Specialty (ANS-C00) examination is intended for individuals who perform complex networking tasks. This examination validates advanced technical skills and experience in designing and implementing AWS and hybrid IT network architectures at scale.
The exam covers the following domains:
Domain 1: Design and Implement Hybrid IT Network Architectures at Scale – 23%
Domain 2: Design and Implement AWS Networks – 29%
Domain 3: Automate AWS Tasks – 8%
Domain 4: Configure Network Integration with Application Services – 15%
Domain 5: Design and Implement for Security and Compliance – 12%
Domain 6: Manage, Optimize, and Troubleshoot the Network – 13%
Below are the top 20 Top 20 AWS Certified Advanced Networking – Specialty Practice Quiz including Questions and Answers and References –
Question 1: What is the relationship between private IPv4 addresses and Elastic IP addresses?
Question 2: A company’s on-premises network has an IP address range of 188.8.131.52/16. Only IPs within this network range can be used for inter-server communication. The IP address range 184.108.40.206/24 has been allocated for the cloud. A network engineer needs to design a VPC on AWS. The servers within the VPC should be able to communicate with hosts both on the internet and on-premises through a VPN connection. Which combination of configuration steps meet these requirements? (Select TWO.)
A) Set up the VPC with an IP address range of 220.127.116.11/24.
B) Set up the VPC with an RFC 1918 private IP address range (for example, 10.10.10.0/24). Set up a NAT gateway to do translation between 10.10.10.0/24 and 18.104.22.168/24 for all outbound traffic.
C) Set up a VPN connection between a virtual private gateway and an on-premises router. Set the virtual private gateway as the default gateway for all traffic. Configure the on-premises router to forward traffic to the internet.
D) Set up a VPN connection between a virtual private gateway and an on-premises router. Set the virtual private gateway as the default gateway for traffic destined to 22.214.171.124/24. Add a VPC subnet route to point the default gateway to an internet gateway for internet traffic.
E) Set up the VPC with an RFC 1918 private IP address range (for example, 10.10.10.0/24). Set the virtual private gateway to do a source IP translation of all outbound packets to 126.96.36.199/16.
A and C
The VPC needs to use a CIDR block in the assigned range (and be non-overlapping with the data center). All traffic not destined for the VPC is routed to the virtual private gateway (that route is assumed) and must then be forwarded to the internet when it arrives on-premises. B and E are incorrect because they are not in the assigned range (non-RFC 1918 addresses can be used in a VPC). D is incorrect because it directs traffic to the internet through the internet gateway.
Question 3: Tasks running on Amazon EC2 Container Service (Amazon ECS) can use which mode for container networking (allocating an elastic networking interface to each running task, providing a dynamic private IP address and internal DNS name)?
Tasks running an Amazon EC2 Container Service can use awsvpc for container networking.
Question 4: A network engineer needs to design a solution for an application running on an Amazon EC2 instance to connect to a publicly accessible Amazon RDS Multi-AZ DB instance in a different VPC and Region. Security requirements mandate that the traffic not traverse the internet. Which configuration will ensure that the instances communicate privately without routing traffic over the internet?
A) Create a peering connection between the VPCs and update the routing tables to route traffic between the VPCs. Enable DNS resolution support for the VPC peering connection. Configure the application to connect to the DNS endpoint of the DB instance.
B) Create a gateway endpoint to the DB instance. Update the routing tables in the application VPC to route traffic to the gateway endpoint.
C) Configure a transit VPC to route traffic between the VPCs privately. Configure the application to connect to the DNS endpoint of the DB instance.
D) Create a NAT gateway in the same subnet as the EC2 instances. Update the routing tables in the application VPC to route traffic through the NAT gateway to the DNS endpoint of the DB instance.
Configuring DNS resolution on the VPC peering connection will allow queries from the application VPC to resolve to the private IP of the DB instance and prevent routing over the internet. B is incorrect because Amazon RDS is not supported by gateway endpoints. C and D are incorrect because the database endpoint will resolve to a public IP and the traffic will go over the internet.
Question 5: Management has decided that your firm will implement an AWS hybrid architecture. Given that decision, which of the following is a petabyte-scale data transport solution that uses secure appliances to transfer large amounts of data into and out of the AWS Cloud?
AWS Snowball is a petabyte-scale data transport solution that uses secure appliances to transfer large amounts of data into and out of the AWS Cloud.
Question 6: A company has implemented a critical environment on AWS. For compliance purposes, a network engineer needs to verify that the Amazon EC2 instances are using a specific approved security group and belong to a specific VPC. The configuration history of the instances should be recorded and, in the event of any compliance issues, the instances should be automatically stopped. What should be done to meet these requirements?
A) Enable AWS CloudTrail and create a custom Amazon CloudWatch alarm to perform the required checks. When the CloudWatch alarm is in a failed state, trigger the stop this instance action to stop the noncompliant EC2 instance.
B) Configure a scheduled event with AWS CloudWatch Events to invoke an AWS Lambda function to perform the required checks. In the event of a noncompliant resource, invoke another Lambda function to stop the EC2 instance.
C) Configure an event with AWS CloudWatch Events for an EC2 instance state-change notification that triggers an AWS Lambda function to perform the required checks. In the event of a noncompliant resource, invoke another Lambda function to stop the EC2 instance.
D) Enable AWS Config and create custom AWS Config rules to perform the required checks. In the event of a noncompliant resource, use a remediation action to execute an AWS Systems Manager document to stop the EC2 instance.
AWS Config provides a detailed view of the configuration of AWS resources in a user’s AWS account. Using AWS Config rules with AWS Systems Manager Automation documents can automatically remediate noncompliant resources
Question 8: A company is extending its on-premises data center to AWS. Peak traffic is expected to range between 1 Gbps and 2 Gbps. A network engineer must ensure that there is sufficient bandwidth between AWS and the data center to handle peak traffic. The solution should be highly available and cost effective. What should be implemented to address these needs?
A) Deploy a 10 Gbps AWS Direct Connect connection with an IPsec VPN backup.
B) Deploy two 1 Gbps AWS Direct Connect connections in a link aggregation group.
C) Deploy two 1 Gbps AWS Direct Connect connections in a link aggregation group to two different Direct Connect locations.
D) Deploy a 10 Gbps AWS Direct Connect connection to two different Direct Connect locations.
Two AWS Direct Connect connections with link aggregation groups in two different Direct Connect locations are required to provide sufficient bandwidth with high availability. If one Direct Connect location experiences a failure, the two Direct Connect connections in the second Direct Connect location will provide backup. All of the other options would be unable to handle the peak traffic if a connection was lost.
Question 10: A network engineer needs to limit access to the company’s Amazon S3 bucket to specific source networks. What should the network engineer do to accomplish this?
A) Create an ACL on the S3 bucket, limiting access to the CIDR blocks of the specified networks.
B) Create a bucket policy on the S3 bucket, limiting access to the CIDR blocks of the specified networks using a condition statement.
C) Create a security group allowing inbound access to the CIDR blocks of the specified networks and apply the security group to the S3 bucket.
D) Create a security group allowing inbound access to the CIDR blocks of the specified networks, create a S3 VPC endpoint, and apply the security group to the VPC endpoint.
An Amazon S3 bucket policy that uses a condition statement will support restricting access if the request originates from a specific range of IP addresses. A is incorrect because an S3 ACL does not support IP restrictions. C is incorrect because security groups cannot be applied to S3 buckets. D is incorrect because security groups cannot be applied to an S3 VPC endpoint.
Question 12: A company’s compliance requirements specify that web application logs must be collected and analyzed to identify any malicious activity. A network engineer also needs to monitor for remote attempts to change the network interface of web instances. Which services and configurations will meet these requirements?
A) Install the Amazon CloudWatch Logs agent on the web instances to collect application logs. Use VPC Flow Logs to send data to CloudWatch Logs. Use CloudWatch Logs metric filters to define the patterns to look for in the log data.
B) Configure AWS CloudTrail to log all management and data events to a custom Amazon S3 bucket and Amazon CloudWatch Logs. Use VPC Flow Logs to send data to CloudWatch Logs. Use CloudWatch Logs metric filters to define the patterns to look for in the log data.
C) Configure AWS CloudTrail to log all management events to a custom Amazon S3 bucket and Amazon CloudWatch Logs. Install the Amazon CloudWatch Logs agent on the web instances to collect application logs. Use CloudWatch Logs Insights to define the patterns to look for in the log data.
D) Enable AWS Config to record all configuration changes to the web instances. Configure AWS CloudTrail to log all management and data events to a custom Amazon S3 bucket. Use Amazon Athena to define the patterns to look for in the log data stored in Amazon S3.
Web application logs are internal to the operating system, and Amazon CloudWatch Logs Insights can be used to collect and analyze the logs using the CloudWatch agent. AWS CloudTrail monitors all AWS API activity and can be used to monitor particular API calls to identify remote attempts to change the network interface of web instances.
Question 14: A company has an application that processes confidential data. The data is currently stored in an on premises data center. A network engineer is moving workloads to AWS, and needs to ensure confidentiality and integrity of the data in transit to AWS. The company has an existing AWS Direct Connect connection. Which combination of steps should the network engineer perform to set up the most cost-effective connection between the on-premises data center and AWS? (Select TWO.)
A) Attach an internet gateway to the VPC.
B) Configure a public virtual interface on the AWS Direct Connect connection.
C) Configure a private virtual interface to the virtual private gateway.
D) Set up an IPsec tunnel between the customer gateway and a software VPN on Amazon EC2.
E) Set up a Site-to-Site VPN between the customer gateway and the virtual private gateway.
B and E
Setting up a VPN over an AWS Direct Connect connection will secure the data in transit. The steps to do so are: set up a public virtual interface and create the Site-to-Site VPN between the data center and the virtual private gateway using the public virtual interface. A is incorrect because it would send traffic over the public internet. C is not possible because a public virtual interface is needed to announce the VPN tunnel IPs. D is incorrect because it would not take advantage of the already existing Direct Connect connection.
