazon API Gateway)

Domain 2: Security
2.1 Make authenticated calls to AWS services.
–  Communicate required policy based on least privileges required by application.
–  Assume an IAM role to access a service
–  Use the software development kit (SDK) credential provider on-premises or in the cloud to access AWS services (local credentials vs. instance roles)

2.2 Implement encryption using AWS services.
– Encrypt data at rest (client side; server side; envelope encryption) using AWS services
–  Encrypt data in transit

2.3 Implement application authentication and authorization.
– Add user sign-up and sign-in functionality for applications with Amazon Cognito identity or user pools
–  Use Amazon Cognito-provided credentials to write code that access AWS services.
–  Use Amazon Cognito sync to synchronize user profiles and data
–  Use developer-authenticated identities to interact between end user devices, backend
authentication, and Amazon Cognito

Domain 3: Development with AWS Services
3.1 Write code for serverless applications.
– Compare and contrast server-based vs. serverless model (e.g., micro services, stateless nature of serverless applications, scaling serverless applications, and decoupling layers of serverless applications)
– Configure AWS Lambda functions by defining environment variables and parameters (e.g., memory, time out, runtime, handler)
– Create an API endpoint using Amazon API Gateway
–  Create and test appropriate API actions like GET, POST using the API endpoint
–  Apply Amazon DynamoDB concepts (e.g., tables, items, and attributes)
–  Compute read/write capacity units for Amazon DynamoDB based on application requirements
–  Associate an AWS Lambda function with an AWS event source (e.g., Amazon API Gateway, Amazon CloudWatch event, Amazon S3 events, Amazon Kinesis)
–  Invoke an AWS Lambda function synchronously and asynchronously

3.2 Translate functional requirements into application design.
– Determine real-time vs. batch processing for a given use case
– Determine use of synchronous vs. asynchronous for a given use case
– Determine use of event vs. schedule/poll for a given use case
– Account for tradeoffs for consistency models in an application design

Domain 4: Refactoring
4.1 Optimize applications to best use AWS services and features.
 Implement AWS caching services to optimize performance (e.g., Amazon ElastiCache, Amazon API Gateway cache)
 Apply an Amazon S3 naming scheme for optimal read performance

4.2 Migrate existing application code to run on AWS.
– Isolate dependencies
– Run the application as one or more stateless processes
– Develop in order to enable horizontal scalability
– Externalize state

Domain 5: Monitoring and Troubleshooting

5.1 Write code that can be monitored.
– Create custom Amazon CloudWatch metrics
– Perform logging in a manner available to systems operators
– Instrument application source code to enable tracing in AWS X-Ray

5.2 Perform root cause analysis on faults found in testing or production.
– Interpret the outputs from the logging mechanism in AWS to identify errors in logs
– Check build and testing history in AWS services (e.g., AWS CodeBuild, AWS CodeDeploy, AWS CodePipeline) to identify issues
– Utilize AWS services (e.g., Amazon CloudWatch, VPC Flow Logs, and AWS X-Ray) to locate a specific faulty component

Which key tools, technologies, and concepts might be covered on the exam?

The following is a non-exhaustive list of the tools and technologies that could appear on the exam.
This list is subject to change and is provided to help you understand the general scope of services, features, or technologies on the exam.
The general tools and technologies in this list appear in no particular order.
AWS services are grouped according to their primary functions. While some of these technologies will likely be covered more than others on the exam, the order and placement of them in this list is no indication of relative weight or importance:
– Analytics
– Application Integration
– Containers
– Cost and Capacity Management
– Data Movement
– Developer Tools
– Instances (virtual machines)
– Management and Governance
– Networking and Content Delivery
– Security
– Serverless

AWS services and features

Analytics:
– Amazon Elasticsearch Service (Amazon ES)
– Amazon Kinesis
Application Integration:
– Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events)
– Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS)
– Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS)
– AWS Step Functions

Compute:
– Amazon EC2
– AWS Elastic Beanstalk
– AWS Lambda

Containers:
– Amazon Elastic Container Registry (Amazon ECR)
– Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS)
– Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Services (Amazon EKS)

Database:
– Amazon DynamoDB
– Amazon ElastiCache
– Amazon RDS

Developer Tools:
– AWS CodeArtifact
– AWS CodeBuild
– AWS CodeCommit
– AWS CodeDeploy
– Amazon CodeGuru
– AWS CodePipeline
– AWS CodeStar
– AWS Fault Injection Simulator
– AWS X-Ray

Management and Governance:
– AWS CloudFormation
– Amazon CloudWatch

Networking and Content Delivery:
– Amazon API Gateway
– Amazon CloudFront
– Elastic Load Balancing

Security, Identity, and Compliance:
– Amazon Cognito
– AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM)
– AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS)

Storage:
– Amazon S3

Out-of-scope AWS services and features

The following is a non-exhaustive list of AWS services and features that are not covered on the exam.
These services and features do not represent every AWS offering that is excluded from the exam content.
Services or features that are entirely unrelated to the target job roles for the exam are excluded from this list because they are assumed to be irrelevant.
Out-of-scope AWS services and features include the following:
– AWS Application Discovery Service
– Amazon AppStream 2.0
– Amazon Chime
– Amazon Connect
– AWS Database Migration Service (AWS DMS)
– AWS Device Farm
– Amazon Elastic Transcoder
– Amazon GameLift
– Amazon Lex
– Amazon Machine Learning (Amazon ML)
– AWS Managed Services
– Amazon Mobile Analytics
– Amazon Polly

– Amazon QuickSight
– Amazon Rekognition
– AWS Server Migration Service (AWS SMS)
– AWS Service Catalog
– AWS Shield Advanced
– AWS Shield Standard
– AWS Snow Family
– AWS Storage Gateway
– AWS WAF
– Amazon WorkMail
– Amazon WorkSpaces

To succeed with the real exam, do not memorize the answers below. It is very important that you understand why a question is right or wrong and the concepts behind it by carefully reading the reference documents in the answers.

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AWS Certified Developer – Associate Practice Questions And Answers Dump

Q0: Your application reads commands from an SQS queue and sends them to web services hosted by your
partners. When a partner’s endpoint goes down, your application continually returns their commands to the queue. The repeated attempts to deliver these commands use up resources. Commands that can’t be delivered must not be lost.
How can you accommodate the partners’ broken web services without wasting your resources?

  • A. Create a delay queue and set DelaySeconds to 30 seconds
  • B. Requeue the message with a VisibilityTimeout of 30 seconds.
  • C. Create a dead letter queue and set the Maximum Receives to 3.
  • D. Requeue the message with a DelaySeconds of 30 seconds.
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C. After a message is taken from the queue and returned for the maximum number of retries, it is
automatically sent to a dead letter queue, if one has been configured. It stays there until you retrieve it for forensic purposes.

Reference: Amazon SQS Dead-Letter Queues


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Q1: A developer is writing an application that will store data in a DynamoDB table. The ratio of reads operations to write operations will be 1000 to 1, with the same data being accessed frequently.
What should the Developer enable on the DynamoDB table to optimize performance and minimize costs?

  • A. Amazon DynamoDB auto scaling
  • B. Amazon DynamoDB cross-region replication
  • C. Amazon DynamoDB Streams
  • D. Amazon DynamoDB Accelerator


D. The AWS Documentation mentions the following:

DAX is a DynamoDB-compatible caching service that enables you to benefit from fast in-memory performance for demanding applications. DAX addresses three core scenarios

  1. As an in-memory cache, DAX reduces the response times of eventually-consistent read workloads by an order of magnitude, from single-digit milliseconds to microseconds.
  2. DAX reduces operational and application complexity by providing a managed service that is API-compatible with Amazon DynamoDB, and thus requires only minimal functional changes to use with an existing application.
  3. For read-heavy or bursty workloads, DAX provides increased throughput and potential operational cost savings by reducing the need to over-provision read capacity units. This is especially beneficial for applications that require repeated reads for individual keys.

Reference: AWS DAX


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Q2: You are creating a DynamoDB table with the following attributes:

  • PurchaseOrderNumber (partition key)
  • CustomerID
  • PurchaseDate
  • TotalPurchaseValue

One of your applications must retrieve items from the table to calculate the total value of purchases for a
particular customer over a date range. What secondary index do you need to add to the table?

  • A. Local secondary index with a partition key of CustomerID and sort key of PurchaseDate; project the
    TotalPurchaseValue attribute
  • B. Local secondary index with a partition key of PurchaseDate and sort key of CustomerID; project the
    TotalPurchaseValue attribute
  • C. Global secondary index with a partition key of CustomerID and sort key of PurchaseDate; project the
    TotalPurchaseValue attribute
  • D. Global secondary index with a partition key of PurchaseDate and sort key of CustomerID; project the
    TotalPurchaseValue attribute


C. The query is for a particular CustomerID, so a Global Secondary Index is needed for a different partition
key. To retrieve only the desired date range, the PurchaseDate must be the sort key. Projecting the
TotalPurchaseValue into the index provides all the data needed to satisfy the use case.

Reference: AWS DynamoDB Global Secondary Indexes

Difference between local and global indexes in DynamoDB

    • Global secondary index — an index with a hash and range key that can be different from those on the table. A global secondary index is considered “global” because queries on the index can span all of the data in a table, across all partitions.
    • Local secondary index — an index that has the same hash key as the table, but a different range key. A local secondary index is “local” in the sense that every partition of a local secondary index is scoped to a table partition that has the same hash key.
    • Local Secondary Indexes still rely on the original Hash Key. When you supply a table with hash+range, think about the LSI as hash+range1, hash+range2.. hash+range6. You get 5 more range attributes to query on. Also, there is only one provisioned throughput.
    • Global Secondary Indexes defines a new paradigm – different hash/range keys per index.
      This breaks the original usage of one hash key per table. This is also why when defining GSI you are required to add a provisioned throughput per index and pay for it.
    • Local Secondary Indexes can only be created when you are creating the table, there is no way to add Local Secondary Index to an existing table, also once you create the index you cannot delete it.
    • Global Secondary Indexes can be created when you create the table and added to an existing table, deleting an existing Global Secondary Index is also allowed.

Throughput :

  • Local Secondary Indexes consume throughput from the table. When you query records via the local index, the operation consumes read capacity units from the table. When you perform a write operation (create, update, delete) in a table that has a local index, there will be two write operations, one for the table another for the index. Both operations will consume write capacity units from the table.
  • Global Secondary Indexes have their own provisioned throughput, when you query the index the operation will consume read capacity from the index, when you perform a write operation (create, update, delete) in a table that has a global index, there will be two write operations, one for the table another for the index*.


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Q3: When referencing the remaining time left for a Lambda function to run within the function’s code you would use:

  • A. The event object
  • B. The timeLeft object
  • C. The remains object
  • D. The context object


D. The context object.

Reference: AWS Lambda


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Q4: What two arguments does a Python Lambda handler function require?

  • A. invocation, zone
  • B. event, zone
  • C. invocation, context
  • D. event, context
D. event, context
def handler_name(event, context):

return some_value

Reference: AWS Lambda Function Handler in Python

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Q5: Lambda allows you to upload code and dependencies for function packages:

  • A. Only from a directly uploaded zip file
  • B. Only via SFTP
  • C. Only from a zip file in AWS S3
  • D. From a zip file in AWS S3 or uploaded directly from elsewhere

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D. From a zip file in AWS S3 or uploaded directly from elsewhere

Reference: AWS Lambda Deployment Package

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Q6: A Lambda deployment package contains:

  • A. Function code, libraries, and runtime binaries
  • B. Only function code
  • C. Function code and libraries not included within the runtime
  • D. Only libraries not included within the runtime

C. Function code and libraries not included within the runtime

Reference: AWS Lambda Deployment Package in PowerShell

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Q7: You are attempting to SSH into an EC2 instance that is located in a public subnet. However, you are currently receiving a timeout error trying to connect. What could be a possible cause of this connection issue?

  • A. The security group associated with the EC2 instance has an inbound rule that allows SSH traffic, but does not have an outbound rule that allows SSH traffic.
  • B. The security group associated with the EC2 instance has an inbound rule that allows SSH traffic AND has an outbound rule that explicitly denies SSH traffic.
  • C. The security group associated with the EC2 instance has an inbound rule that allows SSH traffic AND the associated NACL has both an inbound and outbound rule that allows SSH traffic.
  • D. The security group associated with the EC2 instance does not have an inbound rule that allows SSH traffic AND the associated NACL does not have an outbound rule that allows SSH traffic.


D. Security groups are stateful, so you do NOT have to have an explicit outbound rule for return requests. However, NACLs are stateless so you MUST have an explicit outbound rule configured for return request.

Reference: Comparison of Security Groups and Network ACLs

AWS Security Groups and NACL


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Q8: You have instances inside private subnets and a properly configured bastion host instance in a public subnet. None of the instances in the private subnets have a public or Elastic IP address. How can you connect an instance in the private subnet to the open internet to download system updates?

  • A. Create and assign EIP to each instance
  • B. Create and attach a second IGW to the VPC.
  • C. Create and utilize a NAT Gateway
  • D. Connect to a VPN


C. You can use a network address translation (NAT) gateway in a public subnet in your VPC to enable instances in the private subnet to initiate outbound traffic to the Internet, but prevent the instances from receiving inbound traffic initiated by someone on the Internet.

Reference: AWS Network Address Translation Gateway


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Q9: What feature of VPC networking should you utilize if you want to create “elasticity” in your application’s architecture?

  • A. Security Groups
  • B. Route Tables
  • C. Elastic Load Balancer
  • D. Auto Scaling


D. Auto scaling is designed specifically with elasticity in mind. Auto scaling allows for the increase and decrease of compute power based on demand, thus creating elasticity in the architecture.

Reference: AWS Autoscalling


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Q10: Lambda allows you to upload code and dependencies for function packages:

  • A. Only from a directly uploaded zip file
  • B. Only from a directly uploaded zip file
  • C. Only from a zip file in AWS S3
  • D. From a zip file in AWS S3 or uploaded directly from elsewhere

D. From a zip file in AWS S3 or uploaded directly from elsewhere

Reference: AWS Lambda

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Q11: You’re writing a script with an AWS SDK that uses the AWS API Actions and want to create AMIs for non-EBS backed AMIs for you. Which API call should occurs in the final process of creating an AMI?

  • A. RegisterImage
  • B. CreateImage
  • C. ami-register-image
  • D. ami-create-image

A. It is actually – RegisterImage. All AWS API Actions will follow the capitalization like this and don’t have hyphens in them.

Reference: API RegisterImage

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Q12: When dealing with session state in EC2-based applications using Elastic load balancers which option is generally thought of as the best practice for managing user sessions?

  • A. Having the ELB distribute traffic to all EC2 instances and then having the instance check a caching solution like ElastiCache running Redis or Memcached for session information
  • B. Permenantly assigning users to specific instances and always routing their traffic to those instances
  • C. Using Application-generated cookies to tie a user session to a particular instance for the cookie duration
  • D. Using Elastic Load Balancer generated cookies to tie a user session to a particular instance

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Q13: Which API call would best be used to describe an Amazon Machine Image?