Question 15: A site you are helping create must use Adobe Media Server and the Adobe Real-Time Messaging Protocol (RTMP) to stream media files. When it comes to AWS, an RTMP distribution must use which of the following as the origin?
An RTMP distribution must use S3 bucket as the origin.
Question 16: A company is creating new features for its ecommerce website. These features will be deployed as microservices using different domain names for each service. The company requires the use of HTTPS for all its public-facing websites. The application requires the client’s source IP. Which combination of actions should be taken to accomplish this? (Select TWO.)
A) Use a Network Load Balancer to distribute traffic to each service.
B) Use an Application Load Balancer to distribute traffic to each service.
C) Configure the application to retrieve client IPs using the X-Forwarded-For header.
D) Configure the application to retrieve client IPs using the X-Forwarded-Host header.
E) Configure the application to retrieve client IPs using the PROXY protocol header.
B and C
An Application Load Balancer supports host-based routing, which is required to route traffic to different microservices based on the domain name. X-Forwarded-For is the correct request header to identify the client’s source IP address.
Question 18: A network engineer is architecting a high performance computing solution on AWS. The system consists of a cluster of Amazon EC2 instances that require low-latency communications between them. Which method will meet these requirements?
A) Launch instances into a single subnet with a size equal to the number of instances required for the cluster.
B) Create a cluster placement group. Launch Elastic Fabric Adapter (EFA)-enabled instances into the placement group.
C) Launch Amazon EC2 instances with the largest available number of cores and RAM. Attach Amazon EBS Provisioned IOPS (PIOPS) volumes. Implement a shared memory system across all instances in the cluster.
D) Choose an Amazon EC2 instance type that offers enhanced networking. Attach a 10 Gbps non-blocking elastic network interface to the instances.
Cluster placement groups and Elastic Fabric Adapters (EFAs) are recommended for high performance computing applications that benefit from low network latency, high network throughput, or both. A is incorrect because the size of a subnet has no impact on network performance. C is incorrect because an Amazon EBS volume cannot be shared between Amazon EC2 instances. D is only half the solution because the enhanced networking affects the network behaviour of an EC2 instance but not the network infrastructure between instances.
Question 20: A company’s internal security team receives a request to allow Amazon S3 access from inside the corporate network. All external traffic must be explicitly allowed through the corporate firewalls. How can the security team grant this access?
A) Schedule a script to download the Amazon S3 IP prefixes from AWS developer forum announcements. Update the firewall rules accordingly.
B) Schedule a script to download and parse the Amazon S3 IP prefixes from the ip-ranges.json file. Update the firewall rules accordingly.
C) Schedule a script to perform a DNS lookup on Amazon S3 endpoints. Update the firewall rules accordingly.
D) Connect the data center to a VPC using AWS Direct Connect. Create routes that forward traffic from the data center to an Amazon S3 VPC endpoint.
The ip-ranges.json file contains the latest list of IP addresses used by AWS. AWS no longer posts IP prefixes in developer forum announcements. DNS lookups would not provide an exhaustive list of possible IP prefixes. D would require transitive routing, which is not possible.
Wi-Fi is a brand name for wireless networking standards. Wi-Fi lets devices communicate by sending and receiving radio waves.
In 1971, the University of Hawaii demonstrated the first wireless data network, known as ALOHAnet. In 1985, the US FCC opened the ISM radio bands for unlicensed transmissions. After 1985, other countries followed, and more people started experimenting. In 1997 and 1999, the IEEE ratified the first international wireless networking standards. They were called 802.11-1997, 802.11b, and 802.11a. The technology was amazing, but the names were not.
In 1999, the brand-consulting firm Interbrand created the logo and suggested Wi-Fi as the name. Wi-Fi was a pun on hi-fi, referring to high-fidelity audio. Wi-Fi was easier to remember than 802.11, and we’ve been stuck with the name since. The official name is Wi-Fi, but most people don’t capitalize it or include the hyphen. Wi-Fi, WiFi, Wifi, wifi, and 802.11 all refer to the same thing. In the early days, Wi-Fi was used as shorthand for Wireless Fidelity, but it isn’t officially short for anything. According to the Wi-Fi Alliance, Wi-Fi is Wi-Fi.
What does Wi-Fi do? How does Wi-Fi work?
Wi-Fi transmits data using microwaves, which are high-frequency radio waves. Wi-Fi is more complicated than FM radio, but the basic underlying technology is the same. They both encode information into radio waves, which are received and decoded. FM radio does this for sound, Wi-Fi does this for computer data. So how can we use radio waves to send sound, or information?
At a basic level, you can think of two people holding a jump rope. One person raises and lowers their arm quickly, creating a wave. With Wi-Fi, this person would represent your Wi-Fi router, or wireless access point. Keeping the same up and down motion is known as a carrier wave. The person on the other end is the client device, such as a laptop or cell phone. When a wireless client joins the network and senses the carrier wave, it starts listening and waits for small differences in the signal.
In our example, you can imagine feeling the jump rope going up and down, and then receiving a single motion to the right. That single motion to the right can be interpreted as a binary number 1. A motion to the left would be a binary 0. Chain enough 1’s and 0’s together and you can represent complicated things, like all the data on this webpage.
It sounds like magic, but it’s not only Wi-Fi that works this way. Bluetooth, 4G, 5G, and most wireless transmissions work by manipulating waves to transfer electrical signals through the air. A deeper, better question than “How does Wi-Fi work?” is “How do wireless transmissions work?”
If you want a better answer, you need to have a basic understanding of a few things:
Fundamental physics of electricity and magnetism
Electromagnetic radiation, radio waves, and antennas
How wired networks transmit data
I tried my best to keep this understandable, and laid out in a way that makes sense. This stuff is complicated, and hard to explain. That is why there are so many bad explanations of how Wi-Fi works out there.
This isn’t going to be a light and breezy discussion. Each of these topics could be an entire college course, so forgive me for simplifying where possible. Use Wikipedia and other resources to fill in the gaps, or to clarify something I glossed over. As always, corrections and feedback are welcomed.
Let’s dive in the deep end and cover the physics first. If you’re not familiar with fundamental physics, Wikipedia is an amazing resource. The key terms highlighted in blue are links to Wikipedia articles which explain further.
Since visible light is an electromagnetic wave, this is how we can see the sun, or distant stars.
This is also how we heard Neil Armstrong say “One small step for man…” live from the moon.
The warmth you feel from sunlight is due to the radiant energy sunlight contains. All electromagnetic waves have radiant energy.
Examples of electromagnetic waves: Visible light, radio waves, microwaves, infrared, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.
Wi-Fi is an example of a radio wave, specifically a microwave. Microwaves are high-energy radio waves.
Electromagnetic waves come in a wide range of forms. The type of wave is categorized by wavelength and frequency.
Wavelength is a measure of the distance over which the wave’s shape repeats. In a typical continuous sine wave like Wi-Fi, every time a wave goes from peak to valley to peak, we call that a cycle. The distance it takes to complete one cycle is its wavelength.
Frequency is a measure of how many cycles the wave makes per second. We use Hertz (Hz) as the measure of frequency, 1 Hz is one cycle per second. The more common MHz and GHz are for millions, or billions, of cycles per second.
Imagine waves on a beach. On calm days the waves are small, and come in slowly. On a windy day the waves have more energy, come in faster, and have less distance between them. Higher energy, higher frequency, shorter wavelength. Unlike ocean waves, electromagnetic waves move at the speed of light. Since their speed is constant, their wavelength and frequency are inverse. As wavelength goes up, frequency does down. If you multiply the wavelength and frequency, you will always get the same value — the speed of light, the speed limit of the universe.
You can graph all the various kinds of electromagnetic waves, with the lowest energy on the left, and the highest energy on the right. We call this the electromagnetic spectrum. I’m not going to cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum, since we are mainly interested in Wi-Fi’s microwaves, and how we can use them to send data wirelessly.
Starting from the left, we have the low-energy waves we call radio. Opinions vary, but I’m going with Wikipedia’s broad definition that radio waves cover from 30 Hz, up to 300 GHz. Compared to the rest of the spectrum, radio’s wavelengths are long, their frequency is slow, and energy is low. Within radio waves, there is a separate category we call microwaves.
Microwaves fall within the broader radio wave range. At a minimum, microwaves cover 3 GHz to 30 GHz, but some people say microwaves extend further than that. The specific range depends on who you ask, but generally you can think of Microwaves as high-frequency radio waves.
Microwaves are used in microwave ovens, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, your cell phone’s 4G or 5G connection, and lots of other wireless data transmissions. Their higher energy, shorter wavelength, and other properties make them better for high-bandwidth transfers than traditional, lower-powered radio waves.
All waves can be modulated by varying either the amplitude (strength), frequency or phase of the wave. This is what allows Wi-Fi, and any other wireless technology, to encode data in a wireless signal.
Wired Networking Transmissions
Before we cover how wireless data transmission works, we need to understand how wired data transmission works. In wired Ethernet networks, we use the copper inside Ethernet cables to transmit electrical signals. The conductive copper transfers the electrical current applied at one end, through the wire, to the other side.
A typical example would be a PC plugged into an Ethernet switch. If the PC wants to transfer information, it converts binary digits to electrical impulses. On, off, on, off. It sends a specific pattern of 1’s and 0’s across the wire, which is received on the other end. Ethernet is the neighborhood street of the networking world. It’s great for getting around the local area, but you’ll need to jump on the highway if you want to go further.
The highway of the networking world is fiber optic cabling. Just like how Ethernet transfers electrical current, we can do the same thing with lasers and fiber optic cables. Fiber optic cables are made of bendable glass, and they provide a path for light to be transmitted. Since fiber optics require lasers, special transceivers are required at each end. Compared to Ethernet, Fiber optic cables have the advantage of having a longer range, and generally a higher capacity.
Fiber optic cabling carries a big portion of global Internet traffic. We have a wide array of fiber optic cabling over land, and sea. Those connections are what allow you to communicate with someone on the other side of the country, or the other side of the world. This is possible because these transmissions happen at the speed of light.
Here’s where things get fun. Just like how Ethernet and fiber optic cabling take an electrical impulse or beam of light from A to B, we can do the same thing with radios, antennas, and radio waves.
Radios, Antennas, and Wireless Networking
Now that we have a rough common understanding of electromagnetic waves and wired data transmission, how can we transmit data wirelessly? The key is an antenna. Antennas convert electricity into radio waves, and radio waves into electricity. A basic antenna consists of two metal rods connected to a receiver or transmitter.
When transmitting, a radio supplies an alternating electric current to the antenna, and the antenna radiates the energy as electromagnetic waves. When receiving, an antenna reverses this process. It intercepts some of the power of a radio wave to produce an electrical current, which is applied to a receiver, and amplified. Receiving antennas capture a fraction of the original signal, which is why distance, antenna design, and amplification are important for a successful wireless transmission.
If you have a properly tuned, powerful antenna, you can send a signal 1000s of kilometers away, or even into space. It’s not just Wi-Fi, this is what makes satellites, radar, radio, and broadcast TV transmissions work too. Pretty cool, right?
How Wi-Fi Works: From Electricity to Information
An intricate pattern of electrons representing computer data flow into your Wi-Fi router, or wireless access point.
The access point sends that pattern of electrons to an antenna, generating an electromagnetic wave.
By alternating between a positive to negative charge, the wire inside of an antenna creates an oscillating electric and magnetic field. These oscillating fields propagate out into space as electromagnetic waves, and are able to be received by anyone in range.
Typical Wi-Fi access points have omnidirectional antennas, which make the wave propagate in all horizontal directions.
This wave travels through the air and hits a receiving antenna which reverses the process, converting the radiant energy in the radio wave back into electricity.
The electric field of the incoming wave pushes electrons back and forth in the antenna, creating an alternating positive and negative charge. The oscillating field induces voltage and current, which flows to the receiver.
The signal is amplified and received, either to the client device or to an Ethernet connection for further routing.
A lot of the wave’s energy is lost along the way.
If the transmission was successful, the electrical impulses should be a good copy of what was sent.
If the transmission wasn’t successful, the data is resent.
When the information is received on the other end, it is treated the same as any other data on the network.
More Fun Wi-Fi Facts
Wi-Fi has redundancy built-in. If you wanted to send “Hello” your access point wouldn’t send an H, an E, an L, an L and a O. It sends multiple characters for each one, just like you would on a static-filled radio or phone call. It will use its equivalent of the phonetic alphabet to send “Hotel”, “Echo”, “Lima”, “Lima”, “Oscar”.
That way, even if you didn’t hear the entire transmission, you are still likely to be able to know that “Hello” was being sent. The level of redundancy varies on signal strength and interference on the channel.
If the signal strength is high, the access point and receiver are able to use a complicated modulation scheme, and encode a lot of data.
If you think about our jump rope analogy from earlier, rather than just left and right, it can divide into 1/4s, 1/8ths, or further. It can also combine the direction of the modulation with strength, or phase of modulation.
The most complex modulation in Wi-Fi 6 is 1024-QAM, which has 1024 unique combinations of amplitude and phase. This results in high throughput, but requires a very strong wireless signal and minimal interference to work effectively.
As your wireless signal weakens, complex modulation can’t be understood. Both devices will step down to a less complex modulation scheme. This is why Wi-Fi slows down as you move away from the access point.
First In a Series: Wi-Fi 101
I plan on writing a whole series of posts about Wi-Fi fundamentals which will cover various topics about Wi-Fi, how to improve your home network, and related issues. If there is something you want me to cover, leave a comment below.
The IEEE, an international standards body, sets the definitions of what Wi-Fi is. They’re the reason we have Wi-Fi standards with names like 802.11n, 802.11ac or 802.11ax. They’ve since renamed the major standards to Wi-Fi 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. With each generation, Wi-Fi gets better, and there are a lot of details to cover. I’ll cover that in a future post.
Hertz did not realize the practical importance of his experiments. “It’s of no use whatsoever. This is just an experiment that proves Maestro Maxwell was right—we just have these mysterious electromagnetic waves that we cannot see with the naked eye. But they are there.” When asked about the applications of his discoveries, Hertz replied, “Nothing, I guess.”You can pay your respects to this legend by always capitalizing the H in MHz and GHz.
It takes about one second for a radio wave to travel from the Earth to the moon. It’s pretty amazing that over 50 years ago we had the technology to capture sound and images on the moon, turn them into electromagnetic waves, beam them back to Earth, and transmit them around the globe. I guess it’s pretty cool we put a human on the moon, too.
If you keep adding energy to microwaves, you can end up in a unique part of the EM spectrum, visible light. Visible light’s wavelengths are measured in nanometers, and nanometers are really small: a human hair is around 75,000 nanometers wide. Visible light has a wavelength between 380 and 740 nanometers and a frequency between 405 and 790 THz (trillions of cycles per second). It’s hard to wrap your head around, but a lot of foundational physics is, too.
Your eye is reading this page because your computer screen is sending out electromagnetic radiation in the visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Differences in the wavelength cause your eye to interpret different areas of the page as different colors. A whole lot of brain magic and pattern recognition lets you interpret those color variations as letters and words. If I did my job as a writer, there should also be some meaning behind those words. All from some waves shooting out of your screen. Physics is amazing, Wi-Fi isn’t magic, and writing is telepathy.
Every once in a while I go onto the Deep Space Network site to check on Voyager 1 and 2, and just to see what’s going on in general. Currently the round-trip time to V1 is about 1.69 days with a data rate of 150 bits/second, although I’ve seen it as low as 6 bits/sec. V2 is a bit closer at a mere 11 billion miles or so. It’s amazing to me that the entire space craft runs on 4 Watts. V1 and 2 have both departed the solar system.
What is the AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner Exam?
The AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner Exam (CLF-C01) is an introduction to AWS services and the intention is to examine the candidates ability to define what the AWS cloud is and its global infrastructure. It provides an overview of AWS core services security aspects, pricing and support services. The main objective is to provide an overall understanding about the Amazon Web Services Cloud platform. The course helps you get the conceptual understanding of the AWS and can help you know about the basics of AWS and cloud computing, including the services, cases and benefits.
To succeed with the real exam, do not memorize the answers below. It is very important that you understand why a question is right or wrong and the concepts behind it by carefully reading the reference documents in the answers.
Ensure one CloudTrail is enabled for all regions. Turn on CloudTrail for all regions in your environment and CloudTrail will deliver log files from all regions to one S3 bucket. AWS CloudTrail is a service that enables governance, compliance, operational auditing, and risk auditing of your AWS account. With CloudTrail, you can log, continuously monitor, and retain account activity related to actions across your AWS infrastructure. CloudTrail provides event history of your AWS account activity, including actions taken through the AWS Management Console, AWS SDKs, command line tools, and other AWS services. This event history simplifies security analysis, resource change tracking, and troubleshooting.
Use a VPC Endpoint to access S3. A VPC endpoint enables you to privately connect your VPC to supported AWS services and VPC endpoint services powered by PrivateLink without requiring an internet gateway, NAT device, VPN connection, or AWS Direct Connect connection. Instances in your VPC do not require public IP addresses to communicate with resources in the service. Traffic between your VPC and the other service does not leave the Amazon network.
AWS PrivateLink simplifies the security of data shared with cloud-based applications by eliminating the exposure of data to the public Internet.
Answer: iOS – Android (A and D) It is AWS responsibility to secure Edge locations and decommission the data. AWS responsibility “Security of the Cloud” – AWS is responsible for protecting the infrastructure that runs all of the services offered in the AWS Cloud. This infrastructure is composed of the hardware, software, networking, and facilities that run AWS Cloud services.
Q4:You have EC2 instances running at 90% utilization and you expect this to continue for at least a year. What type of EC2 instance would you choose to ensure your cost stay at a minimum?
A. Dedicated host instances
B. On-demand instances
C. Spot instances
D. Reserved instances
Answer: iOS – Android Reserved instances are the best choice for instances with continuous usage and offer a reduced cost because you purchase the instance for the entire year. Amazon EC2 Reserved Instances (RI) provide a significant discount (up to 75%) compared to On-Demand pricing and provide a capacity reservation when used in a specific Availability Zone.
Q5:What tool would you use to get an estimated monthly cost for your environment?
A. TCO Calculator
B. Simply Monthly Calculator
C. Cost Explorer
D. Consolidated Billing
Answer: iOS – Android (B) The AWS Simple Monthly Calculator helps customers and prospects estimate their monthly AWS bill more efficiently. Using this tool, they can add, modify and remove services from their 'bill' and it will recalculate their estimated monthly charges automatically.
Q6: How do you make sure your organization does not exceed its monthly budget?
A. Sign up for the free alert under filing preferences in the AWS Management Console.
B. Set a schedule to regularly review the Billing an Cost Management dashboard each month.
C. Create an email alert in AWS Budget
D. In CloudWatch, create an alarm that triggers each time the limit is exceeded.
Answer: iOS – Android (C) AWS Budgets gives you the ability to set custom budgets that alert you when your costs or usage exceed (or are forecasted to exceed) your budgeted amount. You can also use AWS Budgets to set reservation utilization or coverage targets and receive alerts when your utilization drops below the threshold you define. Reservation alerts are supported for Amazon EC2, Amazon RDS, Amazon Redshift, Amazon ElastiCache, and Amazon Elasticsearch reservations.
Q7:An Edge Location is a specialization AWS data centre that works with which services?
D. Route 53
Answer: iOS – Android Lambda@Edge lets you run Lambda functions to customize the content that CloudFront delivers, executing the functions in AWS locations closer to the viewer. Amazon CloudFront is a web service that speeds up distribution of your static and dynamic web content, such as .html, .css, .js, and image files, to your users. CloudFront delivers your content through a worldwide network of data centers called edge locations. When a user requests content that you're serving with CloudFront, the user is routed to the edge location that provides the lowest latency (time delay), so that content is delivered with the best possible performance.