  • A. ami-describe-image
  • B. ami-describe-images
  • C. DescribeImage
  • D. DescribeImages

D. In general, API actions stick to the PascalCase style with the first letter of every word capitalized.

Reference: API DescribeImages

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Q14: What is one key difference between an Amazon EBS-backed and an instance-store backed instance?

  • A. Autoscaling requires using Amazon EBS-backed instances
  • B. Virtual Private Cloud requires EBS backed instances
  • C. Amazon EBS-backed instances can be stopped and restarted without losing data
  • D. Instance-store backed instances can be stopped and restarted without losing data

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C. Instance-store backed images use “ephemeral” storage (temporary). The storage is only available during the life of an instance. Rebooting an instance will allow ephemeral data stay persistent. However, stopping and starting an instance will remove all ephemeral storage.

Reference: What is the difference between EBS and Instance Store?

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Q15: After having created a new Linux instance on Amazon EC2, and downloaded the .pem file (called Toto.pem) you try and SSH into your IP address (54.1.132.33) using the following command.
ssh -i my_key.pem ec2-user@52.2.222.22
However you receive the following error.
@@@@@@@@ WARNING: UNPROTECTED PRIVATE KEY FILE! @ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
What is the most probable reason for this and how can you fix it?

  • A. You do not have root access on your terminal and need to use the sudo option for this to work.
  • B. You do not have enough permissions to perform the operation.
  • C. Your key file is encrypted. You need to use the -u option for unencrypted not the -i option.
  • D. Your key file must not be publicly viewable for SSH to work. You need to modify your .pem file to limit permissions.

D. You need to run something like: chmod 400 my_key.pem

Reference:

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Q16: You have an EBS root device on /dev/sda1 on one of your EC2 instances. You are having trouble with this particular instance and you need to either Stop/Start, Reboot or Terminate the instance but you do NOT want to lose any data that you have stored on /dev/sda1. However, you are unsure if changing the instance state in any of the aforementioned ways will cause you to lose data stored on the EBS volume. Which of the below statements best describes the effect each change of instance state would have on the data you have stored on /dev/sda1?

  • A. Whether you stop/start, reboot or terminate the instance it does not matter because data on an EBS volume is not ephemeral and the data will not be lost regardless of what method is used.
  • B. If you stop/start the instance the data will not be lost. However if you either terminate or reboot the instance the data will be lost.
  • C. Whether you stop/start, reboot or terminate the instance it does not matter because data on an EBS volume is ephemeral and it will be lost no matter what method is used.
  • D. The data will be lost if you terminate the instance, however the data will remain on /dev/sda1 if you reboot or stop/start the instance because data on an EBS volume is not ephemeral.

D. The question states that an EBS-backed root device is mounted at /dev/sda1, and EBS volumes maintain information regardless of the instance state. If it was instance store, this would be a different answer.

Reference: AWS Root Device Storage

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Q17: EC2 instances are launched from Amazon Machine Images (AMIs). A given public AMI:

  • A. Can only be used to launch EC2 instances in the same AWS availability zone as the AMI is stored
  • B. Can only be used to launch EC2 instances in the same country as the AMI is stored
  • C. Can only be used to launch EC2 instances in the same AWS region as the AMI is stored
  • D. Can be used to launch EC2 instances in any AWS region

C. AMIs are only available in the region they are created. Even in the case of the AWS-provided AMIs, AWS has actually copied the AMIs for you to different regions. You cannot access an AMI from one region in another region. However, you can copy an AMI from one region to another

Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/

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Q18: Which of the following statements is true about the Elastic File System (EFS)?

  • A. EFS can scale out to meet capacity requirements and scale back down when no longer needed
  • B. EFS can be used by multiple EC2 instances simultaneously
  • C. EFS cannot be used by an instance using EBS
  • D. EFS can be configured on an instance before launch just like an IAM role or EBS volumes

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A. and B.

Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/efs/

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Q19: IAM Policies, at a minimum, contain what elements?

  • A. ID
  • B. Effects
  • C. Resources
  • D. Sid
  • E. Principle
  • F. Actions

B. C. and F.

Effect – Use Allow or Deny to indicate whether the policy allows or denies access.

Resource – Specify a list of resources to which the actions apply.

Action – Include a list of actions that the policy allows or denies.

Id, Sid aren’t required fields in IAM Policies. But they are optional fields

Reference: AWS IAM Access Policies

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Q20: What are the main benefits of IAM groups?

  • A. The ability to create custom permission policies.
  • B. Assigning IAM permission policies to more than one user at a time.
  • C. Easier user/policy management.
  • D. Allowing EC2 instances to gain access to S3.

B. and C.

A. is incorrect: This is a benefit of IAM generally or a benefit of IAM policies. But IAM groups don’t create policies, they have policies attached to them.

Reference: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/IAM/latest/UserGuide/id_groups.html

 

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Q21: What are benefits of using AWS STS?

  • A. Grant access to AWS resources without having to create an IAM identity for them
  • B. Since credentials are temporary, you don’t have to rotate or revoke them
  • C. Temporary security credentials can be extended indefinitely
  • D. Temporary security credentials can be restricted to a specific region

Top

Q22: What should the Developer enable on the DynamoDB table to optimize performance and minimize costs?

  • A. Amazon DynamoDB auto scaling
  • B. Amazon DynamoDB cross-region replication
  • C. Amazon DynamoDB Streams
  • D. Amazon DynamoDB Accelerator


D. DAX is a DynamoDB-compatible caching service that enables you to benefit from fast in-memory performance for demanding applications. DAX addresses three core scenarios:

  1. As an in-memory cache, DAX reduces the response times of eventually-consistent read workloads by an order of magnitude, from single-digit milliseconds to microseconds.
  2. DAX reduces operational and application complexity by providing a managed service that is API-compatible with Amazon DynamoDB, and thus requires only minimal functional changes to use with an existing application.
  3. For read-heavy or bursty workloads, DAX provides increased throughput and potential operational cost savings by reducing the need to over-provision read capacity units. This is especially beneficial for applications that require repeated reads for individual keys.

Reference: AWS DAX


Top

 
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Q23: A Developer has been asked to create an AWS Elastic Beanstalk environment for a production web application which needs to handle thousands of requests. Currently the dev environment is running on a t1 micro instance. How can the Developer change the EC2 instance type to m4.large?

  • A. Use CloudFormation to migrate the Amazon EC2 instance type of the environment from t1 micro to m4.large.
  • B. Create a saved configuration file in Amazon S3 with the instance type as m4.large and use the same during environment creation.
  • C. Change the instance type to m4.large in the configuration details page of the Create New Environment page.
  • D. Change the instance type value for the environment to m4.large by using update autoscaling group CLI command.

B. The Elastic Beanstalk console and EB CLI set configuration options when you create an environment. You can also set configuration options in saved configurations and configuration files. If the same option is set in multiple locations, the value used is determined by the order of precedence.
Configuration option settings can be composed in text format and saved prior to environment creation, applied during environment creation using any supported client, and added, modified or removed after environment creation.
During environment creation, configuration options are applied from multiple sources with the following precedence, from highest to lowest:

  • Settings applied directly to the environment – Settings specified during a create environment or update environment operation on the Elastic Beanstalk API by any client, including the AWS Management Console, EB CLI, AWS CLI, and SDKs. The AWS Management Console and EB CLI also applyrecommended values for some options that apply at this level unless overridden.
  • Saved Configurations
    Settings for any options that are not applied directly to the
    environment are loaded from a saved configuration, if specified.
  • Configuration Files (.ebextensions)– Settings for any options that are not applied directly to the
    environment, and also not specified in a saved configuration, are loaded from configuration files in the .ebextensions folder at the root of the application source bundle.

     

    Configuration files are executed in alphabetical order. For example,.ebextensions/01run.configis executed before.ebextensions/02do.config.

  • Default Values– If a configuration option has a default value, it only applies when the option is not set at any of the above levels.

If the same configuration option is defined in more than one location, the setting with the highest precedence is applied. When a setting is applied from a saved configuration or settings applied directly to the environment, the setting is stored as part of the environment’s configuration. These settings can be removed with the AWS CLI or with the EB CLI
.
Settings in configuration files are not applied
directly to the environment and cannot be removed without modifying the configuration files and deploying a new application version.
If a setting applied with one of the other methods is removed, the same setting will be loaded from configuration files in the source bundle.

Reference: Managing ec2 features – Elastic beanstalk

Q24: What statements are true about Availability Zones (AZs) and Regions?

  • A. There is only one AZ in each AWS Region
  • B. AZs are geographically separated inside a region to help protect against natural disasters affecting more than one at a time.
  • C. AZs can be moved between AWS Regions based on your needs
  • D. There are (almost always) two or more AZs in each AWS Region

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B and D.

Reference: AWS global infrastructure/

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Q25: An AWS Region contains:

  • A. Edge Locations
  • B. Data Centers
  • C. AWS Services
  • D. Availability Zones


B. C. D. Edge locations are actually distinct locations that don’t explicitly fall within AWS regions.

Reference: AWS Global Infrastructure


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Q26: Which read request in DynamoDB returns a response with the most up-to-date data, reflecting the updates from all prior write operations that were successful?

  • A. Eventual Consistent Reads
  • B. Conditional reads for Consistency
  • C. Strongly Consistent Reads
  • D. Not possible


C. This is provided very clearly in the AWS documentation as shown below with regards to the read consistency for DynamoDB. Only in Strong Read consistency can you be guaranteed that you get the write read value after all the writes are completed.

Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/dynamodb/faqs/


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Q27: You’ ve been asked to move an existing development environment on the AWS Cloud. This environment consists mainly of Docker based containers. You need to ensure that minimum effort is taken during the migration process. Which of the following step would you consider for this requirement?

  • A. Create an Opswork stack and deploy the Docker containers
  • B. Create an application and Environment for the Docker containers in the Elastic Beanstalk service
  • C. Create an EC2 Instance. Install Docker and deploy the necessary containers.
  • D. Create an EC2 Instance. Install Docker and deploy the necessary containers. Add an Autoscaling Group for scalability of the containers.


B. The Elastic Beanstalk service is the ideal service to quickly provision development environments. You can also create environments which can be used to host Docker based containers.

Reference: Create and Deploy Docker in AWS


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Q28: You’ve written an application that uploads objects onto an S3 bucket. The size of the object varies between 200 – 500 MB. You’ve seen that the application sometimes takes a longer than expected time to upload the object. You want to improve the performance of the application. Which of the following would you consider?

  • A. Create multiple threads and upload the objects in the multiple threads
  • B. Write the items in batches for better performance
  • C. Use the Multipart upload API
  • D. Enable versioning on the Bucket

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C. All other options are invalid since the best way to handle large object uploads to the S3 service is to use the Multipart upload API. The Multipart upload API enables you to upload large objects in parts. You can use this API to upload new large objects or make a copy of an existing object. Multipart uploading is a three-step process: You initiate the upload, you upload the object parts, and after you have uploaded all the parts, you complete the multipart upload. Upon receiving the complete multipart upload request, Amazon S3 constructs the object from the uploaded parts, and you can then access the object just as you would any other object in your bucket.

Reference: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/mpuoverview.html


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Q29: A security system monitors 600 cameras, saving image metadata every 1 minute to an Amazon DynamoDb table. Each sample involves 1kb of data, and the data writes are evenly distributed over time. How much write throughput is required for the target table?

  • A. 6000
  • B. 10
  • C. 3600
  • D. 600

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B. When you mention the write capacity of a table in Dynamo DB, you mention it as the number of 1KB writes per second. So in the above question, since the write is happening every minute, we need to divide the value of 600 by 60, to get the number of KB writes per second. This gives a value of 10.

You can specify the Write capacity in the Capacity tab of the DynamoDB table.

Reference: AWS working with tables

Q30: What two arguments does a Python Lambda handler function require?

  • A. invocation, zone
  • B. event, zone
  • C. invocation, context
  • D. event, context


D. event, context def handler_name(event, context):

return some_value
Reference: AWS Lambda Function Handler in Python

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Q31: Lambda allows you to upload code and dependencies for function packages:

  • A. Only from a directly uploaded zip file
  • B. Only via SFTP
  • C. Only from a zip file in AWS S3
  • D. From a zip file in AWS S3 or uploaded directly from elsewhere


D. From a zip file in AWS S3 or uploaded directly from elsewhere
Reference: AWS Lambda Deployment Package

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Q32: A Lambda deployment package contains:

  • A. Function code, libraries, and runtime binaries
  • B. Only function code
  • C. Function code and libraries not included within the runtime
  • D. Only libraries not included within the runtime


C. Function code and libraries not included within the runtime
Reference: AWS Lambda Deployment Package in PowerShell

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Q33: You have instances inside private subnets and a properly configured bastion host instance in a public subnet. None of the instances in the private subnets have a public or Elastic IP address. How can you connect an instance in the private subnet to the open internet to download system updates?

  • A. Create and assign EIP to each instance
  • B. Create and attach a second IGW to the VPC.
  • C. Create and utilize a NAT Gateway
  • D. Connect to a VPN


C. You can use a network address translation (NAT) gateway in a public subnet in your VPC to enable instances in the private subnet to initiate outbound traffic to the Internet, but prevent the instances from receiving inbound traffic initiated by someone on the Internet.
Reference: AWS Network Address Translation Gateway

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Q34: What feature of VPC networking should you utilize if you want to create “elasticity” in your application’s architecture?

  • A. Security Groups
  • B. Route Tables
  • C. Elastic Load Balancer
  • D. Auto Scaling


D. Auto scaling is designed specifically with elasticity in mind. Auto scaling allows for the increase and decrease of compute power based on demand, thus creating elasticity in the architecture.
Reference: AWS Autoscalling

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Q30: Lambda allows you to upload code and dependencies for function packages:

  • A. Only from a directly uploaded zip file
  • B. Only from a directly uploaded zip file
  • C. Only from a zip file in AWS S3
  • D. From a zip file in AWS S3 or uploaded directly from elsewhere

Answer:


D. From a zip file in AWS S3 or uploaded directly from elsewhere
Reference: AWS Lambda

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Q31: An organization is using an Amazon ElastiCache cluster in front of their Amazon RDS instance. The organization would like the Developer to implement logic into the code so that the cluster only retrieves data from RDS when there is a cache miss. What strategy can the Developer implement to achieve this?

  • A. Lazy loading
  • B. Write-through
  • C. Error retries
  • D. Exponential backoff

Answer:


Answer – A
Whenever your application requests data, it first makes the request to the ElastiCache cache. If the data exists in the cache and is current, ElastiCache returns the data to your application. If the data does not exist in the cache, or the data in the cache has expired, your application requests data from your data store which returns the data to your application. Your application then writes the data received from the store to the cache so it can be more quickly retrieved next time it is requested. All other options are incorrect.
Reference: Caching Strategies

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Q32: A developer is writing an application that will run on Ec2 instances and read messages from SQS queue. The nessages will arrive every 15-60 seconds. How should the Developer efficiently query the queue for new messages?

  • A. Use long polling
  • B. Set a custom visibility timeout
  • C. Use short polling
  • D. Implement exponential backoff


Answer – A Long polling will help insure that the applications make less requests for messages in a shorter period of time. This is more cost effective. Since the messages are only going to be available after 15 seconds and we don’t know exacly when they would be available, it is better to use Long Polling.
Reference: Amazon SQS Long Polling

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Q33: You are using AWS SAM to define a Lambda function and configure CodeDeploy to manage deployment patterns. With new Lambda function working as per expectation which of the following will shift traffic from original Lambda function to new Lambda function in the shortest time frame?