CloudFront speeds up the distribution of your content by routing each user request through the AWS backbone network to the edge location that can best serve your content. Typically, this is a CloudFront edge server that provides the fastest delivery to the viewer. Using the AWS network dramatically reduces the number of networks that your users' requests must pass through, which improves performance. Users get lower latency—the time it takes to load the first byte of the file—and higher data transfer rates.
You also get increased reliability and availability because copies of your files (also known as objects) are now held (or cached) in multiple edge locations around the world.
Q8:What is the preferred method of linking 2 AWS accounts?
A. AWS Organizations
B. Cost Explorer
C. VPC Peering
D. Consolidated billing
Answer: iOS – Android (A) AWS Organizations is an account management service that enables you to consolidate multiple AWS accounts into an organization that you create and centrally manage. AWSOrganizations includes account management and consolidated billing capabilities that enable you to better meet the budgetary, security, and compliance needs of your business.
Route 53 is a domain name system service by AWS. When a Disaster does occur , it can be easy to switch to secondary sites using the Route53 service.
Amazon Route 53 is a highly available and scalable cloud Domain Name System (DNS) web service. It is designed to give developers and businesses an extremely reliable and cost effective way to route end users to Internet applications by translating names like www.example.com into the numeric IP addresses like 192.0.2.1 that
computers use to connect to each other. Amazon Route 53 is fully compliant with IPv6 as well.
The below snapshot from the AWS Documentation shows the spectrum of the Disaster recovery methods. If you go to the further end of the spectrum you have the least time for downtime for the users.
Q11:Your company is planning to host resources in the AWS Cloud. They want to use services which can be used to decouple resources hosted on the cloud. Which of the following services can help fulfil this requirement?
A. AWS EBS Volumes
B. AWS EBS Snapshots
C. AWS Glacier
D. AWS SQS
D. AWS SQS: Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) offers a reliable, highly-scalable hosted queue for storing messages as they travel between applications or microservices. It moves data between distributed application components and helps you decouple these components.
You can use Amazon CloudWatch Logs to monitor, store, and access your log files from Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances, AWS CloudTrail, and other sources. You can then retrieve the associated log data from CloudWatch Log.
Q22:A company is deploying a new two-tier web application in AWS. The company wants to store their most frequently used data so that the response time for the application is improved. Which AWS service provides the solution for the company’s requirements?
A. MySQL Installed on two Amazon EC2 Instances in a single Availability Zone
Amazon ElastiCache is a web service that makes it easy to deploy, operate, and scale an in-memory data store or cache in the cloud. The service improves the performance of web applications by allowing you to retrieve information from fast, managed, in-memory data stores, instead of relying entirely on slower disk-based databases.
Q23:You have a distributed application that periodically processes large volumes of data across multiple Amazon EC2 Instances. The application is designed to recover gracefully from Amazon EC2 instance failures. You are required to accomplish this task in the most cost-effective way. Which of the following will meetyour requirements?
When you think of cost effectiveness, you can either have to choose Spot or Reserved instances. Now when you have a regular processing job, the best is to use spot instances and since your application is designed recover gracefully from Amazon EC2 instance failures, then even if you lose the Spot instance , there is no issue because your application can recover.
A network access control list (ACL) is an optional layer of security for your VPC that acts as a firewall for controlling traffic in and out of one or more subnets. You might set up network ACLs with rules similar to your security groups in order to add an additional layer of security to your VPC.
Always build components which are loosely coupled. This is so that even if one component does fail, the entire system does not fail. Also if you build with the assumption that everything will fail, then you will ensure that the right measures are taken to build a highly available and fault tolerant system.
Q29: You have 2 accounts in your AWS account. One for the Dev and the other for QA. All are part ofconsolidated billing. The master account has purchase 3 reserved instances. The Dev department is currently using 2 reserved instances. The QA team is planning on using 3 instances which of the same instance type. What is the pricing tier of the instances that can be used by the QA Team?
Since all are a part of consolidating billing, the pricing of reserved instances can be shared by All. And since 2 are already used by the Dev team , another one can be used by the QA team. The rest of the instances can be on-demand instances.
Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) offers a reliable, highly-scalable hosted queue for storing messages as they travel between applications or microservices. It moves data between distributed application components and helps you decouple these components.
Q32:You are exploring what services AWS has off-hand. You have a large number of data sets that need to be processed. Which of the following services can help fulfil this requirement.
D. Storage Gateway
A. Amazon EMR helps you analyze and process vast amounts of data by distributing the computational work across a cluster of virtual servers running in the AWS Cloud. The cluster is managed using an open-source framework called Hadoop. Amazon EMR lets you focus on crunching or analyzing your data without having to worry about time-consuming setup, management, and tuning of Hadoop clusters or the compute capacity they rely on.
Amazon Inspector enables you to analyze the behaviour of your AWS resources and helps you to identify potential security issues. Using Amazon Inspector, you can define a collection of AWS resources that you want to include in an assessment target. You can then create an assessment template and launch a security assessment run of this target.
Q34:Your company is planning to offload some of the batch processing workloads on to AWS. These jobs can be interrupted and resumed at any time. Which of the following instance types would be the most cost effective to use for this purpose.
C. Full Upfront Reserved
D. Partial Upfront Reserved
B. Spot Instances are a cost-effective choice if you can be flexible about when your applications run and if your applications can be interrupted. For example, Spot Instances are well-suited for data analysis, batch jobs, background processing, and optional tasks
Snowball is a petabyte-scale data transport solution that uses secure appliances to transfer large amounts of data& into and out of the AWS cloud. Using Snowball addresses common challenges with large-scale data transfers including high network costs, long transfer times, and security concerns. Transferring data with Snowball is simple, fast, secure, and can be as little as one-fifth the cost of high-speed Internet.
Amazon Inspector enables you to analyze the behavior of your AWS resources and helps you to identify potential security issues. Using Amazon Inspector, you can define a collection of AWS resources that you want to include in an assessment target. You can then create an assessment template and launch a security assessment run of this target.
AWS Database Migration Service helps you migrate databases to AWS quickly and securely. The source database remains fully operational during the migration, minimizing downtime to applications that rely on the database. The AWS Database Migration Service can migrate your data to and from most widely used commercial and open source databases.
You can reduce the load on your source DB Instance by routing read queries from your applications to the read replica. Read replicas allow you to elastically scale out beyond the capacity constraints of a single DB instance for read-heavy database workloads.
One of the first techniques to mitigate DDoS attacks is to minimize the surface area that can be attacked thereby limiting the options for attackers and allowing you to build protections in a single place. We want to ensure that we do not expose our application or resources to ports, protocols or applications from where they do not expect any communication. Thus, minimizing the possible points of attack and letting us concentrate our mitigation efforts. In some cases, you can do this by placing your computation resources behind Content Distribution Networks (CDNs), Load Balancers and restricting direct Internet traffic to certain parts of your infrastructure like your database servers. In other cases, you can use firewalls or Access Control Lists (ACLs) to control what traffic reaches your applications.
You can use the consolidated billing feature in AWS Organizations to consolidate payment for multiple AWS accounts or multiple AISPL accounts. With consolidated billing, you can see a combined view of AWS charges incurred by all of your accounts. You also can get a cost report for each member account that is associated with your master account. Consolidated billing is offered at no additional charge.
One of the first techniques to mitigate DDoS attacks is to minimize the surface area that can be attacked thereby limiting the options for attackers and allowing you to build protections in a single place. We want to ensure that we do not expose our application or resources to ports, protocols or applications from where they do not expect any communication. Thus, minimizing the possible points of attack and letting us concentrate our mitigation efforts. In some cases, you can do this by placing your computation resources behind; Content Distribution Networks (CDNs), Load Balancers and restricting direct Internet traffic to certain parts of your infrastructure like your database servers. In other cases, you can use firewalls or Access Control Lists (ACLs) to control what traffic reaches your applications.
If the database is going to be used for a minimum of one year at least , then it is better to get Reserved Instances. You can save on costs , and if you use a partial upfront options , you can get a better discount
Security groups acts as a virtual firewall for your instance to control inbound and outbound traffic. Network access control list (ACL) is an optional layer of security for your VPC that acts as a firewall for controlling traffic in and out of one or more subnets.
C: AWS is defined as a cloud services provider. They provide hundreds of services of which compute and storage are included (not not limited to).
Q60: Which AWS service can be used as a global content delivery network (CDN) service?
A. Amazon SES
B. Amazon CouldTrail
C. Amazon CloudFront
D. Amazon S3
C: Amazon CloudFront is a web service that gives businesses and web application developers an easy
and cost effective way to distribute content with low latency and high data transfer speeds. Like other AWS services, Amazon CloudFront is a self-service, pay-per-use offering, requiring no long term commitments or minimum fees. With CloudFront, your files are delivered to end-users using a global network of edge locations.Reference: AWS cloudfront
Q61:What best describes the concept of fault tolerance?
Choose the correct answer:
A. The ability for a system to withstand a certain amount of failure and still remain functional.
B. The ability for a system to grow in size, capacity, and/or scope.
C. The ability for a system to be accessible when you attempt to access it.
D. The ability for a system to grow and shrink based on demand.
A: Fault tolerance describes the concept of a system (in our case a web application) to have failure in some of its components and still remain accessible (highly available). Fault tolerant web applications will have at least two web servers (in case one fails).
Q62: The firm you work for is considering migrating to AWS. They are concerned about cost and the initial investment needed. Which of the following features of AWS pricing helps lower the initial investment amount needed?
Choose 2 answers from the options given below:
A. The ability to choose the lowest cost vendor.
B. The ability to pay as you go
C. No upfront costs
D. Discounts for upfront payments
B and C: The best features of moving to the AWS Cloud is: No upfront cost and The ability to pay as you go where the customer only pays for the resources needed. Reference: AWS pricing
Q64: Your company has started using AWS. Your IT Security team is concerned with the security of hosting resources in the Cloud. Which AWS service provides security optimization recommendations that could help the IT Security team secure resources using AWS?