  • A. Canary10Percent5Minutes
  • B. Linear10PercentEvery10Minutes
  • C. Canary10Percent15Minutes
  • D. Linear10PercentEvery1Minute


Answer – A
With Canary Deployment Preference type, Traffic is shifted in two intervals. With Canary10Percent5Minutes, 10 percent of traffic is shifted in the first interval while remaining all traffic is shifted after 5 minutes.
Reference: Gradual Code Deployment

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Q34: You are using AWS SAM templates to deploy a serverless application. Which of the following resource will embed application from Amazon S3 buckets?

  • A. AWS::Serverless::Api
  • B. AWS::Serverless::Application
  • C. AWS::Serverless::Layerversion
  • D. AWS::Serverless::Function


Answer – B
AWS::Serverless::Application resource in AWS SAm template is used to embed application frm Amazon S3 buckets.
Reference: Declaring Serverless Resources

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Q35: You are using AWS Envelope Encryption for encrypting all sensitive data. Which of the followings is True with regards to Envelope Encryption?

  • A. Data is encrypted be encrypting Data key which is further encrypted using encrypted Master Key.
  • B. Data is encrypted by plaintext Data key which is further encrypted using encrypted Master Key.
  • C. Data is encrypted by encrypted Data key which is further encrypted using plaintext Master Key.
  • D. Data is encrypted by plaintext Data key which is further encrypted using plaintext Master Key.


Answer – D
With Envelope Encryption, unencrypted data is encrypted using plaintext Data key. This Data is further encrypted using plaintext Master key. This plaintext Master key is securely stored in AWS KMS & known as Customer Master Keys.
Reference: AWS Key Management Service Concepts

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Q36: You are developing an application that will be comprised of the following architecture –

  1. A set of Ec2 instances to process the videos.
  2. These (Ec2 instances) will be spun up by an autoscaling group.
  3. SQS Queues to maintain the processing messages.
  4. There will be 2 pricing tiers.

How will you ensure that the premium customers videos are given more preference?

  • A. Create 2 Autoscaling Groups, one for normal and one for premium customers
  • B. Create 2 set of Ec2 Instances, one for normal and one for premium customers
  • C. Create 2 SQS queus, one for normal and one for premium customers
  • D. Create 2 Elastic Load Balancers, one for normal and one for premium customers.


Answer – C
The ideal option would be to create 2 SQS queues. Messages can then be processed by the application from the high priority queue first.<br? The other options are not the ideal options. They would lead to extra costs and also extra maintenance.
Reference: SQS

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Q37: You are developing an application that will interact with a DynamoDB table. The table is going to take in a lot of read and write operations. Which of the following would be the ideal partition key for the DynamoDB table to ensure ideal performance?

  • A. CustomerID
  • B. CustomerName
  • C. Location
  • D. Age


Answer- A
Use high-cardinality attributes. These are attributes that have distinct values for each item, like e-mailid, employee_no, customerid, sessionid, orderid, and so on..
Use composite attributes. Try to combine more than one attribute to form a unique key.
Reference: Choosing the right DynamoDB Partition Key

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Q38: A developer is making use of AWS services to develop an application. He has been asked to develop the application in a manner to compensate any network delays. Which of the following two mechanisms should he implement in the application?

  • A. Multiple SQS queues
  • B. Exponential backoff algorithm
  • C. Retries in your application code
  • D. Consider using the Java sdk.


Answer- B. and C.
In addition to simple retries, each AWS SDK implements exponential backoff algorithm for better flow control. The idea behind exponential backoff is to use progressively longer waits between retries for consecutive error responses. You should implement a maximum delay interval, as well as a maximum number of retries. The maximum delay interval and maximum number of retries are not necessarily fixed values, and should be set based on the operation being performed, as well as other local factors, such as network latency.
Reference: Error Retries and Exponential Backoff in AWS

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Q39: An application is being developed that is going to write data to a DynamoDB table. You have to setup the read and write throughput for the table. Data is going to be read at the rate of 300 items every 30 seconds. Each item is of size 6KB. The reads can be eventual consistent reads. What should be the read capacity that needs to be set on the table?

  • A. 10
  • B. 20
  • C. 6
  • D. 30


Answer – A

Since there are 300 items read every 30 seconds , that means there are (300/30) = 10 items read every second.
Since each item is 6KB in size , that means , 2 reads will be required for each item.
So we have total of 2*10 = 20 reads for the number of items per second
Since eventual consistency is required , we can divide the number of reads(20) by 2 , and in the end we get the Read Capacity of 10.

Reference: Read/Write Capacity Mode


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Q40: You are in charge of deploying an application that will be hosted on an EC2 Instance and sit behind an Elastic Load balancer. You have been requested to monitor the incoming connections to the Elastic Load Balancer. Which of the below options can suffice this requirement?

  • A. Use AWS CloudTrail with your load balancer
  • B. Enable access logs on the load balancer
  • C. Use a CloudWatch Logs Agent
  • D. Create a custom metric CloudWatch lter on your load balancer


Answer – B
Elastic Load Balancing provides access logs that capture detailed information about requests sent to your load balancer. Each log contains information such as the time the request was received, the client’s IP address, latencies, request paths, and server responses. You can use these access logs to analyze traffic patterns and troubleshoot issues.
Reference: Access Logs for Your Application Load Balancer

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Q41: A static web site has been hosted on a bucket and is now being accessed by users. One of the web pages javascript section has been changed to access data which is hosted in another S3 bucket. Now that same web page is no longer loading in the browser. Which of the following can help alleviate the error?

  • A. Enable versioning for the underlying S3 bucket.
  • B. Enable Replication so that the objects get replicated to the other bucket
  • C. Enable CORS for the bucket
  • D. Change the Bucket policy for the bucket to allow access from the other bucket


Answer – C

Cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) defines a way for client web applications that are loaded in one domain to interact with resources in a different domain. With CORS support, you can build rich client-side web applications with Amazon S3 and selectively allow cross-origin access to your Amazon S3 resources.

Cross-Origin Resource Sharing: Use-case Scenarios The following are example scenarios for using CORS:

Scenario 1: Suppose that you are hosting a website in an Amazon S3 bucket named website as described in Hosting a Static Website on Amazon S3. Your users load the website endpoint http://website.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com. Now you want to use JavaScript on the webpages that are stored in this bucket to be able to make authenticated GET and PUT requests against the same bucket by using the Amazon S3 API endpoint for the bucket, website.s3.amazonaws.com. A browser would normally block JavaScript from allowing those requests, but with CORS you can configure your bucket to explicitly enable cross-origin requests from website.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com.

Scenario 2: Suppose that you want to host a web font from your S3 bucket. Again, browsers require a CORS check (also called a preight check) for loading web fonts. You would configure the bucket that is hosting the web font to allow any origin to make these requests.

Reference: Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)


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Q42: Your mobile application includes a photo-sharing service that is expecting tens of thousands of users at launch. You will leverage Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) for storage of the user Images, and you must decide how to authenticate and authorize your users for access to these images. You also need to manage the storage of these images. Which two of the following approaches should you use? Choose two answers from the options below

  • A. Create an Amazon S3 bucket per user, and use your application to generate the S3 URL for the appropriate content.
  • B. Use AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) user accounts as your application-level user database, and offload the burden of authentication from your application code.
  • C. Authenticate your users at the application level, and use AWS Security Token Service (STS)to grant token-based authorization to S3 objects.
  • D. Authenticate your users at the application level, and send an SMS token message to the user. Create an Amazon S3 bucket with the same name as the SMS message token, and move the user’s objects to that bucket.


Answer- C
The AWS Security Token Service (STS) is a web service that enables you to request temporary, limited-privilege credentials for AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) users or for users that you authenticate (federated users). The token can then be used to grant access to the objects in S3.
You can then provides access to the objects based on the key values generated via the user id.

Reference: The AWS Security Token Service (STS)


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Q43: Your current log analysis application takes more than four hours to generate a report of the top 10 users of your web application. You have been asked to implement a system that can report this information in real time, ensure that the report is always up to date, and handle increases in the number of requests to your web application. Choose the option that is cost-effective and can fulfill the requirements.

  • A. Publish your data to CloudWatch Logs, and congure your application to Autoscale to handle the load on demand.
  • B. Publish your log data to an Amazon S3 bucket.  Use AWS CloudFormation to create an Auto Scaling group to scale your post-processing application which is congured to pull down your log les stored an Amazon S3
  • C. Post your log data to an Amazon Kinesis data stream, and subscribe your log-processing application so that is congured to process your logging data.
  • D. Create a multi-AZ Amazon RDS MySQL cluster, post the logging data to MySQL, and run a map reduce job to retrieve the required information on user counts.

Answer:


Answer – C
Amazon Kinesis makes it easy to collect, process, and analyze real-time, streaming data so you can get timely insights and react quickly to new information. Amazon Kinesis offers key capabilities to cost effectively process streaming data at any scale, along with the flexibility to choose the tools that best suit the requirements of your application. With Amazon Kinesis, you can ingest real-time data such as application logs, website clickstreams, IoT telemetry data, and more into your databases, data lakes and data warehouses, or build your own real-time applications using this data.
Reference: Amazon Kinesis

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Q44: You’ve been instructed to develop a mobile application that will make use of AWS services. You need to decide on a data store to store the user sessions. Which of the following would be an ideal data store for session management?

  • A. AWS Simple Storage Service
  • B. AWS DynamoDB
  • C. AWS RDS
  • D. AWS Redshift

Answer:


Answer – B
DynamoDB is a alternative solution which can be used for storage of session management. The latency of access to data is less , hence this can be used as a data store for session management
Reference: Scalable Session Handling in PHP Using Amazon DynamoDB

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Q45: Your application currently interacts with a DynamoDB table. Records are inserted into the table via the application. There is now a requirement to ensure that whenever items are updated in the DynamoDB primary table , another record is inserted into a secondary table. Which of the below feature should be used when developing such a solution?

  • A. AWS DynamoDB Encryption
  • B. AWS DynamoDB Streams
  • C. AWS DynamoDB Accelerator
  • D. AWSTable Accelerator


Answer – B
DynamoDB Streams Use Cases and Design Patterns This post describes some common use cases you might encounter, along with their design options and solutions, when migrating data from relational data stores to Amazon DynamoDB. We will consider how to manage the following scenarios:

  • How do you set up a relationship across multiple tables in which, based on the value of an item from one table, you update the item in a second table?
  • How do you trigger an event based on a particular transaction?
  • How do you audit or archive transactions?
  • How do you replicate data across multiple tables (similar to that of materialized views/streams/replication in relational data stores)?

Relational databases provide native support for transactions, triggers, auditing, and replication. Typically, a transaction in a database refers to performing create, read, update, and delete (CRUD) operations against multiple tables in a block. A transaction can have only two states—success or failure. In other words, there is no partial completion. As a NoSQL database, DynamoDB is not designed to support transactions. Although client-side libraries are available to mimic the transaction capabilities, they are not scalable and cost-effective. For example, the Java Transaction Library for DynamoDB creates 7N+4 additional writes for every write operation. This is partly because the library holds metadata to manage the transactions to ensure that it’s consistent and can be rolled back before commit. You can use DynamoDB Streams to address all these use cases. DynamoDB Streams is a powerful service that you can combine with other AWS services to solve many similar problems. When enabled, DynamoDB Streams captures a time-ordered sequence of item-level modifications in a DynamoDB table and durably stores the information for up to 24 hours. Applications can access a series of stream records, which contain an item change, from a DynamoDB stream in near real time. AWS maintains separate endpoints for DynamoDB and DynamoDB Streams. To work with database tables and indexes, your application must access a DynamoDB endpoint. To read and process DynamoDB Streams records, your application must access a DynamoDB Streams endpoint in the same Region. All of the other options are incorrect since none of these would meet the core requirement.
Reference: DynamoDB Streams Use Cases and Design Patterns


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Q46: An application has been making use of AWS DynamoDB for its back-end data store. The size of the table has now grown to 20 GB , and the scans on the table are causing throttling errors. Which of the following should now be implemented to avoid such errors?

  • A. Large Page size
  • B. Reduced page size
  • C. Parallel Scans
  • D. Sequential scans

Answer – B
When you scan your table in Amazon DynamoDB, you should follow the DynamoDB best practices for avoiding sudden bursts of read activity. You can use the following technique to minimize the impact of a scan on a table’s provisioned throughput. Reduce page size Because a Scan operation reads an entire page (by default, 1 MB), you can reduce the impact of the scan operation by setting a smaller page size. The Scan operation provides a Limit parameter that you can use to set the page size for your request. Each Query or Scan request that has a smaller page size uses fewer read operations and creates a “pause” between each request. For example, suppose that each item is 4 KB and you set the page size to 40 items. A Query request would then consume only 20 eventually consistent read operations or 40 strongly consistent read operations. A larger number of smaller Query or Scan operations would allow your other critical requests to succeed without throttling.
Reference1: Rate-Limited Scans in Amazon DynamoDB

Reference2: Best Practices for Querying and Scanning Data


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Q47: Which of the following is correct way of passing a stage variable to an HTTP URL ? (Select TWO.)

  • A. http://example.com/${}/prod
  • B. http://example.com/${stageVariables.}/prod
  • C. http://${stageVariables.}.example.com/dev/operation
  • D. http://${stageVariables}.example.com/dev/operation
  • E. http://${}.example.com/dev/operation
  • F. http://example.com/${stageVariables}/prod


Answer – B. and C.
A stage variable can be used as part of HTTP integration URL as in following cases, ·         A full URI without protocol ·         A full domain ·         A subdomain ·         A path ·         A query string In the above case , option B & C displays stage variable as a path & sub-domain.
Reference: Amazon API Gateway Stage Variables Reference

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Q48: Your company is planning on creating new development environments in AWS. They want to make use of their existing Chef recipes which they use for their on-premise configuration for servers in AWS. Which of the following service would be ideal to use in this regard?

  • A. AWS Elastic Beanstalk
  • B. AWS OpsWork
  • C. AWS Cloudformation
  • D. AWS SQS


Answer – B
AWS OpsWorks is a configuration management service that provides managed instances of Chef and Puppet. Chef and Puppet are automation platforms that allow you to use code to automate the configurations of your servers. OpsWorks lets you use Chef and Puppet to automate how servers are configured, deployed, and managed across your Amazon EC2 instances or on-premises compute environments All other options are invalid since they cannot be used to work with Chef recipes for configuration management.
Reference: AWS OpsWorks

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Q49: Your company has developed a web application and is hosting it in an Amazon S3 bucket configured for static website hosting. The users can log in to this app using their Google/Facebook login accounts. The application is using the AWS SDK for JavaScript in the browser to access data stored in an Amazon DynamoDB table. How can you ensure that API keys for access to your data in DynamoDB are kept secure?