An online resource to help you reduce cost, increase performance, and improve security by optimizing your AWS environment, Trusted Advisor provides real time guidance to help you provision your resources following AWS best practices. Reference: AWS trusted advisor
Q65:What is the relationship between AWS global infrastructure and the concept of high availability?
Choose the correct answer:
A. AWS is centrally located in one location and is subject to widespread outages if something happens at that one location.
B. AWS regions and Availability Zones allow for redundant architecture to be placed in isolated parts of the world.
C. Each AWS region handles a different AWS services, and you must use all regions to fully use AWS.
As an AWS user, you can create your applications infrastructure and duplicate it. By placing duplicate infrastructure in multiple regions, high availability is created because if one region fails you have a backup (in a another region) to use.
Q66: You are hosting a number of EC2 Instances on AWS. You are looking to monitor CPU Utilization on the Instance. Which service would you use to collect and track performance metrics for AWS services?
Amazon CloudWatch is a monitoring service for AWS cloud resources and the applications you run on AWS. You can use Amazon CloudWatch to collect and track metrics, collect and monitor log files, set alarms, and automatically react to changes in your AWS resources. Reference: AWS cloudwatch/
Q67: Which of the following support plans give access to all the checks in the Trusted Advisor service.
Q68: Which of the following in AWS maps to a separate geographic location?
A. AWS Region
B. AWS Data Centers
C. AWS Availability Zone
Answer: iOS – Android A: Amazon cloud computing resources are hosted in multiple locations world-wide. These locations are composed of AWS Regions and Availability Zones. Each AWS Region is a separate geographic area. Reference: AWS Regions And Availability Zone
Q69:What best describes the concept of scalability?
Choose the correct answer:
A. The ability for a system to grow and shrink based on demand.
B. The ability for a system to grow in size, capacity, and/or scope.
C. The ability for a system be be accessible when you attempt to access it.
D. The ability for a system to withstand a certain amount of failure and still remain functional.
Answer: iOS – Android B: Scalability refers to the concept of a system being able to easily (and cost-effectively) scale UP. For web applications, this means the ability to easily add server capacity when demand requires.
Q70: If you wanted to monitor all events in your AWS account, which of the below services would you use?
A. AWS CloudWatch
B. AWS CloudWatch logs
C. AWS Config
D. AWS CloudTrail
D: AWS CloudTrail is a service that enables governance, compliance, operational auditing, and risk
auditing of your AWS account. With CloudTrail, you can log, continuously monitor, and retain account activity related to actions across your AWS infrastructure. CloudTrail provides event history of your AWS account activity, including actions taken through the AWS Management Console, AWS SDKs, command line tools, and other AWS services. This event history simplifies security analysis, resource change tracking, and troubleshooting. Reference: Cloudtrail
Fault tolerance, scalability, elasticity, and high availability are the four primary benefits of AWS/the cloud.
Q72:What best describes a simplified definition of the “cloud”?
Choose the correct answer:
A. All the computers in your local home network.
B. Your internet service provider
C. A computer located somewhere else that you are utilizing in some capacity.
D. An on-premise data center that your company owns.
Answer: iOS – Android (D) The simplest definition of the cloud is a computer that is located somewhere else that you are utilizing in some capacity. AWS is a cloud services provider, as the provide access to computers they own (located at AWS data centers), that you use for various purposes.
Q73: Your development team is planning to host a development environment on the cloud. This consists of EC2 and RDS instances. This environment will probably only be required for 2 months.
Which types of instances would you use for this purpose?
Answer: iOS – Android (A) The best and cost effective option would be to use On-Demand Instances. The AWS documentation gives the following additional information on On-Demand EC2 Instances. With On-Demand instances you only pay for EC2 instances you use. The use of On-Demand instances frees you from the costs and complexities of planning, purchasing, and maintaining hardware and transforms what are commonly large fixed costs into much smaller variable costs. Reference: AWS ec2 pricing on-demand
Q74: Which of the following can be used to secure EC2 Instances?
security groups acts as a virtual firewall for your instance to control inbound and outbound traffic. When you launch an instance in a VPC, you can assign up to five security groups to the instance. Security groups act at the instance level, not the subnet level. Therefore, each instance in a subnet in your VPC could be assigned to a different set of security groups. If you don't specify a particular group at launch time, the instance is automatically assigned to the default security group for the VPC. Reference: VPC Security Groups
Q75: What is the purpose of a DNS server?
Choose the correct answer:
A. To act as an internet search engine.
B. To protect you from hacking attacks.
C. To convert common language domain names to IP addresses.
Domain name system servers act as a “third party” that provides the service of converting common language domain names to IP addresses (which are required for a web browser to properly make a request for web content).
High availability refers to the concept that something will be accessible when you try to access it. An object or web application is “highly available” when it is accessible a vast majority of the time.
Amazon WorkSpaces is a managed, secure Desktop-as-a-Service (DaaS) solution. You can use Amazon WorkSpaces to provision either Windows or Linux desktops in just a few minutes and quickly scale to provide thousands of desktops to workers across the globe
Q87: Your company has recently migrated large amounts of data to the AWS cloud in S3 buckets. But it is necessary to discover and protect the sensitive data in these buckets. Which AWS service can do that?
Notes:Amazon Macie is a fully managed data security and data privacy service that uses machine learning and pattern matching to discover and protect your sensitive data in AWS.
Q88:Your Finance Department has instructed you to save costs wherever possible when using the AWS Cloud. You notice that using reserved EC2 instances on a 1year contract will save money. What payment method will save the most money?
B: Partial Upfront
C: All Upfront
D: No Upfront
Notes: With the All Upfront option, you pay for the entire Reserved Instance term with one upfront payment. This option provides you with the largest discount compared to On Demand Instance pricing.
Q89:A fantasy sports company needs to run an application for the length of a football season (5 months). They will run the application on an EC2 instance and there can be no interruption. Which purchasing option best suits this use case?
Notes: This is not a long enough term to make reserved instances the better option. Plus, the application can't be interrupted, which rules out spot instances. Dedicated instances provide the option to bring along existing software licenses.
The scenario does not indicate a need to do this.
Q90:Your company is considering migrating its data center to the cloud. What are the advantages of the AWS cloud over an on-premises data center?
A. Replace upfront operational expenses with low variable operational expenses.
B. Maintain physical access to the new data center, but share responsibility with AWS.
C. Replace low variable costs with upfront capital expenses.
D. Replace upfront capital expenses with low variable costs.
Q91:You are leading a pilot program to try the AWS Cloud for one of your applications. You have been instructed to provide an estimate of your AWS bill. Which service will allow you to do this by manually entering your planned resources by service?
Notes: With the AWS Pricing Calculator, you can input the services you will use, and the configuration of those services, and get an estimate of the costs these services will accrue. AWS Pricing Calculator lets you explore AWS services, and create an estimate for the cost of your use cases on AWS.
Q92:Which AWS service would enable you to view the spending distribution in one of your AWS accounts?
Notes: AWS Cost Explorer is a free tool that you can use to view your costs and usage. You can view data up to the last 13 months, forecast how much you are likely to spend for the next three months, and get recommendations for what Reserved Instances to purchase. You can use AWS Cost Explorer to see patterns in how much you spend on AWS resources over time, identify areas that need further inquiry, and see trends that you can use to understand your costs. You can also specify time ranges for the data, and view time data by day or by month.
Q93:You are managing the company’s AWS account. The current support plan is Basic, but you would like to begin using Infrastructure Event Management. What support plan (that already includes Infrastructure Event Management without an additional fee) should you upgrade to?
A. Upgrade to Enterprise plan.
B. Do nothing. It is included in the Basic plan.
C. Upgrade to Developer plan.
D. Upgrade to the Business plan. No other steps are necessary.
Notes:AWS Infrastructure Event Management is a structured program available to Enterprise support customers (and Business Support customers for an additional fee) that helps you plan for large-scale events, such as product or application launches, infrastructure migrations, and marketing events.
With Infrastructure Event Management, you get strategic planning assistance before your event, as well as real-time support during these moments that matter most for your business.
Q94:You have decided to use the AWS Cost and Usage Report to track your EC2 Reserved Instance costs. To where can these reports be published?
A. Trusted Advisor
B. An S3 Bucket that you own.
D. An AWS owned S3 Bucket.
Notes: The AWS Cost and Usage Reports (AWS CUR) contains the most comprehensive set of cost and usage data available. You can use Cost and Usage Reports to publish your AWS billing reports to an Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket that you own. You can receive reports that break down your costs by the hour or day, by product or product resource, or by tags that you define yourself. AWS updates the report in your bucket once a day in comma-separated value (CSV) format. You can view the reports using spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel or Apache OpenOffice Calc, or access them from an application using the Amazon S3 API.
Q95:What can we do in AWS to receive the benefits of volume pricing for your multiple AWS accounts?
A. Use consolidated billing in AWS Organizations.
B. Purchase services in bulk from AWS Marketplace.
Notes: You can use the consolidated billing feature in AWS Organizations to consolidate billing and payment for multiple AWS accounts or multiple Amazon Internet Services Pvt. Ltd (AISPL) accounts. You can combine the usage across all accounts in the organization to share the volume pricing discounts, Reserved Instance discounts, and Savings Plans. This can result in a lower charge for your project, department, or company than with individual standalone accounts.
Q96:A gaming company is using the AWS Developer Tool Suite to develop, build, and deploy their applications. Which AWS service can be used to trace user requests from end-to-end through the application?
Notes:AWS X-Ray helps developers analyze and debug production, distributed applications, such as those built using a microservices architecture. With X-Ray, you can understand how your application and its underlying services are performing to identify and troubleshoot the root cause of performance issues and errors. X-Ray provides an end-to-end view of requests as they travel through your application, and shows a map of your application’s underlying components.
Q97:A company needs to use a Load Balancer which can serve traffic at the TCP, and UDP layers. Additionally, it needs to handle millions of requests per second at very low latencies. Which Load Balancer should they use?
Notes:Network Load Balancer is best suited for load balancing of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) traffic where extreme performance is required. Operating at the connection level (Layer 4), Network Load Balancer routes traffic to targets within Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) and is capable of handling millions of requests per second while maintaining ultra-low latencies.
Q98:Your company is migrating its services to the AWS cloud. The DevOps team has heard about infrastructure as code, and wants to investigate this concept. Which AWS service would they investigate?
Notes:AWS CloudFormation is a service that helps you model and set up your Amazon Web Services resources so that you can spend less time managing those resources and more time focusing on your applications that run in AWS.
Q99:You have a MySQL database that you want to migrate to the cloud, and you need it to be significantly faster there. You are looking for a speed increase up to 5 times the current performance. Which AWS offering could you use?
Notes:Amazon Aurora is a MySQL and PostgreSQL-compatible relational database built for the cloud, that combines the performance and availability of traditional enterprise databases with the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of open source databases. Amazon Aurora is up to five times faster than standard MySQL databases and three times faster than standard PostgreSQL databases.
Q100:A developer is trying to programmatically retrieve information from an EC2 instance such as public keys, ip address, and instance id. From where can this information be retrieved?
I assume it is your subscription where the VPCs are located, otherwise you can’t really discover the information you are looking for. On the EC2 server you could use AWS CLI or Powershell based scripts that query the IP information. Based on IP you can find out what instance uses the network interface, what security groups are tied to it and in which VPC the instance is hosted. Read more here…
When a Lambda “is in a VPC”, it really means that its attached Elastic Network Interface is the customer’s VPC and not the hidden VPC that AWS manages for Lambda.
The ENI is not related to the AWS Lambda management system that does the invocation (the data plane mentioned here). The AWS Step Function system can go ahead and invoke the Lambda through the API, and the network request for that can pass through the underlying VPC and host infrastructure.
Those Lambdas in turn can invoke other Lambda directly through the API, or more commonly by decoupling them, such as through Amazon SQS used as a trigger. Read more ….
5.How do I invoke an AWS Lambda function programmatically?
Invokes a Lambda function. You can invoke a function synchronously (and wait for the response), or asynchronously. To invoke a function asynchronously, set InvocationType to Event.
For synchronous invocation, details about the function response, including errors, are included in the response body and headers. For either invocation type, you can find more information in the execution log and trace.
When an error occurs, your function may be invoked multiple times. Retry behavior varies by error type, client, event source, and invocation type. For example, if you invoke a function asynchronously and it returns an error, Lambda executes the function up to two more times. For more information, see Retry Behavior.
For asynchronous invocation, Lambda adds events to a queue before sending them to your function. If your function does not have enough capacity to keep up with the queue, events may be lost. Occasionally, your function may receive the same event multiple times, even if no error occurs. To retain events that were not processed, configure your function with a dead-letter queue.
The status code in the API response doesn’t reflect function errors. Error codes are reserved for errors that prevent your function from executing, such as permissions errors, limit errors, or issues with your function’s code and configuration. For example, Lambda returns TooManyRequestsException if executing the function would cause you to exceed a concurrency limit at either the account level ( ConcurrentInvocationLimitExceeded) or function level ( ReservedFunctionConcurrentInvocationLimitExceeded).
For functions with a long timeout, your client might be disconnected during synchronous invocation while it waits for a response. Configure your HTTP client, SDK, firewall, proxy, or operating system to allow for long connections with timeout or keep-alive settings.
The subnet mask determines how many bits of the network address are relevant (and thus indirectly the size of the network block in terms of how many host addresses are available) –
192.0.2.0, subnet mask 255.255.255.0 means that 192.0.2 is the significant portion of the network number, and that there 8 bits left for host addresses (i.e. 192.0.2.0 thru 192.0.2.255)
192.0.2.0, subnet mask 255.255.255.128 means that 192.0.2.0 is the significant portion of the network number (first three octets and the most significant bit of the last octet), and that there 7 bits left for host addresses (i.e. 192.0.2.0 thru 192.0.2.127)
When in doubt, envision the network number and subnet mask in base 2 (i.e. binary) and it will become much clearer. Read more here…
The NAT EC2 instance (server), or AWS-provided NAT gateway is necessary only if the private subnet internal addresses need to make outbound connections. The NAT will translate the private subnet internal addresses to the public subnet internal addresses, and the AWS VPC Internet Gateway will translate these to external IP addresses, which can then go out to the Internet. Read more here ….
12. What are the applications (or workloads) that cannot be migrated on to cloud (AWS or Azure or GCP)?
A good example of workloads that currently are not in public clouds are mobile and fixed core telecom networks for tier 1 service providers. This is despite the fact that these core networks are increasingly software based and have largely been decoupled from the hardware. There are a number of reasons for this such as the public cloud providers such as Azure and AWS do not offer the guaranteed availability required by telecom networks. These networks require 99.999% availability and is typically referred to as telecom grade.
The regulatory environment frequently restricts hosting of subscriber data outside the of the operators data centers or in another country and key network functions such as lawful interception cannot contractually be hosted off-prem. Read more here….
13.How many CIDRs can we add to my own created VPC?
You can add up to 5 IPv4 CIDR blocks, or 1 IPv6 block per VPC. You can further segment the network by utilizing up to 200 subnets per VPC. Amazon VPC Limits. Read more …
14. Why can’t a subnet’s CIDR be changed once it has been assigned?
Sure it can, but you’ll need to coordinate with the neigbours. You can merge two /25’s into a single /24 quite effortlessly if you control the entire range it covers. In practice you’ll see many tiny allocations in public IPv4 space, like /29’s and even smaller. Those are all assigned to different people. If you want to do a big shuffle there, you have a lot of coordinating to do.. or accept the fallout from the breakage you cause. Read more…
15. Can one VPC talk to another VPC?
Yes, but a Virtual Private Cloud is usually built for the express purpose of being isolated from unwanted external traffic. I can think of several good reasons to encourage that sort of communication, so the idea is not without merit. Read more..
Good knowledge about the AWS services, and how to leverage them to solve simple to complex problems.
As your question is related to the deployment Pod, you will probably be asked about deployment methods (A/B testing like blue-green deployment) as well as pipelining strategies. You might be asked during this interview to reason about a simple task and to code it (like parsing a log file). Also review the TCP/IP stack in-depth as well as the tools to troubleshoot it for the networking round. You will eventually have some Linux questions, the range of questions can vary from common CLI tools to Linux internals like signals / syscalls / file descriptors and so on.
Last but not least the Leadership principles, I can only suggest you to prepare a story for each of them. You will quickly find what LP they are looking for and would be able to give the right signal to your interviewer.
Finally, remember that theres a debrief after the (usually 5) stages of your on site interview, and more senior and convincing interviewers tend to defend their vote so don’t screw up with them.
Be natural, focus on the question details and ask for confirmation, be cool but not too much. At the end of the day, remember that your job will be to understand customer issues and provide a solution, so treat your interviewers as if they were customers and they will see a successful CSE in you, be reassured and give you the job.
Expect questions on cloudformations, Teraform, Aws ec2/rds and stack related questions.
It also depends on the support team you are being hired for. Networking or compute teams (Ec2) have different interview patterns vs database or big data support.
In any case, basics of OS, networking are critical to the interview. If you have a phone screen, we will be looking for basic/semi advance skills of these and your speciality. For example if you mention Oracle in your resume and you are interviewing for the database team, expect a flurry of those questions.
Other important aspect is the Amazon leadership principles. Half of your interview is based on LPs. If you fail to have scenarios where you do not demonstrate our LPs, you cannot expect to work here even though your technical skills are above average (Having extraordinary skills is a different thing).
The overall interview itself will have 1 phone screen if you are interviewing in the US and 1–2 if outside US. The onsite loop will be 4 rounds , 2 of which are technical (again divided into OS and networking and the specific speciality of the team you are interviewing for ) and 2 of them are leadership principles where we test your soft skills and management skills as they are very important in this job. You need to have a strong view point, disagree if it seems valid to do so, empathy and be a team player while showing the ability to pull off things individually as well. These skills will be critical for cracking LP interviews.
You will NOT be asked to code or write queries as its not part of the job, so you can concentrate on the theoretical part of the subject and also your resume. We will grill you on topics mentioned on your resume to start with.
Monolithic architecture is something that build from single piece of material, historically from rock. Monolith term normally use for object made from single large piece of material.” – Non-Technical Definition. “Monolithic application has single code base with multiple modules.
Large Monolithic code-base (often spaghetti code) puts immense cognitive complexity on the developer’s head. As a result, the development velocity is poor. Granular scaling (i.e., scaling part of the application) is not possible. Polyglot programming or polyglot database is challenging.
Drawbacks of Monolithic Architecture
This simple approach has a limitation in size and complexity. Application is too large and complex to fully understand and made changes fast and correctly. The size of the application can slow down the start-up time. You must redeploy the entire application on each update.
Sticky sessions, also known as session affinity, allow you to route a site user to the particular web server that is managing that individual user’s session. The session’s validity can be determined by a number of methods, including a client-side cookies or via configurable duration parameters that can be set at the load balancer which routes requests to the web servers.
Some advantages with utilizing sticky sessions are that it’s cost effective due to the fact you are storing sessions on the same web servers running your applications and that retrieval of those sessions is generally fast because it eliminates network latency. A drawback for using storing sessions on an individual node is that in the event of a failure, you are likely to lose the sessions that were resident on the failed node. In addition, in the event the number of your web servers change, for example a scale-up scenario, it’s possible that the traffic may be unequally spread across the web servers as active sessions may exist on particular servers. If not mitigated properly, this can hinder the scalability of your applications. Read more here …
After you terminate an instance, it remains visible in the console for a short while, and then the entry is automatically deleted. You cannot delete the terminated instance entry yourself. After an instance is terminated, resources such as tags and volumes are gradually disassociated from the instance, therefore may no longer be visible on the terminated instance after a short while.
When an instance terminates, the data on any instance store volumes associated with that instance is deleted.