  • A. Create an Amazon S3 role in IAM with access to the specific DynamoDB tables, and assign it to the bucket hosting your website
  • B. Configure S3 bucket tags with your AWS access keys for your bucket hosing your website so that the application can query them for access.
  • C. Configure a web identity federation role within IAM to enable access to the correct DynamoDB resources and retrieve temporary credentials
  • D. Store AWS keys in global variables within your application and configure the application to use these credentials when making requests.


Answer – C
With web identity federation, you don’t need to create custom sign-in code or manage your own user identities. Instead, users of your app can sign in using a well-known identity provider (IdP) —such as Login with Amazon, Facebook, Google, or any other OpenID Connect (OIDC)-compatible IdP, receive an authentication token, and then exchange that token for temporary security credentials in AWS that map to an IAM role with permissions to use the resources in your AWS account. Using an IdP helps you keep your AWS account secure, because you don’t have to embed and distribute long-term security credentials with your application. Option A is invalid since Roles cannot be assigned to S3 buckets Options B and D are invalid since the AWS Access keys should not be used
Reference: About Web Identity Federation

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Q50: Your application currently makes use of AWS Cognito for managing user identities. You want to analyze the information that is stored in AWS Cognito for your application. Which of the following features of AWS Cognito should you use for this purpose?

  • A. Cognito Data
  • B. Cognito Events
  • C. Cognito Streams
  • D. Cognito Callbacks


Answer – C
Amazon Cognito Streams gives developers control and insight into their data stored in Amazon Cognito. Developers can now configure a Kinesis stream to receive events as data is updated and synchronized. Amazon Cognito can push each dataset change to a Kinesis stream you own in real time. All other options are invalid since you should use Cognito Streams
Reference:

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Q51: You’ve developed a set of scripts using AWS Lambda. These scripts need to access EC2 Instances in a VPC. Which of the following needs to be done to ensure that the AWS Lambda function can access the resources in the VPC. Choose 2 answers from the options given below

  • A. Ensure that the subnet ID’s are mentioned when conguring the Lambda function
  • B. Ensure that the NACL ID’s are mentioned when conguring the Lambda function
  • C. Ensure that the Security Group ID’s are mentioned when conguring the Lambda function
  • D. Ensure that the VPC Flow Log ID’s are mentioned when conguring the Lambda function


Answer: A and C.
AWS Lambda runs your function code securely within a VPC by default. However, to enable your Lambda function to access resources inside your private VPC, you must provide additional VPCspecific configuration information that includes VPC subnet IDs and security group IDs. AWS Lambda uses this information to set up elastic network interfaces (ENIs) that enable your function to connect securely to other resources within your private VPC.
Reference: Configuring a Lambda Function to Access Resources in an Amazon VPC

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Q52: You’ve currently been tasked to migrate an existing on-premise environment into Elastic Beanstalk. The application does not make use of Docker containers. You also can’t see any relevant environments in the beanstalk service that would be suitable to host your application. What should you consider doing in this case?

  • A. Migrate your application to using Docker containers and then migrate the app to the Elastic Beanstalk environment.
  • B. Consider using Cloudformation to deploy your environment to Elastic Beanstalk
  • C. Consider using Packer to create a custom platform
  • D. Consider deploying your application using the Elastic Container Service


Answer – C
Elastic Beanstalk supports custom platforms. A custom platform is a more advanced customization than a Custom Image in several ways. A custom platform lets you develop an entire new platform from scratch, customizing the operating system, additional software, and scripts that Elastic Beanstalk runs on platform instances. This flexibility allows you to build a platform for an application that uses a language or other infrastructure software, for which Elastic Beanstalk doesn’t provide a platform out of the box. Compare that to custom images, where you modify an AMI for use with an existing Elastic Beanstalk platform, and Elastic Beanstalk still provides the platform scripts and controls the platform’s software stack. In addition, with custom platforms you use an automated, scripted way to create and maintain your customization, whereas with custom images you make the changes manually over a running instance. To create a custom platform, you build an Amazon Machine Image (AMI) from one of the supported operating systems—Ubuntu, RHEL, or Amazon Linux (see the flavor entry in Platform.yaml File Format for the exact version numbers)—and add further customizations. You create your own Elastic Beanstalk platform using Packer, which is an open-source tool for creating machine images for many platforms, including AMIs for use with Amazon EC2. An Elastic Beanstalk platform comprises an AMI configured to run a set of software that supports an application, and metadata that can include custom configuration options and default configuration option settings.
Reference: AWS Elastic Beanstalk Custom Platforms

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Q53: Company B is writing 10 items to the Dynamo DB table every second. Each item is 15.5Kb in size. What would be the required provisioned write throughput for best performance? Choose the correct answer from the options below.

  • A. 10
  • B. 160
  • C. 155
  • D. 16


Answer – B.
Company B is writing 10 items to the Dynamo DB table every second. Each item is 15.5Kb in size. What would be the required provisioned write throughput for best performance? Choose the correct answer from the options below.
Reference: Read/Write Capacity Mode

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Q54: Which AWS Service can be used to automatically install your application code onto EC2, on premises systems and Lambda?

  • A. CodeCommit
  • B. X-Ray
  • C. CodeBuild
  • D. CodeDeploy


Answer: D

Reference: AWS CodeDeploy


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Q55: Which AWS service can be used to compile source code, run tests and package code?

  • A. CodePipeline
  • B. CodeCommit
  • C. CodeBuild
  • D. CodeDeploy


Answer: D

Reference: AWS CodeDeploy Answer: B.

Reference: AWS CodeBuild


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Q56: How can your prevent CloudFormation from deleting your entire stack on failure? (Choose 2)

  • A. Set the Rollback on failure radio button to No in the CloudFormation console
  • B. Set Termination Protection to Enabled in the CloudFormation console
  • C. Use the –disable-rollback flag with the AWS CLI
  • D. Use the –enable-termination-protection protection flag with the AWS CLI

Answer: A. and C.

Reference: Protecting a Stack From Being Deleted

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Q57: Which of the following practices allows multiple developers working on the same application to merge code changes frequently, without impacting each other and enables the identification of bugs early on in the release process?

  • A. Continuous Integration
  • B. Continuous Deployment
  • C. Continuous Delivery
  • D. Continuous Development

Answer: A

Reference: What is Continuous Integration?

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Q58: When deploying application code to EC2, the AppSpec file can be written in which language?

  • A. JSON
  • B. JSON or YAML
  • C. XML
  • D. YAML

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Q59: Part of your CloudFormation deployment fails due to a mis-configuration, by defaukt what will happen?

  • A. CloudFormation will rollback only the failed components
  • B. CloudFormation will rollback the entire stack
  • C. Failed component will remain available for debugging purposes
  • D. CloudFormation will ask you if you want to continue with the deployment

Answer: B

Reference: Troubleshooting AWS CloudFormation


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Q60: You want to receive an email whenever a user pushes code to CodeCommit repository, how can you configure this?

  • A. Create a new SNS topic and configure it to poll for CodeCommit eveents. Ask all users to subscribe to the topic to receive notifications
  • B. Configure a CloudWatch Events rule to send a message to SES which will trigger an email to be sent whenever a user pushes code to the repository.
  • C. Configure Notifications in the console, this will create a CloudWatch events rule to send a notification to a SNS topic which will trigger an email to be sent to the user.
  • D. Configure a CloudWatch Events rule to send a message to SQS which will trigger an email to be sent whenever a user pushes code to the repository.

Answer: C

Reference: Getting Started with Amazon SNS


Top

Q61: Which AWS service can be used to centrally store and version control your application source code, binaries and libraries

  • A. CodeCommit
  • B. CodeBuild
  • C. CodePipeline
  • D. ElasticFileSystem

Answer: A

Reference: AWS CodeCommit


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Q62: You are using CloudFormation to create a new S3 bucket, which of the following sections would you use to define the properties of your bucket?

  • A. Conditions
  • B. Parameters
  • C. Outputs
  • D. Resources

Answer: D

Reference: Resources


Top

Q63: You are deploying a number of EC2 and RDS instances using CloudFormation. Which section of the CloudFormation template would you use to define these?

  • A. Transforms
  • B. Outputs
  • C. Resources
  • D. Instances

Answer: C.
The Resources section defines your resources you are provisioning. Outputs is used to output user defines data relating to the reources you have built and can also used as input to another CloudFormation stack. Transforms is used to reference code located in S3.
Reference: Resources

Top

Q64: Which AWS service can be used to fully automate your entire release process?

  • A. CodeDeploy
  • B. CodePipeline
  • C. CodeCommit
  • D. CodeBuild

Answer: B.
AWS CodePipeline is a fully managed continuous delivery service that helps you automate your release pipelines for fast and reliable application and infrastructure updates

Reference: AWS CodePipeline


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Q65: You want to use the output of your CloudFormation stack as input to another CloudFormation stack. Which sections of the CloudFormation template would you use to help you configure this?

  • A. Outputs
  • B. Transforms
  • C. Resources
  • D. Exports

Answer: A.
Outputs is used to output user defines data relating to the reources you have built and can also used as input to another CloudFormation stack.
Reference: CloudFormation Outputs

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Q66: You have some code located in an S3 bucket that you want to reference in your CloudFormation template. Which section of the template can you use to define this?

  • A. Inputs
  • B. Resources
  • C. Transforms
  • D. Files

Answer: C.
Transforms is used to reference code located in S3 and also specififying the use of the Serverless Application Model (SAM) for Lambda deployments.
Reference: Transforms

Top

Q67: You are deploying an application to a number of Ec2 instances using CodeDeploy. What is the name of the file
used to specify source files and lifecycle hooks?

  • A. buildspec.yml
  • B. appspec.json
  • C. appspec.yml
  • D. buildspec.json

Answer: C.

Reference: CodeDeploy AppSpec File Reference

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Q68: Which of the following approaches allows you to re-use pieces of CloudFormation code in multiple templates, for common use cases like provisioning a load balancer or web server?

  • A. Share the code using an EBS volume
  • B. Copy and paste the code into the template each time you need to use it
  • C. Use a cloudformation nested stack
  • D. Store the code you want to re-use in an AMI and reference the AMI from within your CloudFormation template.

Answer: C.

Reference: Working with Nested Stacks

Top

Q69: In the CodeDeploy AppSpec file, what are hooks used for?

  • A. To reference AWS resources that will be used during the deployment
  • B. Hooks are reserved for future use
  • C. To specify files you want to copy during the deployment.
  • D. To specify, scripts or function that you want to run at set points in the deployment lifecycle

Answer: D.
The ‘hooks’ section for an EC2/On-Premises deployment contains mappings that link deployment lifecycle event hooks to one or more scripts.

Reference: AppSpec ‘hooks’ Section

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Q70: Which command can you use to encrypt a plain text file using CMK?

  • A. aws kms-encrypt
  • B. aws iam encrypt
  • C. aws kms encrypt
  • D. aws encrypt

Answer: C.
aws kms encrypt –key-id 1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab –plaintext fileb://ExamplePlaintextFile –output text –query CiphertextBlob > C:\Temp\ExampleEncryptedFile.base64

Reference: AWS CLI Encrypt

Top

Q72: Which of the following is an encrypted key used by KMS to encrypt your data

  • A. Custmoer Mamaged Key
  • B. Encryption Key
  • C. Envelope Key
  • D. Customer Master Key

Answer: C.
Your Data key also known as the Enveloppe key is encrypted using the master key.This approach is known as Envelope encryption.
Envelope encryption is the practice of encrypting plaintext data with a data key, and then encrypting the data key under another key.

Reference: Envelope Encryption

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Q73: Which of the following statements are correct? (Choose 2)

  • A. The Customer Master Key is used to encrypt and decrypt the Envelope Key or Data Key
  • B. The Envelope Key or Data Key is used to encrypt and decrypt plain text files.
  • C. The envelope Key or Data Key is used to encrypt and decrypt the Customer Master Key.
  • D. The Customer MasterKey is used to encrypt and decrypt plain text files.

Answer: A. and B.

Reference: AWS Key Management Service Concepts

Top

 
 

Q74: Which of the following statements is correct in relation to kMS/ (Choose 2)

  • A. KMS Encryption keys are regional
  • B. You cannot export your customer master key
  • C. You can export your customer master key.
  • D. KMS encryption Keys are global

Answer: A. and B.

Reference: AWS Key Management Service FAQs

Q75:  A developer is preparing a deployment package for a Java implementation of an AWS Lambda function. What should the developer include in the deployment package? (Select TWO.)
A. Compiled application code
B. Java runtime environment
C. References to the event sources
D. Lambda execution role
E. Application dependencies


Answer: C. E.
Notes: To create a Lambda function, you first create a Lambda function deployment package. This package is a .zip or .jar file consisting of your code and any dependencies.
Reference: Lambda deployment packages.

Q76: A developer uses AWS CodeDeploy to deploy a Python application to a fleet of Amazon EC2 instances that run behind an Application Load Balancer. The instances run in an Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group across multiple Availability Zones. What should the developer include in the CodeDeploy deployment package?
A. A launch template for the Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group
B. A CodeDeploy AppSpec file
C. An EC2 role that grants the application access to AWS services
D. An IAM policy that grants the application access to AWS services


Answer: B.
Notes: The CodeDeploy AppSpec (application specific) file is unique to CodeDeploy. The AppSpec file is used to manage each deployment as a series of lifecycle event hooks, which are defined in the file.
Reference: CodeDeploy application specification (AppSpec) files.
Category: Deployment

Q76: A company is working on a project to enhance its serverless application development process. The company hosts applications on AWS Lambda. The development team regularly updates the Lambda code and wants to use stable code in production. Which combination of steps should the development team take to configure Lambda functions to meet both development and production requirements? (Select TWO.)

A. Create a new Lambda version every time a new code release needs testing.
B. Create two Lambda function aliases. Name one as Production and the other as Development. Point the Production alias to a production-ready unqualified Amazon Resource Name (ARN) version. Point the Development alias to the $LATEST version.
C. Create two Lambda function aliases. Name one as Production and the other as Development. Point the Production alias to the production-ready qualified Amazon Resource Name (ARN) version. Point the Development alias to the variable LAMBDA_TASK_ROOT.
D. Create a new Lambda layer every time a new code release needs testing.
E. Create two Lambda function aliases. Name one as Production and the other as Development. Point the Production alias to a production-ready Lambda layer Amazon Resource Name (ARN). Point the Development alias to the $LATEST layer ARN.


Answer: A. B.
Notes: Lambda function versions are designed to manage deployment of functions. They can be used for code changes, without affecting the stable production version of the code. By creating separate aliases for Production and Development, systems can initiate the correct alias as needed. A Lambda function alias can be used to point to a specific Lambda function version. Using the functionality to update an alias and its linked version, the development team can update the required version as needed. The $LATEST version is the newest published version.
Reference: Lambda function versions.

For more information about Lambda layers, see Creating and sharing Lambda layers.

For more information about Lambda function aliases, see Lambda function aliases.

Category: Deployment

Q77: Each time a developer publishes a new version of an AWS Lambda function, all the dependent event source mappings need to be updated with the reference to the new version’s Amazon Resource Name (ARN). These updates are time consuming and error-prone. Which combination of actions should the developer take to avoid performing these updates when publishing a new Lambda version? (Select TWO.)
A. Update event source mappings with the ARN of the Lambda layer.
B. Point a Lambda alias to a new version of the Lambda function.
C. Create a Lambda alias for each published version of the Lambda function.
D. Point a Lambda alias to a new Lambda function alias.
E. Update the event source mappings with the Lambda alias ARN.