By default, Amazon EBS root device volumes are automatically deleted when the instance terminates. However, by default, any additional EBS volumes that you attach at launch, or any EBS volumes that you attach to an existing instance persist even after the instance terminates. This behavior is controlled by the volume’s DeleteOnTermination attribute, which you can modify
When you first launch an instance with gp2 volumes attached, you get an initial burst credit allowing for up to 30 minutes of 3,000 iops/sec.
After the first 30 minutes, your volume will accrue credits as follows (taken directly from AWS documentation):
Within the General Purpose (SSD) implementation is a Token Bucket model that works as follows
Each token represents an “I/O credit” that pays for one read or one write.
A bucket is associated with each General Purpose (SSD) volume, and can hold up to 5.4 million tokens.
Tokens accumulate at a rate of 3 per configured GB per second, up to the capacity of the bucket.
Tokens can be spent at up to 3000 per second per volume.
The baseline performance of the volume is equal to the rate at which tokens are accumulated — 3 IOPS per GB per second.
In addition to this, gp2 volumes provide baseline performance of 3 iops per Gb, up to 1Tb (3000 iops). Volumes larger than 1Tb no longer work on the credit system, as they already provide a baseline of 3000 iops. Gp2 volumes have a cap of 10,000 iops regardless of the volume size (so the iops max out for volumes larger than 3.3Tb)
Elastic IP addresses are free when you have them assigned to an instance, feel free to use one! Elastic IPs get disassociated when you stop an instance, so you will get charged in the mean time. The benefit is that you get to keep that IP allocated to your account though, instead of losing it like any other. Once you start the instance you just re-associate it back and you have your old IP again.
Here are the changes associated with the use of Elastic IP addresses
No cost for Elastic IP addresses while in use
* $0.01 per non-attached Elastic IP address per complete hour
* $0.00 per Elastic IP address remap – first 100 remaps / month
* $0.10 per Elastic IP address remap – additional remap / month over 100
If you require any additional information about pricing please reference the link below
The short answer to reducing your AWS EC2 costs – turn off your instances when you don’t need them.
Your AWS bill is just like any other utility bill, you get charged for however much you used that month. Don’t make the mistake of leaving your instances on 24/7 if you’re only using them during certain days and times (ex. Monday – Friday, 9 to 5).
To automatically start and stop your instances, AWS offers an “EC2 scheduler” solution. A better option would be a cloud cost management tool that not only stops and starts your instances automatically, but also tracks your usage and makes sizing recommendations to optimize your cloud costs and maximize your time and savings.
You could potentially save money using Reserved Instances. But, in non-production environments such as dev, test, QA, and training, Reserved Instances are not your best bet. Why is this the case? These environments are less predictable; you may not know how many instances you need and when you will need them, so it’s better to not waste spend on these usage charges. Instead, schedule such instances (preferably using ParkMyCloud). Scheduling instances to be only up 12 hours per day on weekdays will save you 65% – better than all but the most restrictive 3-year RIs!
They are definitely all chalk and cheese to one another.
A VPN (Virtual Private Network) is essentially an encrypted “channel” connecting two networks, or a machine to a network, generally over the public internet.
A VPS (Virtual Private Server) is a rented virtual machine running on someone else’s hardware. AWS EC2 can be thought of as a VPS, but the term is usually used to describe low-cost products offered by lots of other hosting companies.
A VPC (Virtual Private Cloud) is a virtual network in AWS (Amazon Web Services). It can be divided into private and public subnets, have custom routing rules, have internal connections to other VPCs, etc. EC2 instances and other resources are placed in VPCs similarly to how physical data centers have operated for a very long time.
Elastic IP address is basically the static IP (IPv4) address that you can allocate to your resources.
Now, in case that you allocate IP to the resource (and the resource is running), you are not charged anything. On the other hand, if you create Elastic IP, but you do not allocate it to the resource (or the resource is not running), then you are charged some amount (should be around $0.005 per hour if I remember correctly)
Additional info about these:
You are limited to 5 Elastic IP addresses per region. If you require more than that, you can contact AWS support with a request for additional addresses. You need to have a good reason in order to be approved because IPv4 addresses are becoming a scarce resource.
In general, you should be good without Elastic IPs for most of the use-cases (as every EC2 instance has its own public IP, and you can use load balancers, as well as map most of the resources via Route 53).
One of the use-cases that I’ve seen where my client is using Elastic IP is to make it easier for him to access specific EC2 instance via RDP, as well as do deployment through Visual Studio, as he targets the Elastic IP, and thus does not have to watch for any changes in public IP (in case of stopping or rebooting).
The EC2 instance is server instance whilst a Workspace is windows desktop instance
Both Windows Server and Windows workstation editions have desktops. Windows Server Core doesn’t not (and AWS doesn’t have an AMI for Windows Server Core that I could find).
It is possible to SSH into a Windows instance – this is done on port 22. You would not see a desktop when using SSH if you had enabled it. It is not enabled by default.
If you are seeing a desktop, I believe you’re “RDPing” to the Windows instance. This is done with the RDP protocol on port 3389.
Two different protocols and two different ports.
Workspaces doesn’t allow terminal or ssh services by default. You need to use Workspace client. You still can enable RDP or/and SSH but this is not recommended.
Workspaces is a managed desktop service. AWS is taking care of pre-build AMIs, software licenses, joining to domain, scaling etc.
What is Amazon EC2?Scalable, pay-as-you-go compute capacity in the cloud. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is a web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. It is designed to make web-scale computing easier for developers.
What is Amazon WorkSpaces?Easily provision cloud-based desktops that allow end-users to access applications and resources. With a few clicks in the AWS Management Console, customers can provision a high-quality desktop experience for any number of users at a cost that is highly competitive with traditional desktops and half the cost of most virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) solutions. End-users can access the documents, applications and resources they need with the device of their choice, including laptops, iPad, Kindle Fire, or Android tablets.
Elastic – Amazon EC2 enables you to increase or decrease capacity within minutes, not hours or days. You can commission one, hundreds or even thousands of server instances simultaneously.
Completely Controlled – You have complete control of your instances. You have root access to each one, and you can interact with them as you would any machine.
Flexible – You have the choice of multiple instance types, operating systems, and software packages. Amazon EC2 allows you to select a configuration of memory, CPU, instance storage, and the boot partition size that is optimal for your choice of operating system and application.
On the other hand, Amazon WorkSpaces provides the following key features:
Support Multiple Devices- Users can access their Amazon WorkSpaces using their choice of device, such as a laptop computer (Mac OS or Windows), iPad, Kindle Fire, or Android tablet.
Keep Your Data Secure and Available- Amazon WorkSpaces provides each user with access to persistent storage in the AWS cloud. When users access their desktops using Amazon WorkSpaces, you control whether your corporate data is stored on multiple client devices, helping you keep your data secure.
Choose the Hardware and Software you need- Amazon WorkSpaces offers a choice of bundles providing different amounts of CPU, memory, and storage so you can match your Amazon WorkSpaces to your requirements. Amazon WorkSpaces offers preinstalled applications (including Microsoft Office) or you can bring your own licensed software.