Answer: B. E.
Notes: A Lambda alias is a pointer to a specific Lambda function version. Instead of using ARNs for the Lambda function in event source mappings, you can use an alias ARN. You do not need to update your event source mappings when you promote a new version or roll back to a previous version.
Reference: Lambda function aliases.
Category: Deployment

Q78:  A company wants to store sensitive user data in Amazon S3 and encrypt this data at rest. The company must manage the encryption keys and use Amazon S3 to perform the encryption. How can a developer meet these requirements?
A. Enable default encryption for the S3 bucket by using the option for server-side encryption with customer-provided encryption keys (SSE-C).
B. Enable client-side encryption with an encryption key. Upload the encrypted object to the S3 bucket.
C. Enable server-side encryption with Amazon S3 managed encryption keys (SSE-S3). Upload an object to the S3 bucket.
D. Enable server-side encryption with customer-provided encryption keys (SSE-C). Upload an object to the S3 bucket.


Answer: D.
Notes: When you upload an object, Amazon S3 uses the encryption key you provide to apply AES-256 encryption to your data and removes the encryption key from memory.
Reference: Protecting data using server-side encryption with customer-provided encryption keys (SSE-C).

Category: Security

Q79: A company is developing a Python application that submits data to an Amazon DynamoDB table. The company requires client-side encryption of specific data items and end-to-end protection for the encrypted data in transit and at rest. Which combination of steps will meet the requirement for the encryption of specific data items? (Select TWO.)

A. Generate symmetric encryption keys with AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS).
B. Generate asymmetric encryption keys with AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS).
C. Use generated keys with the DynamoDB Encryption Client.
D. Use generated keys to configure DynamoDB table encryption with AWS managed customer master keys (CMKs).
E. Use generated keys to configure DynamoDB table encryption with AWS owned customer master keys (CMKs).


Answer: A. C.
Notes: When the DynamoDB Encryption Client is configured to use AWS KMS, it uses a customer master key (CMK) that is always encrypted when used outside of AWS KMS. This cryptographic materials provider returns a unique encryption key and signing key for every table item. This method of encryption uses a symmetric CMK.
Reference: Direct KMS Materials Provider.
Category: Deployment

Q80: A company is developing a REST API with Amazon API Gateway. Access to the API should be limited to users in the existing Amazon Cognito user pool. Which combination of steps should a developer perform to secure the API? (Select TWO.)
A. Create an AWS Lambda authorizer for the API.
B. Create an Amazon Cognito authorizer for the API.
C. Configure the authorizer for the API resource.
D. Configure the API methods to use the authorizer.
E. Configure the authorizer for the API stage.


Answer: B. D.
Notes: An Amazon Cognito authorizer should be used for integration with Amazon Cognito user pools. In addition to creating an authorizer, you are required to configure an API method to use that authorizer for the API.
Reference: Control access to a REST API using Amazon Cognito user pools as authorizer.
Category: Security

Q81: A developer is implementing a mobile app to provide personalized services to app users. The application code makes calls to Amazon S3 and Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS). Which options can the developer use to authenticate the app users? (Select TWO.)
A. Authenticate to the Amazon Cognito identity pool directly.
B. Authenticate to AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) directly.
C. Authenticate to the Amazon Cognito user pool directly.
D. Federate authentication by using Login with Amazon with the users managed with AWS Security Token Service (AWS STS).
E. Federate authentication by using Login with Amazon with the users managed with the Amazon Cognito user pool.


Answer: C. E.
Notes: The Amazon Cognito user pool provides direct user authentication. The Amazon Cognito user pool provides a federated authentication option with third-party identity provider (IdP), including amazon.com.
Reference: Adding User Pool Sign-in Through a Third Party.
Category: Security

 
 

Q82: A company is implementing several order processing workflows. Each workflow is implemented by using AWS Lambda functions for each task. Which combination of steps should a developer follow to implement these workflows? (Select TWO.)
A. Define a AWS Step Functions task for each Lambda function.
B. Define a AWS Step Functions task for each workflow.
C. Write code that polls the AWS Step Functions invocation to coordinate each workflow.
D. Define an AWS Step Functions state machine for each workflow.
E. Define an AWS Step Functions state machine for each Lambda function.


Answer: A. D.
Notes: Step Functions is based on state machines and tasks. A state machine is a workflow. Tasks perform work by coordinating with other AWS services, such as Lambda. A state machine is a workflow. It can be used to express a workflow as a number of states, their relationships, and their input and output. You can coordinate individual tasks with Step Functions by expressing your workflow as a finite state machine, written in the Amazon States Language.
Reference: Getting Started with AWS Step Functions.

Category: Development

Q83: A company is migrating a web service to the AWS Cloud. The web service accepts requests by using HTTP (port 80). The company wants to use an AWS Lambda function to process HTTP requests. Which application design will satisfy these requirements?
A. Create an Amazon API Gateway API. Configure proxy integration with the Lambda function.
B. Create an Amazon API Gateway API. Configure non-proxy integration with the Lambda function.
C. Configure the Lambda function to listen to inbound network connections on port 80.
D. Configure the Lambda function as a target in the Application Load Balancer target group.


Answer: D.
Notes: Elastic Load Balancing supports Lambda functions as a target for an Application Load Balancer. You can use load balancer rules to route HTTP requests to a function, based on the path or the header values. Then, process the request and return an HTTP response from your Lambda function.
Reference: Using AWS Lambda with an Application Load Balancer.
Category: Development

Q84: A company is developing an image processing application. When an image is uploaded to an Amazon S3 bucket, a number of independent and separate services must be invoked to process the image. The services do not have to be available immediately, but they must process every image. Which application design satisfies these requirements?
A. Configure an Amazon S3 event notification that publishes to an Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) queue. Each service pulls the message from the same queue.
B. Configure an Amazon S3 event notification that publishes to an Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topic. Each service subscribes to the same topic.
C. Configure an Amazon S3 event notification that publishes to an Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) queue. Subscribe a separate Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topic for each service to an Amazon SQS queue.
D. Configure an Amazon S3 event notification that publishes to an Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topic. Subscribe a separate Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) queue for each service to the Amazon SNS topic.


Answer: D.
Notes: Each service can subscribe to an individual Amazon SQS queue, which receives an event notification from the Amazon SNS topic. This is a fanout architectural implementation.
Reference: Common Amazon SNS scenarios.
Category: Development

Q85: A developer wants to implement Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling for a Multi-AZ web application. However, the developer is concerned that user sessions will be lost during scale-in events. How can the developer store the session state and share it across the EC2 instances?
A. Write the sessions to an Amazon Kinesis data stream. Configure the application to poll the stream.
B. Publish the sessions to an Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topic. Subscribe each instance in the group to the topic.
C. Store the sessions in an Amazon ElastiCache for Memcached cluster. Configure the application to use the Memcached API.
D. Write the sessions to an Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volume. Mount the volume to each instance in the group.


Answer: C.
Notes: ElastiCache for Memcached is a distributed in-memory data store or cache environment in the cloud. It will meet the developer’s requirement of persistent storage and is fast to access.
Reference: What is Amazon ElastiCache for Memcached?

Category: Development

 
 
 

Q86: A developer is integrating a legacy web application that runs on a fleet of Amazon EC2 instances with an Amazon DynamoDB table. There is no AWS SDK for the programming language that was used to implement the web application. Which combination of steps should the developer perform to make an API call to Amazon DynamoDB from the instances? (Select TWO.)
A. Make an HTTPS POST request to the DynamoDB API endpoint for the AWS Region. In the request body, include an XML document that contains the request attributes.
B. Make an HTTPS POST request to the DynamoDB API endpoint for the AWS Region. In the request body, include a JSON document that contains the request attributes.
C. Sign the requests by using AWS access keys and Signature Version 4.
D. Use an EC2 SSH key to calculate Signature Version 4 of the request.
E. Provide the signature value through the HTTP X-API-Key header.


Answer: B. C.
Notes: The HTTPS-based low-level AWS API for DynamoDB uses JSON as a wire protocol format. When you send HTTP requests to AWS, you sign the requests so that AWS can identify who sent them. Requests are signed with your AWS access key, which consists of an access key ID and secret access key. AWS supports two signature versions: Signature Version 4 and Signature Version 2. AWS recommends the use of Signature Version 4.
Reference: Signing AWS API requests.
Category: Development

Q87: A developer has written several custom applications that read and write to the same Amazon DynamoDB table. Each time the data in the DynamoDB table is modified, this change should be sent to an external API. Which combination of steps should the developer perform to accomplish this task? (Select TWO.)
A. Configure an AWS Lambda function to poll the stream and call the external API.
B. Configure an event in Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events) that publishes the change to an Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (Amazon MSK) data stream.
C. Create a trigger in the DynamoDB table to publish the change to an Amazon Kinesis data stream.
D. Deliver the stream to an Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topic and subscribe the API to the topic.
E. Enable DynamoDB Streams on the table.


Answer: A. E.
Notes: If you enable DynamoDB Streams on a table, you can associate the stream Amazon Resource Name (ARN) with an Lambda function that you write. Immediately after an item in the table is modified, a new record appears in the table’s stream. Lambda polls the stream and invokes your Lambda function synchronously when it detects new stream records. You can enable DynamoDB Streams on a table to create an event that invokes an AWS Lambda function.
Reference: Tutorial: Process New Items with DynamoDB Streams and Lambda.
Category: Monitoring

 
 
 

Q88: A company is migrating the create, read, update, and delete (CRUD) functionality of an existing Java web application to AWS Lambda. Which minimal code refactoring is necessary for the CRUD operations to run in the Lambda function?
A. Implement a Lambda handler function.
B. Import an AWS X-Ray package.
C. Rewrite the application code in Python.
D. Add a reference to the Lambda execution role.


Answer: A.
Notes: Every Lambda function needs a Lambda-specific handler. Specifics of authoring vary between runtimes, but all runtimes share a common programming model that defines the interface between your code and the runtime code. You tell the runtime which method to run by defining a handler in the function configuration. The runtime runs that method. Next, the runtime passes in objects to the handler that contain the invocation event and context, such as the function name and request ID.
Reference: Getting started with Lambda.
Category: Refactoring

Top

Q89: A company plans to use AWS log monitoring services to monitor an application that runs on premises. Currently, the application runs on a recent version of Ubuntu Server and outputs the logs to a local file. Which combination of steps should a developer perform to accomplish this goal? (Select TWO.)
A. Update the application code to include calls to the agent API for log collection.
B. Install the Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) container agent on the server.
C. Install the unified Amazon CloudWatch agent on the server.
D. Configure the long-term AWS credentials on the server to enable log collection by the agent.
E. Attach an IAM role to the server to enable log collection by the agent.


Answer: C. D.
Notes: The unified CloudWatch agent needs to be installed on the server. Ubuntu Server 18.04 is one of the many supported operating systems. When you install the unified CloudWatch agent on an on-premises server, you will specify a named profile that contains the credentials of the IAM user.
Reference: Collecting metrics and logs from Amazon EC2 instances and on-premises servers with the CloudWatch agent.
Category: Monitoring

Q90: A developer wants to monitor invocations of an AWS Lambda function by using Amazon CloudWatch Logs. The developer added a number of print statements to the function code that write the logging information to the stdout stream. After running the function, the developer does not see any log data being generated. Why does the log data NOT appear in the CloudWatch logs?
A. The log data is not written to the stderr stream.
B. Lambda function logging is not automatically enabled.
C. The execution role for the Lambda function did not grant permissions to write log data to CloudWatch Logs.
D. The Lambda function outputs the logs to an Amazon S3 bucket.


Answer: C.
Notes: The function needs permission to call CloudWatch Logs. Update the execution role to grant the permission. You can use the managed policy of AWSLambdaBasicExecutionRole.
Reference: Troubleshoot execution issues in Lambda.
Category: Monitoting

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AWS Certified Developer Associate exam: Whitepapers

AWS has provided whitepapers to help you understand the technical concepts. Below are the recommended whitepapers for the AWS Certified Developer – Associate Exam.

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Online Training and Labs for AWS Certified Developer Associates Exam

The Cloud is the future: Get Certified now.
The AWS Certified Solution Architect Average Salary is: US $149,446/year. Get Certified with the App below:

 
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AWS Developer Associates Jobs

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AWS Certified Developer-Associate Exam info and details, How To:

The Cloud is the future: Get Certified now.
The AWS Certified Solution Architect Average Salary is: US $149,446/year. Get Certified with the App below:

 
#AWS #Developer #AWSCloud #DVAC01 #AWSDeveloper #AWSDev #Djamgatech
 
 
 
 
 
 

The AWS Certified Developer Associate exam is a multiple choice, multiple answer exam. Here is the Exam Overview:

  • Certification Name: AWS Certified Developer Associate.
  • Prerequisites for the Exam: None.
  • Exam Pattern: Multiple Choice Questions
  • The AWS Certified Developer-Associate Examination (DVA-C01) is a pass or fail exam. The examination is scored against a minimum standard established by AWS professionals guided by certification industry best practices and guidelines.
  • Your results for the examination are reported as a score from 100 – 1000, with a minimum passing score of 720.
  • Exam fees: US $150
  • Exam Guide on AWS Website
  • Available languages for tests: English, Japanese, Korean, Simplified Chinese
  • Read AWS whitepapers
  • Register for certification account here.
  • Prepare for Certification Here
  • Exam Content Outline

    Domain % of Examination
    Domain 1: Deployment (22%)
    1.1 Deploy written code in AWS using existing CI/CD pipelines, processes, and patterns.
    1.2 Deploy applications using Elastic Beanstalk.
    1.3 Prepare the application deployment package to be deployed to AWS.
    1.4 Deploy serverless applications
    22%
    Domain 2: Security (26%)
    2.1 Make authenticated calls to AWS services.
    2.2 Implement encryption using AWS services.
    2.3 Implement application authentication and authorization.
    26%
    Domain 3: Development with AWS Services (30%)
    3.1 Write code for serverless applications.
    3.2 Translate functional requirements into application design.
    3.3 Implement application design into application code.
    3.4 Write code that interacts with AWS services by using APIs, SDKs, and AWS CLI.
    30%
    Domain 4: Refactoring
    4.1 Optimize application to best use AWS services and features.
    4.2 Migrate existing application code to run on AWS.
    10%
    Domain 5: Monitoring and Troubleshooting (10%)
    5.1 Write code that can be monitored.
    5.2 Perform root cause analysis on faults found in testing or production.
    10%
    TOTAL 100%

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AWS Certified Developer Associate exam: Additional Information for reference

Below are some useful reference links that would help you to learn about AWS Certified Developer Associate Exam.

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The Cloud is the future: Get Certified now.
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Other Relevant and Recommended AWS Certifications

AWS Certification Exams Roadmap
AWS Certification Exams Roadmap

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The Cloud is the future: Get Certified now.
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Other AWS Facts and Summaries and Questions/Answers Dump

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AWS Certified Developer Associate exam: Whitepapers

AWS has provided whitepapers to help you understand the technical concepts. Below are the recommended whitepapers for the AWS Certified Developer – Associate Exam.

Top

 
#AWS #Developer #AWSCloud #DVAC01 #AWSDeveloper #AWSDev #Djamgatech
 
 
 
 
 

Online Training and Labs for AWS Certified Developer Associates Exam

The Cloud is the future: Get Certified now.
The AWS Certified Solution Architect Average Salary is: US $149,446/year. Get Certified with the App below:

 
#AWS #Developer #AWSCloud #DVAC01 #AWSDeveloper #AWSDev #Djamgatech
 
 
 
 
 

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AWS Developer Associates Jobs

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AWS Certified Developer-Associate Exam info and details, How To:

The Cloud is the future: Get Certified now.
The AWS Certified Solution Architect Average Salary is: US $149,446/year. Get Certified with the App below:

 
#AWS #Developer #AWSCloud #DVAC01 #AWSDeveloper #AWSDev #Djamgatech
 
 
 
 
 
 

The AWS Certified Developer Associate exam is a multiple choice, multiple answer exam. Here is the Exam Overview:

  • Certification Name: AWS Certified Developer Associate.
  • Prerequisites for the Exam: None.
  • Exam Pattern: Multiple Choice Questions
  • The AWS Certified Developer-Associate Examination (DVA-C01) is a pass or fail exam. The examination is scored against a minimum standard established by AWS professionals guided by certification industry best practices and guidelines.
  • Your results for the examination are reported as a score from 100 – 1000, with a minimum passing score of 720.
  • Exam fees: US $150
  • Exam Guide on AWS Website
  • Available languages for tests: English, Japanese, Korean, Simplified Chinese
  • Read AWS whitepapers
  • Register for certification account here.
  • Prepare for Certification Here
  • Exam Content Outline

    Domain % of Examination
    Domain 1: Deployment (22%)
    1.1 Deploy written code in AWS using existing CI/CD pipelines, processes, and patterns.
    1.2 Deploy applications using Elastic Beanstalk.
    1.3 Prepare the application deployment package to be deployed to AWS.
    1.4 Deploy serverless applications
    22%
    Domain 2: Security (26%)
    2.1 Make authenticated calls to AWS services.
    2.2 Implement encryption using AWS services.
    2.3 Implement application authentication and authorization.
    26%
    Domain 3: Development with AWS Services (30%)
    3.1 Write code for serverless applications.
    3.2 Translate functional requirements into application design.
    3.3 Implement application design into application code.
    3.4 Write code that interacts with AWS services by using APIs, SDKs, and AWS CLI.
    30%
    Domain 4: Refactoring
    4.1 Optimize application to best use AWS services and features.
    4.2 Migrate existing application code to run on AWS.
    10%
    Domain 5: Monitoring and Troubleshooting (10%)
    5.1 Write code that can be monitored.
    5.2 Perform root cause analysis on faults found in testing or production.
    10%
    TOTAL 100%

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In this AWS tutorial, we are going to discuss how we can make the best use of AWS services to build a highly scalable, and fault tolerant configuration of EC2 instances. The use of Load Balancers and Auto Scaling Groups falls under a number of best practices in AWS, including Performance Efficiency, Reliability and high availability.

Before we dive into this hands-on tutorial on how exactly we can build this solution, let’s have a brief recap on what an Auto Scaling group is, and what a Load balancer is.

Autoscaling group (ASG)

An Autoscaling group (ASG) is a logical grouping of instances which can scale up and scale down depending on pre-configured settings. By setting Scaling policies of your ASG, you can choose how many EC2 instances are launched and terminated based on your application’s load. You can do this based on manual, dynamic, scheduled or predictive scaling.

Elastic Load Balancer (ELB)

An Elastic Load Balancer (ELB) is a name describing a number of services within AWS designed to distribute traffic across multiple EC2 instances in order to provide enhanced scalability, availability, security and more. The particular type of Load Balancer we will be using today is an Application Load Balancer (ALB). The ALB is a Layer 7 Load Balancer designed to distribute HTTP/HTTPS traffic across multiple nodes – with added features such as TLS termination, Sticky Sessions and Complex routing configurations.

Getting Started

First of all, we open our AWS management console and head to the EC2 management console.

We scroll down on the left-hand side and select ‘Launch Templates’. A Launch Template is a configuration template which defines the settings for EC2 instances launched by the ASG.

Under Launch Templates, we will select “Create launch template”.

We specify the name ‘MyTestTemplate’ and use the same text in the description.

Under the ‘Auto Scaling guidance’ box, tick the box which says ‘Provide guidance to help me set up a template that I can use with EC2 Auto Scaling’ and scroll down to launch template contents.

When it comes to choosing our AMI (Amazon Machine Image) we can choose the Amazon Linux 2 under ‘Quick Start’.

The Amazon Linux 2 AMI is free tier eligible, and easy to use for our demonstration purposes.

Next, we select the ‘t2.micro’ under instance types, as this is also free tier eligible.

Under Network Settings, we create a new Security Group called ExampleSG in our default VPC, allowing HTTP access to everyone. It should look like this.

AWS Certified Developer Associate exam: Additional Information for reference

Below are some useful reference links that would help you to learn about AWS Certified Developer Associate Exam.

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The Cloud is the future: Get Certified now.
The AWS Certified Solution Architect Average Salary is: US $149,446/year. Get Certified with the App below:

 
#AWS #Developer #AWSCloud #DVAC01 #AWSDeveloper #AWSDev #Djamgatech
 
 
 
 
 

Other Relevant and Recommended AWS Certifications

AWS Certification Exams Roadmap
AWS Certification Exams Roadmap

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The Cloud is the future: Get Certified now.
The AWS Certified Solution Architect Average Salary is: US $149,446/year. Get Certified with the App below:

 
#AWS #Developer #AWSCloud #DVAC01 #AWSDeveloper #AWSDev #Djamgatech
 
 
 
 
 
 

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Other AWS Facts and Summaries and Questions/Answers Dump

AWS Developer Associate DVA-C01 Exam Prep

 
 
 

AWS Certifications Breaking News and Top Stories

  • Where to store intermediate file in lambda container
    by /u/mrtac96

    Hi, I have a process in which data is being store on disk before passing to next function. I am confused where should it be store. The two options in my mind is default directory `var/task` or i should store in 'var/tmp' I am using python container from aws lambda submitted by /u/mrtac96 [link] [comments]

  • Aws workspace for quick books desktop set up
    by /u/yevo_

    Iv been using aws for about 4 months primarily ec2,RDS and s3 but not familiar with workspaces. Basically I would like to put my quickbooks desktop enterprise on a windows machine where I can access it from anywhere as well as others within the organization. Is this doable with workspaces or has anyone ever done this? submitted by /u/yevo_ [link] [comments]

  • Elastic Beanstalk issue: ELB health is failing or not available for 1 out of 2 instances.
    by /u/zacmando

    I have a python app running in an elastic beanstalk environment. I have two instances launched however it seems that only one instance works at a time. I have an auto-scaling setup and would like for there to be 2 instances at any given moment, however, when the second instance is launched it gives the errors as shown in the photo. Any help is greatly appreciated! https://preview.redd.it/fk2t2k8leei91.png?width=2240&format=png&auto=webp&s=2fc0da6dd52062188dd8823e9168f3a36ba92c7f submitted by /u/zacmando [link] [comments]

  • Is it possible to create alarm by Log Events row data?
    by /u/Last_Rock_1533

    I mean when I received a new log event row data, I want to send a alarm if this row data meets my condition? submitted by /u/Last_Rock_1533 [link] [comments]

  • AWS S3 Bucket Question
    by /u/No-Introduction3839

    Do you need to have CLI in order to create directories in S3 bucket? If you don't how would you go about that? submitted by /u/No-Introduction3839 [link] [comments]

  • Git-sync sidecar and AWS ECS
    by /u/getafterit123

    submitted by /u/getafterit123 [link] [comments]

  • Stop a CloudFormation stack from deleting?
    by /u/Lhobbes64

    Question is as simple as it sounds... Once a Stack is in the DELETE_IN_PROGRESS status, is there nothing I can do? I know about termination protection, but if someone accidentally deleted a stack, could they stop it while it's happening? Thanks submitted by /u/Lhobbes64 [link] [comments]

  • is application pooling still relevant if lambda is used along with rds proxy?
    by /u/Exact-Yesterday-992

    is application pooling still relevant if lambda is used along with rds proxy? submitted by /u/Exact-Yesterday-992 [link] [comments]

  • CloudFront -> Global Accelerator
    by /u/twratl

    Hey all. I am considering options for how to move our app from single region to multi-region active-active. Today we have CloudFront -> ALB -> Fargate for our API. Also CF -> S3 for static/cacheable content. In reviewing CF details for multi-region it seems like the answer is latency based R53 DNS for the custom origin. Which is okay but doesn’t offer a lot of control over traffic flow. CloudFront is (for the near to mid term) likely something that will have to remain. Security response headers are being injected there and that is easier for us than app updates to handle response headers in Fargate. Also probably going to be using CF functions in the future too. And our WAF is associated with CF so we have a single entry/choke point. I have used GA in the past and know it pretty well. I am thinking of spinning up GA with endpoints of an ALB per region. Then use the GA DNS as the custom origin in CF. Leaving the S3 origin untouched. This would give us easy control over traffic flow (take a region out of service for maintenance as an example). I don’t have a specific need for the static anycast IPs that come with GA but it doesn’t hurt anything. Traffic flow would then be… Client -> CF -> GA (likely in the same POP I would imagine) -> regional ALB -> Fargate. Anyone have concerns/comments on this idea? What am I overlooking for forgetting about? Also want to point out in the future we may move from ALB to API Gateway for fronting the API. This will of course break the GA integration. Wondering is there is a way around that or if we go right back to latency based routing? submitted by /u/twratl [link] [comments]

  • Redirecting a root domain to another domain with Route53
    by /u/Apprehensive-War-238

    hey guys, I have a question about redirecting a domain to another domain on R53. I deployed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TceVJyTvjvQ and it was working fine. But this time when I want to redirect domain1.com to domain2.com , it take all the steps and the required configuration on S3 and R53 but it does not redirecting the traffic in practice. Do you have any idea or any AWS change that does not allow me to redirect the domains on S3+R53? Appreciate your help in advance! submitted by /u/Apprehensive-War-238 [link] [comments]

  • How do I run a Lambda every 6.4 minutes?
    by /u/samtin0x

    I want to schedule a lambda that runs every 384 epoch (6,4 min): MULTIPLES of 384 only: epoch_timestamp % 384 = 0 Do you know if there's a service that does this? I can run a Lambda every 6 minutes, but I might miss the window. submitted by /u/samtin0x [link] [comments]

  • How to migrate traffic between VPC ServiceEndpoints?
    by /u/cafe-y-leche

    Our service is in ECS-Fargate behind LB/TargetGroup and fronted by a VPC endpoint service with private DNS. I want to know that, if for some reason we need to re-build a new service stack (VPCSE, LB/TargetGroup, ECS service), what's the least intrusive way to shift the traffic over to the new VPCES? I mean our clients are sitting on their own VPC and connected to our VPCSE via privatelink, if I try to bring up a new VPCSE, they will need to create a new endpoint connection to us, but we don't want that, we want to slowly shift the traffic over without clients need to make any change. Is that possible? submitted by /u/cafe-y-leche [link] [comments]

  • AWS MSK: Do I have to use MSK Connect or can I self-manage a Kafka Connect instance?
    by /u/fatman859

    Hi I am building an application that uses Kafka to communicate between the different microservices. However, my funds are limited as it's more of a startup currently. I am looking into a managed kafka service so I don't have to deal with self-managing as I heard it can get complicated. I found AWS MSK and the pricing seems good but the pricing for MSK Connect (which is essentially Kafka Connect) is ridiculously expensive. I have many different microservices and topics with a sink connector for each topic to dump the data into their respective tables in each database and based on AWS's own calculations of using a single connector to dump data to amazon S3 (just the connector, no S3 storage costs) it comes out to $218. It wouldn't even be remotely feasible for me at this rate. My question is: Can I host my own instance of Kafka Connect and use it with AWS MSK so I don't have to pay for MSK Connect? Is that possible or does each connector that I add using my own instance get registered by the MSK Kafka broker and AWS will charge me for MSK Connect anyways? submitted by /u/fatman859 [link] [comments]

  • Query key condition not supported in DynamoDB
    by /u/kierancrown

    I'm attempting to set up my DynamoDB table so I can query the data via a rest API. My table has a partition key (id) which is a randomly generated ID, a sort key (name) and a List of strings (domain). I have also set up a global secondary index for the "name" field. I'm attempting to write a lambda that will search for items using both the name and possible search the domain array also. Is this possible? If so how do I set up the table as I'm currently getting this error: Query key condition not supported Here is my Lambda query code: async function query(tableName, searchTerm) { return new Promise((resolve, reject) => { const params = { IndexName: "nameIndex", ExpressionAttributeNames: { "#name": "name", }, ExpressionAttributeValues: { ":topic": { S: searchTerm }, }, KeyConditionExpression: "begins_with(#name, :topic)", TableName: tableName, }; ddb.query(params, (err, data) => { if (err) { reject(err); } else { console.log("Success", data.Items); resolve(data.Items); } }); }); } submitted by /u/kierancrown [link] [comments]

  • Trivy vs AWS Inspector
    by /u/LtMelon

    We are making a CICD pipeline and need to add container scanning. We are using Gitlab and the Trivy integration seems pretty straight forward. Does one provide a better scan than the other? I couldn't find much from Google comparing them. submitted by /u/LtMelon [link] [comments]

  • Best way to deploy low latency system with variable demand
    by /u/Salt-Amoeba-7255

    I'm deploying an API to AWS with variable demand (traffic can peak to 1000+ requests per second but is usually around 200 requests per second. The API interacts with a db (likely RDS with Postgres but considering Aurora) I was thinking of using AWS lambda however it turns out this might not be a good fit, my next thoughts were using ec2 instances behind a load balancer with auto scaling. For the db I'm thinking either RDS with read replicas and ElastiCache or Aurora. Are there any other more cost-effective and low latency options on AWS? submitted by /u/Salt-Amoeba-7255 [link] [comments]

  • Question: AWS Volumes
    by /u/Electrical_Dirt6618

    We are using GP3 volumes at 3000 IOPS. Some of my team members have complained about slow I/O speeds on their instances. After looking at their EBS volumes, I'm seeing "degraded I/O performance". I'm wondering what determines this, as it appears to be random. Sometimes I/O performance is normal on the same AMI, sometimes it's degraded. Does this performance depend on other AWS customers slowing down the cloud infrastructure? Would you recommend increasing the IOPS? submitted by /u/Electrical_Dirt6618 [link] [comments]

  • Lambda, s3 and concurrent trigger question
    by /u/w_savage

    If I have a lambda that is triggered based on a file being dropped in s3, but doesn't finish processing the data from the file before another file is dropped will it mess anything up? Basically I don't want to worry about my lambda not being triggered for that 2nd file since the first trigger hasn't finished yet. thanks submitted by /u/w_savage [link] [comments]

  • Ideas to interconnect AWS and GCP to reduce outbound cost
    by /u/Melodic_Pin19

    Hi!!We have an application running in AWS (in EC2) that connects to a third party app that lives in GCP. These apps communicate to each other using http (gzipped). In our side, it is a golang application. Right now we are paying a lot of money for data transfer out (Internet) to connect these two services. I'm wondering what connectivity alternatives can be suggested to reduce this cost. The services exchange not so big payloads (jsons) but a big amount of those per second. I can give more details as requested. ​ Thank you! submitted by /u/Melodic_Pin19 [link] [comments]

  • Can step functions assume roles in another account?
    by /u/MrDionysus

    I'm trying to automate account creation with automated resource creation, and my latest attempt on this front is to build a step function that does all the things. The basic flow in the step function would look like this: Create new child account with Organizations (Organizations: CreateAccount) Create some specific users, roles and S3 buckets in that account Use EC2 or Fargate to spin up a docker image that runs Terraform to implement the rest of my desired changes What I'm unaware of is in step 2, how do I grant access to the step function, which is running in the org master account, to create users/buckets/any resources in the new child account? My thought was that I'd have it assume the default "OrganizationAccountAccessRole", but I (and Google) can't find a way to tell the step function to sts:assumerole OrganizationAccountAccessRole. Is there a way to do that? Is there another solution to this problem that I'm overlooking? Thanks! submitted by /u/MrDionysus [link] [comments]

  • lambda vs EC2 for data access layer?
    by /u/autoboxer

    I'm trying to determine whether using lambdas or an EC2 instance is right for my use case. Here are the details: We're using a RDS t4g.small instance in production, and currently calls to the database are spread across all our code. I'm cleaning this up and creating a data access layer to prevent code duplication. I'd like the data access layer to be fast, but I know there are some limitations when working with RDS. With this instance size I believe 170 connections are allowed according to the AWS docs. Option 1 - EC2: I could set this up as a persistent server with Express or the like routing request to the correct functions. On the plus side, it would be easy (I think) to restrict the number of database connections and ensure I don't receive errors due to no more connections being available. On the downside, it's a single instance and may slow down when there's a burst in traffic. In addition, I'd be paying for the instance to always be up, and if there were ever an uncaught exception, the database would be offline until I brought the server back up. Option 2 - Lambda: I could set this up as a series of lambda functions, with each transaction type being an individual lambda. This would allow me to scale and provide very fast responses, even during high traffic bursts, however, with only 80 connections available, I'd need to manage connections to ensure errors aren't being thrown. There are some unknowns here for me. I'm looking into AWS proxy to allow connection pooling, and believe for my RDS instance type that would equate to roughly $25/month. I don't however know if there are other problems I haven't considered with this approach. I'm new to AWS and have a feeling there are some things I'm not considering. Based on the above information, would you choose one of the above options or recommend something else? submitted by /u/autoboxer [link] [comments]

  • Lambda vs EC2 for rate limited API calls?
    by /u/autoboxer

    I'm trying to determine whether using lambdas or an EC2 instance is right for my use case. Here are the details: ​ We fetch our data from an external source, process it, then store it in our database. For the external source, they allow a maximum of one request every 20ms, or 50 requests per second. Most of the processing that calls this system can be done asynchronously, and there are small bursts every 15 minutes along with larger bursts when we trigger a data fetch. Option 1 - EC2: I could set this up as a persistent server with Express or the like routing the requests to fetch the correct data from the provider. On the plus side, it would be very easy to throttle my requests to a max of one every 20ms. On the downside, it's a single instance that needs to handle burst traffic, and may slow down. In addition, I'd be paying for the instance to always be up, and if there were ever an uncaught exception, fetching our source data would be stopped until I brought the server back up. Option 2 - Lambda: I could set this up as a lambda function with a maximum scaling number of something like 5 to 10. No matter how I throttled each lambda function, I still couldn't ensure that two functions wouldn't fire a request within a 20ms period, as they're not aware of each other. When this happens, I'd receive a spike arrest error from the provider, and would need to add handling in my code to retry the call. On the plus side, I could save money with lambdas since the traffic bursts before falling off to nearly zero. On the downside, it would add a little complexity to my code and potentially upset the provider if they need to send me regular spike arrest errors. ​ I'm new to AWS and have a feeling there are some things I'm not considering. Based on the above information, would you choose one of the above options or recommend something else? submitted by /u/autoboxer [link] [comments]

  • EKS node t4g.medium has a pod limit of 11, but should be 17
    by /u/K3ndu

    This states that pod limit should be 17 for t4g.medium, but we are having a problem that it's 11. https://github.com/awslabs/amazon-eks-ami/blob/master/files/eni-max-pods.txt We have the vpc-cni installed on cluster with version v1.11.3-eksbuild.1. EKS itself is latest greatest 1.23 version. Anyone have any idea why we can't run more than 11 pods on it? submitted by /u/K3ndu [link] [comments]

  • Auto scaling group is unable to launch an instance
    by /u/Oxffff0000

    We found out our asg contains an ami that's been deleted. Can it be assigned a new ami image? submitted by /u/Oxffff0000 [link] [comments]

  • PSI vs Pearson Vue
    by /u/mastertza

    I’ve been studying to take the CCP soon in September. There’s currently a challenge going on where you get a 50% off voucher to test through PSI. Do you guys think the exam/questions would be the same? I’ve only ever tested with Pearson so I’m wondering if there’s a difference in difficulty or anything like that. submitted by /u/mastertza [link] [comments]

  • Are you ready? Developing your AWS Cloud security playbook for your organization
    by /u/goguppy

    Hi /r/AWS - I wanted to share a repository that I find many AWS Cloud consumers/engineers/architects/developers would find very useful: The AWS Customer Playbook Framework provides for varying scenarios and recommended response for security incidents within the AWS Cloud. After you digest the material and find any gap's, please contribute! Contributing to the Incident Response Playbooks Impostor Syndrome Disclaimer Before we get into the details: We want your help. No, really. There may be a little voice inside your head that is telling you that you're not ready to contribute to playbooks; that your skills aren't nearly good enough to contribute. What could you possibly offer a project like this one? We assure you -- the little voice in your head is wrong. If you can write code at all or have experience with incident response, then we need your contributions! Writing perfect playbooks isn't the measure of a good responder (that would disqualify all of us!); it's trying to create something, making mistakes, and learning from those mistakes. That's how we all improve. We've provided a clear playbook creation guide. This outlines the process that you'll need to follow to get a playbook developed and approved for use with Ziplines. By making expectations and process explicit, we hope it will make it easier for you to contribute. And you don't just have to write code. You can help out by writing documentation, tests, or even by giving feedback about this work. (And yes, that includes giving feedback about everything in this README) submitted by /u/goguppy [link] [comments]

  • More resources for practicing DOP-C01?
    by /u/phucpham1301

    From what I have seen, there are only 2 practice tests in TD and 1 practice test from Stephane. And course readinesses from both. Is this enough to take the exam or what should I read / practice more? submitted by /u/phucpham1301 [link] [comments]

  • Do I need to get my Cloud Practitioner?
    by /u/lmvicente_

    So I didn’t do much research before looking into the certificates and I kind of made a split-second decision before Barnes and Noble was selling a Solutions Architect Associate prep book for about $15 (usually $60) and I just acted on it. I started studying it and it isn’t like I don’t understand the material, but I am just on the first chapter where it’s talking about the different AWS services. Did I bite off more than I can chew? Should I opt to study for and get my Cloud Practitioner first? I have little to no experience with cloud computing or AWS. I just played with it a little bit but it is something I want to learn. submitted by /u/lmvicente_ [link] [comments]

  • How much shorter is the acantrill saa-C03 only course vs the combo SAA-C03 and SAA-C02 course?
    by /u/No-Text-619

    I am 11% of the way through the combo course but see that I have access to the SAA-C03 only course now. Is it worth switching to save some time? submitted by /u/No-Text-619 [link] [comments]

  • Passed the AWS Certified Solutions Architect Professional Exam SAP-C01
    by /u/cwringley76

    I passed the AWS Certified Solutions Architect Professional exam over the weekend. Before taking this exam, I have passed my DevOps exam and all other Associate exams (SAA, SysOps, CDA). I also tried taking the Advanced Networking BETA but I failed. Sharing my experience in taking the SAP-C01 exam: SAP-C01 Booking and Exam Experience I booked my online exam using Pearson Vue. Did all the required checks on my computer and I logged in about 40 minutes before my scheduled time. You will be prompted to get pictures of your surroundings like the view in front, behind, on the left and on the right of your laptop. This test is really as tough as it can be due to the following factors: Long scenarios consisting of about 3 to 4 short paragraphs Equally long options that may or may not be related with each other (e.g. select TWO or THREE options to build a certain solution) The options given are technically valid so you can't easily eliminate them Time pressure – answering 75 long questions under 3 hours SAP-C01 Study Resources Free Exam Readiness: AWS Certified Solutions Architect Professional Adrian Cantrill video course Jon Bonso SAP-C01 practice exams techstudyslack.com community SAP-C01 Exam Tips I'll echo on what I learned from Adrian Cantrill's course: you're time is limited so don't waste your time over-thinking in one question. 180 minutes is the time limit for this 75-question exam so 180/75, that means you only have 2.4 minutes for each question you encounter. 2.4 minutes only so you have to be really prepared. Another thing is to read the Official Exam Guide from cover to cover. My next target is the AWS Certified Advanced Networking Specialty. Good luck to every test takers! submitted by /u/cwringley76 [link] [comments]

  • where to start?
    by /u/eoyo1

    I passed the Ccna 2 months ago and wanted to start studying for the AWS cloud engineer certification and wanted to know which exam to take, what resources would be the best to use to study for the exam and how long it could take to be ready for the exam. Thank u. submitted by /u/eoyo1 [link] [comments]

  • Passed SAA cert
    by /u/saran72

    I just woke up to an email that I passed the SAA cert and I couldn’t believe my eyes. I was depressed the whole day yesterday knowing that I most likely failed the exam. I scored a 753 which is on the lower end but a pass is a pass. Guys if I can pass this, then everyone else got this! I made 20 page notes watching the Go Cloud Architects video on Youtube (Link: https://youtu.be/keoNi7MmAUY). Also, I practiced over 300 questions available on an IOS app by Trieu Tran which is very close to the exam, in fact, at least 15 of the questions on the exam were the same. However, there were many questions that I had no idea about which I genuinely had to just guess to the best of my ability using the elimination method. And so I would recommend everyone to do at least 500 practice questions over and over again until you don’t have a grasp of the topic. Lastly, AWS does a thing where they often ask questions about services that aren’t much talked about. For example, they’ll talk about services like SageMaker, Comprehend, or Rekognition and the questions I practiced never talked about them and I probably forgot the notes. On July 19, I took the AWS CCP exam after about 2 weeks of review, and so I had a discount on this and wanted to get the SAA before the Aug 29 last date for SAA-CO2. I studied a month for the SAA-CO2 exam and I think I was very stupid for doing that. I did take an AWS course last semester in college so I had minor experience with some of the services. Please let me know if anyone needs any other advice and Good luck!!!! You all will smash it! submitted by /u/saran72 [link] [comments]

  • Getting a job with Cloud Pracititoner + SAA certs? Salary range and country?
    by /u/Iguessilldomine

    Hi, wondering if anyone has managed to get a job with the two first certs and what role titles did you have? Salary and country would also be nice but a bonus. Thank you submitted by /u/Iguessilldomine [link] [comments]

  • Monolithic & Microservices Architecture
    by /u/Nitorblog

    submitted by /u/Nitorblog [link] [comments]

  • Passed SAA
    by /u/ShoT_UP

    Hi all, Woke up this morning to the SAA badge from Credly being sent at 5am when I took the exam at 3:45pm. Pleasantly surprised to say that I passed with an 833/1000. Somehow, I was certain I failed. I passed Cloud Practitioner on the 9th and HashiCorp Terraform Associate on the 5th. For all 3, I used courses found on YouTube uploaded to freeCodeCamp by Andrew Brown. Each video was 10-12 hours. I supplemented each one with practice exams found on Udemy. For the AWS certs, both were Jon Bonso. For cloud practitioner, my first 2 practice exams were in the 60s, 3 in the 70s, and 1 80. For SAA, I only took 3 exams. The first was 63 and the others were 82 & 84 (or something else in the early 80s range.) submitted by /u/ShoT_UP [link] [comments]

  • Solutions Architect Associate vs. Certified Developer Associate
    by /u/Lvu22

    Can someone tell me which one of these two certifications is more complex and hard to get? And how would you recommend take them? SAA first? How much preparation does these two certs require and how long did it took for you guys to take them? ​ Much appreciated for the responses submitted by /u/Lvu22 [link] [comments]

  • ANS-C01 Advanced Networking Kickstart - Exam Guide
    by /u/Kam-Agahian

    Quick update - My team of authors and contributors is almost done and the exam guide for the new ANS-C01 will be out next week in full color (paper and Kindle). The new edition covers ~20 chapters for an absolute impatient network engineer who wants to become a cloud network engineer. The team added quite a few new topics to the book including SD-WAN, Container networking and EKS load balancing, Global Accelerator and RAM. The book also includes tens of “exam tips” and 3 sets of full size mock exams updated based on the ANS-C01 blueprint. Once again, I appreciate everyone’s feedback, support and energy after we published the first edition and hope this new edition too satisfies the fans and readers. submitted by /u/Kam-Agahian [link] [comments]

  • Can I take 2 AWS certification in 1 week?
    by /u/TheWhizz-

    Hi, I have been preparing for SAA-C02 before it expires on 29th of august. Today my company offered a free voucher for Cloud practitioner(CLF-C01) so I was thinking of giving cloud practitioner before the big solution architect associate exam to get myself familiarise with proctored exam - PearsonVue. This is just to get some experience and avoid any mishaps in actual SAA-C02 exam. Can I take CLF-C01 at the start of week followed by SAA-02 on the weekend? Does AWS has any rule regarding this? I know there is rule which says that in case of failure, next attempt has to be after 14 days. Also, the cloud practitioner is a beginner level but does it still need any other preparation which is NOT covered under Solution architect associate level? This sounds bit stupid so I hope not 😛 submitted by /u/TheWhizz- [link] [comments]

  • Passed AWS Certified Developer Associate
    by /u/ppmfloss

    Resources used - practice tests and cheat sheets from https://tutorialsdojo.com/ - aws official docs submitted by /u/ppmfloss [link] [comments]

  • Is it worth the AWS Certified developer?
    by /u/amchacon

    I just passed the AWS Certified Architect Solutions (SAA-C02). Now I am looking the AWS Certified Developer, but it seems the course from /u/cantrill has the same content as Certified Architect? Am I missing something? Is it worth to have this certification at all? submitted by /u/amchacon [link] [comments]

  • cleared Solution Architect Associate
    by /u/dhaksr

    I cleared SAA over the weekend, with a score of 845. Thought of sharing my prep and tips for the exam Study Material: My company provides Udemy business access and so I had ton of AWS certification options available. Based on review count and ratings, I picked two. Stephen Maarek and plus another one (i dont wish to name this one, it had better ratings;-) I kept Stephen as backup and started with other one. I completed one chapter and mid way thru second chapter, I realized I dont have grasp on the network concepts and was finding it difficult to map the security on network setup. A little bit on my background, I have a strong Application architecture bg with good exposure to microservices, db design, app design. I was weak on infra side - and not well versed with hw, storage and nw. So i took a break and then started with Stephen course. I felt better but still i felt my basics on nw and storiage is going to haunt me. I googled a bit and found u/acantril. He had a free module on networking and that was exactly what I was looking at. I decided to buy his course and had to shell out my own money for a course. I picked up professional bundle together 🙂 My initial plan was to study and complete certification 2-3 months. But already I was now at end of first month and already sampled two courses. The course content offered by Cantrill was shocking to me. ABout 60 hours of video and then practice labs. But then you get hooked on how he setup the use case (still have a gripe about his cats - i am dog person) and the network setup he proposes. His course material answered lot of questions I had about n/w earlier. I put regular 1hr or 30 min on weekdays and few weekends thrown in. Then some work pressure took some toll. I took mini break and resumed after about 3 weeks. This is where the labs and my notes actually helped. I could remember items and didnt have to go back to redo my classes. Study tips: Jot down important points. I thought I will use the points to refresh later.. but I dint use this at all. (will tell bit later what I did to revise). However this noting down points helped in my memory recall. Labs: doing things on your own. Helps in understanding the concept and also helps in recalling some important points when answering questions. (I never had doubt about SG for allow and NACL for deny).. Cant thank enough Mr Cantrill for emphasising this. Some additional things I did: I observed that course used lot of cloud formation. Initially i just used the template provided. Then I noticed that there is cloud formation module towards the end. So I went ahead and finished that and came back to the normal course track. Now I had good understanding of how the automation was used in course content and now I could modify the cloud templates myself With my knowledge on cf templates, I started tweaking the steps mentioned in the lab. (Like changing name references or any cross references) I made mistakes. I learnt from troubleshooting, going thru event logs, cloud trail logs.. I got better understanding on how things work together than before I took longer than what I had originally planned. It was june and 6 months had passed. But I had new found confidence and felt that I was on right path. It was june. Just then I came to know that Aug 29 is end day for SAA C02. I thought i had enough time and still in relax mode Test preparation: I had subscribed to both Stephen and Other persons practice exams also (with corp subscription). So first I started with "Other persons" exam. I was shocked by the result. I got only 62% and failed. I panicked. I did a quick summary course walk thru of Stephan. (towards the end of each chapter). Then I tried Stephans test I cleared with 80+. I realised these were better worded than the first one. Then I took others suggestion and bought the Dojo tests (with my own money). I cleared the first test also. My revision strategy: After each test, I go thru the review provided. I go thru completely and even for correct ones, I review why the wrong choices are wrong. This gave me perspective of how the questions were worded and what key words to look far. I noted down which areas or chapters were weak or wrong or i had doubts. Initially, I was going thru cheatsheets provided by dojo or even Stephan material. I felt bit inadequate. Instead I strated googling and reading specific topics (for eg Route 53 vs Global accelerator gives you excellent results and read couple of top responses to master that topic). Stackoverflow also had some decent answers. Then I stumbled on AWS FAQs. Whichever areas were weak, I went thru the FAQs diligently. This took care of some of the trick questions in the practice tests. I dont think i faced any such in actual exam though. I took all 18 tests - ( 6 each from "Other person", Stephen and Dojo.). I passed only 1 test from Other person (72 marks once). I fared better with Stephan and Dojo tests. I was consistenly 80-85 with Dojo. I failed one in Dojo and 2 in Stephan tests. Still I felt confident, but then it was already August first week. I booked in-person test with Pearson with a slot in the next two days (Aug 12). Test center experience was smooth and I had no issues. I thought I will see result immediately. Test ended with a blank screen. The test was heavy for me in storage, compute. I think it sensed that i answered very quick for API gateway, ASG etc and didnt give that much to me. Few unprepared topics came on Lake formation. Otherwise it was a medium tough one. The Storage questions were ambiguous and I was certain one Q had two answers (I had to choose one though). FOr the first time, I used all the time alloted. I corrected a few choices in review and I think they turned to be correct. My results came around 23rd hour. I got a score of 845 and I was quiet happy. I must thank Adrian Cantrill for his excellent course. Now let me see if I should do Professional before november or pursue something else. submitted by /u/dhaksr [link] [comments]

  • Just cleared AWS security specialty certification! Check out this video for details on resources I used and three-week plan on how I passed this.
    by /u/longawaitedsuccess

    submitted by /u/longawaitedsuccess [link] [comments]

  • Passed The Solutions Architect Associate - SAA C02
    by /u/BravoSixRomeo

    Just saw in my AWS training certs account https://www.aws.training/Certification Resources: Stephane Maarek's Udemy Course, Stephane's Practice Tests, Whizlabs Practice Tests. How I prepared: I followed the same formula that most others here have followed successfully. 1) Take a video course and take notes 2) Take the full (65 question) practice tests. 3) Go back and review your weak areas then take more until you consistently score over 80% Advice: - The practice tests are KEY to passing the test. Don't skip them. - Allocate a good amount of time for the practice tests phase. If you are new to IT I'd give it at least 2 weeks. Practice tests seems like the easy part. They are not... They are difficult, take at least 1.25 to 1.5 hours+ each and take a lot out of you. To get the most out of them you want to go through every question you got wrong and fully understand why. - Do not let the practice tests give you false confidence in terms of time. They are great to prep you for it but they are not as hard as the actual exam test questions. I finished all practice tests with a minimum 30 minutes to spare. On the actual exam, no exaggeration, I clicked submit on the last question 0.5 seconds before the timer hit 0. The exam questions are overall longer, more in-depth and the answers are as well. So the additional reading alone will take you more time. - If you take Stephane's course and you're like me, after a few of them you'll be tempted to skip the hands on demo sections. Don't. In several of them he drops an "oh by the way the exam will ask you about this". And it did... Personal methods: I take notes on the slide deck. Stephane's course provides you the slide deck he goes through in the course so I just followed along and highlighted the important parts and took notes on the slide itself using Adobe Acrobat DC. Watch the course videos at 1.25 or 1.5 to save you time if you can keep up. Saves several hours overall. About the resources: I started taking Neal Davis' course as well and got though enough that I can say I agree with the comparison most others here make. Stephane's courses are designed to help you pass the test. Neal's will likely do the same but he goes more in depth. More about understanding the material. Stephane explains it clearly as well and he does hands on demos, but he is clearly geared towards preparing you for the exam, not the job. He "foot stomps" a lot when he hits on something that will be on the exam AND explains how they will likely try to trick you with the question. Stephane's practice tests were also better than Whiz Labs IMO. His practice tests are sold separately on Udemy as well. Stephanes were closer to the exam for me but only in the sense that they were harder than the Whiz Labs ones which I scored higher on consistently. submitted by /u/BravoSixRomeo [link] [comments]

  • Passed the Cloud Practitioner
    by /u/hawyee11

    Got an immediate pass after the exam. Haven’t received an email yet but I assume it’ll come tomorrow. Did this as an extra to use the voucher you get on my SAA exam. Fairly easy but not a cake walk. Lots of questions of architecture framework. I surprisingly didn’t get too many pricing questions. My prep for this was Tutorial Dojos practice exams. I am about 70% through Adrian Cantril’s SAA course. So I didn’t feel the need to take a course or do any other prep work. I think if you study for 1-3 weeks it’s a passable exam. submitted by /u/hawyee11 [link] [comments]

  • Reflections on Passing the AWS SAA Exam
    by /u/LoneLouie

    This past week I finally took, and passed with an 823, the AWS SAA 2022 exam. Here's what I experienced, for those who are looking for more information. Background: I have a decent foundation in networking and computer science, but limited formal work experience. Over the last few years I have, in a hobby capacity, used AWS for a very small deployment of a Django/Vue-based website. This gave me some exposure to AWS, but only a handful of the services (S3, EC2, RDS, Route 53) and in a very limited capacity. I have prior certs in A+, Network+, and Security+. However, by no means do I have the amount of experience that AWS recommends for taking the test. I have general knowledge, which helped when studying the material, but the test itself seemed more focused on AWS's applications of those technologies. Study Material: I read the AWS white papers, I read the Cybex AWS SAA guide, purchased Stephane Maarek's SAA course on Udemy, and purchased Jon Bonso's practice exam sets on Udemy. I also did AWS's short Coursera course for SAA prep, but that was worthless, and requires $49 to get a grade on the very simple exam at the end...taking that course to determine if you are ready is highly deceiving. It took me nearly 20 hours to read through the Cybex book, and while I felt the text was well-written, I found the practice exams to be frustrating and intentionally tricky. It was good to use them as a gauge of my retention, but the explanations were often so poor that I couldn't really use them to support learning. Maarek's course is a great deal if you can get the discount for <$19. This course is great for exam prep, but it should really be used for exam prep, not for foundational learning. I found it hard to concentrate on the videos at times, and maybe it's just because many of the videos were designed as exam review as opposed to concept instruction. Either way, an exceptional value if you can get the discount. Jon Bonso's exams are right on the money; the length and scope of the questions very much mirror the AWS SAA exam. The exam review explanations are quite outstanding, and can really help you to understand what you missed and why. My only complaint is that some of the grammar and pronoun usage in the question stems were a bit off, and I would encourage Jon to hire an editor. Study Progression: I spent roughly 2 months studying for an average of 1 hour per day. I watched Maarek's videos, read the Cybex book, and read the white papers. In the final 2 weeks, I purchased Bonso's exams and intensified my focus, working through his exams until i averaged about 85%+. Test Proctoring Experience: Ugh. I did Pearson Vue online, and I had an incredibly frustrating experience with the off-shore proctoring. I did all of the systems tests a day in advance and the day off. I used a wired ethernet connections to a 1Gbps fiber connection to Verizon. After waiting for 40 minutes in a long queue (despite checking in 30 minutes early), the proctor told me that my video was choppy and forced me to close my Pearson software and restart it. This put be back at the end of the queue, to wait another 30 minutes. The second proctor suggested that my video was choppy, but they both were likely coming from a call center in Asia, and it was quite likely the connection at their end, not mine. (note that I did this test very early on a Sunday morning, so it was unlikely that my proctors would be Stateside...also unlikely that i would experience network congestion here). Anyway, I finally was allowed to test, but the whole time I was panicking and afraid that something would happen with the connection. MY ADVICE: Just go to a testing center if you can...I would have saved myself time and stress that way. The Test Itself: Most questions were a few sentences long, roughly the same length as Bonso's, or maybe slightly shorter. They were almost always scenario-based. Having a tech background (e.g. networks) helps a little bit, but you really need to know AWS services for the vast majority of the questions. A good percentage of them were Choose Two, which are (imho) always harder, so be prepared. You can mark questions for review at the end, and I highly suggest you do. Don't dwell too long on a question if you aren't sure; mark it for review and move on to ensure that you get through the test. There were easy questions and hard questions, but there was no rhyme or reason to the order, so the last several questions *could* be easier for you. I made it through the first pass with about 40 minutes to spare, then spent those 40 minutes going over the 10-15 questions that I marked for review. At the end of the test, I was given a survey, but no information about my score, or when I would receive it. That was quite frustrating. Luckily for me, 18 hours later I received an email from Amazon saying that I passed. Hindsight: If I were to do this over again, I probably would have also bought Cantrill's AWS SAA course. Although it is much lengthier than Maarek's, I feel it would be essential for anyone who does not have much working experience with AWS. At only $40, I feel that it is a steal. I would have done that course first, pacing myself over a couple/few months. I would have then probably done Bonso's exams, and based on the deficiencies I identified through those, I would use Maarek's course for review of my weaker areas. I have purchased Cantrill's AWS Developer course, and I agree with the general consensus that it is more focused on learning the skills to actually master the topics. I hope this helps. submitted by /u/LoneLouie [link] [comments]

  • Passed SAA-C02 !
    by /u/toolatetopartyagain

    4 months of studies paid off. Thanks to u/acantril for his amazing course and to u/jon-bonso-tdojo for his great tests. AWS is only a part of my job and hence I think I will take a breather here and finish one module of the u/acantril course which I left. The Cloudformation module. Also I plan to spend time on the mini projects Ian had shared with the community. I otherwise finished everything else in the course and revised my notes 3 times. As a person who is works in data it was refreshing to get an exposure to full end to end design and implementation of highly available architectures, nuances of databases and the intricacies of networks. This alone kept me going. TIPS: 1. Make notes. 2. Finish the course one month before your exam. 3. Last month should be spent on revision through notes and taking the TD tests. TD tests are very close to actual AWS tests. TD tests were a bit scary as there were many new terms from AWS ecosystem which either I had never heard (AWS wavelength?) or most likely Ian discussed it and I forgot. And this is what makes TD tests so useful. I made notes of these terms and they helped to eliminate options. The test was moderate difficulty. Too many on-premise and AWS combo questions. Also flagging the questions can be overdone. Flag only the ones you are not sure about. submitted by /u/toolatetopartyagain [link] [comments]

  • Hi, could anyone tell me the full-form of 'CLF' in 'CLF-C01'?
    by /u/mandown2308

    I have tried searching for it but to no avail. Thanks in advance. submitted by /u/mandown2308 [link] [comments]

  • Passed the SAA-C02! Also, what next?
    by /u/needsleep31

    I passed the SAA-C02 🙂 I had made a post here a few days back asking if I was ready or not (some of you might remember me lol). I felt ready so I just went on to give the exam and cleared it. I used u/stephanemaarek's course for the preparation and u/jon-bonso-tdojo's test for the practice. Contrary to what I've read in this sub, I felt my exam questions were more difficult than the type of questions I had practiced. But that said, the practice papers were very good and gave me a good idea on the thought process to have when solving the questions. Also, the next thing, what certification do I attempt next? For the background, I am still in my final year of comp sci degree so I have a whole year to grab more certs before I start looking for jobs. I am interested in DevOps and already have a good hands-on experience with docker and some with k8s but I might want to start out with cloud first because DevOps jobs are not abundant in my country so cloud initially and then move to infrastructure and DevOps. I'm looking at getting the SysOps exam right now but I'd love inputs from the professionals here. submitted by /u/needsleep31 [link] [comments]

  • The worst experience with AWS Developer Associate exam using Pearson Vue
    by /u/8000man

    I scheduled the exam August 15, 11AM. I check in on 10:30AM and finish the process around 10:45AM. The screen showed that I am number 70 on the queue list. When it was 11AM, there was a display on vue where the waiting is taking some time and said that please bear with them. I waited until 12:30 PM and when it was my turn, I suddenly received an error that there was an issue on the network and I was going to be put back at the top of queue. I contacted support during those waiting times and they are not responding! Then suddenly the vue connection got terminated saying that "Hmm... Something's wrong." It is way beyond the check in time so I can't make any attempt to take the exam submitted by /u/8000man [link] [comments]

  • AWS Solutions Architect
    by /u/Varun-Ghode

    How many days/months are enough to crack AWS Solutions Architect Associate. Also how to prepare for it? submitted by /u/Varun-Ghode [link] [comments]

 

AWS Developer Associate DVA-C01 Exam Prep
 
 
 
 
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