S3 is the storehouse for the internet i.e. object storage built to store & retrieve any amount of data from anywhere S3
AWS Backup is an externally-accessible backup provider that makes it easier to align & optimize the backup of data across AWS services in the cloud. AWS_Backup
Amazon Elastic Block Store is a web service that provides block-level storage volumes. EBS
Amazon EFS Storage
EFS offers file storage for the user’s Amazon EC2 instances. It’s kind of blob Storage. EFS
FSx supply fully managed 3rd-party file systems with the native compatibility & characteristic sets for workloads. It’s available as FSx for Windows server (Fully managed file storage built on Windows Server) & Lustre (Fully managed high-performance file system integrated with S3). FSx_WindowsFSx_Lustre
AWS Storage Gateway
Storage Gateway is a service which connects an on-premises software appliance with cloud-based storage. Storage_Gateway
DataSync makes it simple & fast to move large amounts of data online between on-premises storage & S3, EFS, or FSx for Windows File Server. DataSync
AWS Transfer Family
The Transfer Family provides fully managed support for file transfers directly into & out of S3. Transfer_Family
AWS Snow Family
Highly-secure, portable devices to collect & process data at the edge, and migrate data into and out of AWS. Snow_Family
Classification: Object storage: S3 File storage services: Elastic File System, FSx for Windows Servers & FSx for Lustre Block storage: EBS Backup: AWS Backup Data transfer: Storage gateway –> 3 types: Tape, File, Volume. Transfer Family –> SFTP, FTPS, FTP. Edge computing and storage and Snow Family –> Snowcone, Snowball, Snowmobile
Traditional applications, ERP, CRM, e-commerce
Aurora, RDS, Redshift
RDS is a web service that makes it easier to set up, control, and scale a relational database in the cloud. AuroraRDSRedshift
High-traffic web apps, e-commerce systems, gaming applications
DynamoDB is a fully administered NoSQL database service that offers quick and reliable performance with integrated scalability. DynamoDB
ElastiCache helps in setting up, managing, and scaling in-memory cache conditions. MemcachedRedis
Content management, catalogs, user profiles
DocumentDB (with MongoDB compatibility) is a quick, dependable, and fully-managed database service that makes it easy for you to set up, operate, and scale MongoDB-compatible databases.DocumentDB
High scale industrial apps for equipment maintenance, fleet management, and route optimization
Keyspaces (for Apache Cassandra)
Keyspaces is a scalable, highly available, and managed Apache Cassandra–compatible database service. Keyspaces
Fraud detection, social networking, recommendation engines
Neptune is a fast, reliable, fully managed graph database service that makes it easy to build and run applications that work with highly connected datasets. Neptune
IoT applications, DevOps, industrial telemetry
Timestream is a fast, scalable, and serverless time series database service for IoT and operational applications that makes it easy to store and analyze trillions of events per day. Timestream
Systems of record, supply chain, registrations, banking transactions
Quantum Ledger Database (QLDB)
QLDB is a fully managed ledger database that provides a transparent, immutable, and cryptographically verifiable transaction log owned by a central trusted authority. QLDB
Cloud9 is a cloud-based IDE that enables the user to write, run, and debug code. Cloud9
CodeArtifact is a fully managed artifact repository service that makes it easy for organizations of any size to securely store, publish, & share software packages used in their software development process. CodeArtifact
CodeBuild is a fully managed service that assembles source code, runs unit tests, & also generates artefacts ready to deploy. CodeBuild
CodeGuru is a developer tool powered by machine learning that provides intelligent recommendations for improving code quality & identifying an application’s most expensive lines of code. CodeGuru
Cloud Development Kit
Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK) is an open source software development framework to define cloud application resources using familiar programming languages. CDK
CodeCommit is a version control service that enables the user to personally store & manage Git archives in the AWS cloud. CodeCommit
CodeDeploy is a fully managed deployment service that automates software deployments to a variety of compute services such as EC2, Fargate, Lambda, & on-premises servers. CodeDeploy
CodePipeline is a fully managed continuous delivery service that helps automate release pipelines for fast & reliable app & infra updates. CodePipeline
CodeStar enables to quickly develop, build, & deploy applications on AWS. CodeStar
AWS CLI is a unified tool to manage AWS services & control multiple services from the command line & automate them through scripts. CLI
X-Ray helps developers analyze & debug production, distributed applications, such as those built using a microservices architecture. X-Ray
Provides scalable, cost-effective business continuity for physical, virtual, & cloud servers. CloudEndure
No cost, self-service portal for on-demand access to AWS’ compliance reports
Artifact is a web service that enables the user to download AWS security & compliance records. Artifact
Data Lakes & Analytics
Athena is an interactive query service that makes it easy to analyze data in S3 using standard SQL. Athena
Big data processing
EMR is the industry-leading cloud big data platform for processing vast amounts of data using open source tools such as Apache Spark, Hive, HBase,Flink, Hudi, & Presto. EMR
The most popular & fastest cloud data warehouse. Redshift
Kinesis makes it easy to collect, process, & analyze real-time, streaming data so one can get timely insights. Kinesis
Elasticsearch Service is a fully managed service that makes it easy to deploy, secure, & run Elasticsearch cost effectively at scale. ES
Dashboards & visualizations
QuickSight is a fast, cloud-powered business intelligence service that makes it easy to deliver insights to everyone in organization. QuickSight
Real-time data movement
1) Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (MSK) 2) Kinesis Data Streams 3) Kinesis Data Firehose 4) Kinesis Data Analytics 5) Kinesis Video Streams 6) Glue
MSK is a fully managed service that makes it easy to build & run applications that use Apache Kafka to process streaming data. MSKKDSKDFKDAKVSGlue
1) S3 2) Lake Formation
Lake Formation is a service that makes it easy to set up a secure data lake in days. A data lake is a centralized, curated, & secured repository that stores all data, both in its original form & prepared for analysis. S3LakeFormation
Backup & archive
1) S3 Glacier 2) Backup
S3 Glacier & S3 Glacier Deep Archive are a secure, durable, & extremely low-cost S3 cloud storage classes for data archiving & long-term backup. S3Glacier
1) Glue 2)) Lake Formation
Refer as above.
Data Exchange makes it easy to find, subscribe to, & use third-party data in the cloud. DataExchange
Predictive analytics && machine learning
Frameworks & interfaces
Deep Learning AMIs
Deep Learning AMIs provide machine learning practitioners & researchers with the infrastructure & tools to accelerate deep learning in the cloud, at any scale. DeepLearningAMIs
SageMaker is a fully managed service that provides every developer & data scientist with the ability to build, train, & deploy machine learning (ML) models quickly. SageMaker
Store, encrypt, and manage container images
Refer compute section
Run containerized applications or build microservices
Refer compute section
Manage containers with Kubernetes
Refer compute section
Run containers without managing servers
Fargate is a serverless compute engine for containers that works with both ECS & EKS. Fargate
Run containers with server-level control
Refer compute section
Containerize and migrate existing applications
App2Container (A2C) is a command-line tool for modernizing .NET & Java applications into containerized applications. App2Container
Quickly launch and manage containerized applications
Copilot is a command line interface (CLI) that enables customers to quickly launch & easily manage containerized applications on AWS. Copilot
Aurora Serverless is an on-demand, auto-scaling configuration for Amazon Aurora (MySQL & PostgreSQL-compatible editions), where the database will automatically start up, shut down, & scale capacity up or down based on your application’s needs.
Amazon Elasticsearch Service is uniquely positioned to handle log analytics workloads. With a multitude of open-source and AWS-native service options, users can assemble effective log data ingestion pipelines and couple these with Amazon Elasticsearch Service to build a robust, cost-effective log analytics solution. This session reviews patterns and frameworks leveraged by companies such as Capital One to build an end-to-end log analytics solution using Amazon Elasticsearch Service.
Many companies in regulated industries have achieved compliance requirements using AWS Config. They also need a record of the incidents generated by AWS Config in tools such as ServiceNow for audits and remediation. In this session, learn how you can achieve compliance as code using AWS Config. Through the creation of a noncompliant Amazon EC2 machine, this demo shows how AWS Config triggers an incident into a governance, risk, and compliance system for audit recording and remediation. The session also covers best practices for how to automate the setup process with AWS CloudFormation to support many teams.
3- Cost-optimize your enterprise workloads with Amazon EBS – Compute
Recent times have underscored the need to enable agility while maintaining the lowest total cost of ownership (TCO). In this session, learn about the latest volume types that further optimize your performance and cost, while enabling you to run newer applications on AWS with high availability. Dive deep into the latest AWS volume launches and cost-optimization strategies for workloads such as databases, virtual desktop infrastructure, and low-latency interactive applications.
Location data is a vital ingredient in today’s applications, enabling use cases from asset tracking to geomarketing. Now, developers can use the new Amazon Location Service to add maps, tracking, places, geocoding, and geofences to applications, easily, securely, and affordably. Join this session to see how to get started with the service and integrate high-quality location data from geospatial data providers Esri and HERE. Learn how to move from experimentation to production quickly with location capabilities. This session can help developers who require simple location data and those building sophisticated asset tracking, customer engagement, fleet management, and delivery applications.
In this session, learn how Amazon Connect Tasks makes it easy for you to prioritize, assign, and track all the tasks that agents need to complete, including work in external applications needed to resolve customer issues (such as emails, cases, and social posts). Tasks provides a single place for agents to be assigned calls, chats, and tasks, ensuring agents are focused on the highest-priority work. Also, learn how you can also use Tasks with Amazon Connect’s workflow capabilities to automate task-related actions that don’t require agent interaction. Come see how you can use Amazon Connect Tasks to increase customer satisfaction while improving agent productivity.
New agent-assist capabilities from Amazon Connect Wisdom make it easier and faster for agents to find the information they need to solve customer issues in real time. In this session, see how agents can use simple ML-powered search to find information stored across knowledge bases, wikis, and FAQs, like Salesforce and ServiceNow. Join the session to hear Traeger Pellet Grills discuss how it’s using these new features, along with Contact Lens for Amazon Connect, to deliver real-time recommendations to agents based on issues automatically detected during calls.
Grafana is a popular, open-source data visualization tool that enables you to centrally query and analyze observability data across multiple data sources. Learn how the new Amazon Managed Service for Grafana, announced with Grafana’s parent company Grafana Labs, solves common observability challenges. With the new fully managed service, you can monitor, analyze, and alarm on metrics, logs, and traces while offloading the operational management of security patching, upgrading, and resource scaling to AWS. This session also covers new Grafana capabilities such as advanced security features and native AWS service integrations to simplify configuration and onboarding of data sources.
Prometheus is a popular open-source monitoring and alerting solution optimized for container environments. Customers love Prometheus for its active open-source community and flexible query language, using it to monitor containers across AWS and on-premises environments. Amazon Managed Service for Prometheus is a fully managed Prometheus-compatible monitoring service. In this session, learn how you can use the same open-source Prometheus data model, existing instrumentation, and query language to monitor performance with improved scalability, availability, and security without having to manage the underlying infrastructure.
Today, enterprises use low-power, long-range wide-area network (LoRaWAN) connectivity to transmit data over long ranges, through walls and floors of buildings, and in commercial and industrial use cases. However, this requires companies to operate their own LoRa network server (LNS). In this session, learn how you can use LoRaWAN for AWS IoT Core to avoid time-consuming and undifferentiated development work, operational overhead of managing infrastructure, or commitment to costly subscription-based pricing from third-party service providers.
AWS CloudShell is a free, browser-based shell available from the AWS console that provides a simple way to interact with AWS resources through the AWS command-line interface (CLI). In this session, see an overview of both AWS CloudShell and the AWS CLI, which when used together are the fastest and easiest ways to automate tasks, write scripts, and explore new AWS services. Also, see a demo of both services and how to quickly and easily get started with each.
Industrial organizations use AWS IoT SiteWise to liberate their industrial equipment data in order to make data-driven decisions. Now with AWS IoT SiteWise Edge, you can collect, organize, process, and monitor your equipment data on premises before sending it to local or AWS Cloud destinations—all while using the same asset models, APIs, and functionality. Learn how you can extend the capabilities of AWS IoT SiteWise to the edge with AWS IoT SiteWise Edge.
AWS Fault Injection Simulator is a fully managed chaos engineering service that helps you improve application resiliency by making it easy and safe to perform controlled chaos engineering experiments on AWS. In this session, see an overview of chaos engineering and AWS Fault Injection Simulator, and then see a demo of how to use AWS Fault Injection Simulator to make applications more resilient to failure.
Organizations are breaking down data silos and building petabyte-scale data lakes on AWS to democratize access to thousands of end users. Since its launch, AWS Lake Formation has accelerated data lake adoption by making it easy to build and secure data lakes. In this session, AWS Lake Formation GM Mehul A. Shah showcases recent innovations enabling modern data lake use cases. He also introduces a new capability of AWS Lake Formation that enables fine-grained, row-level security and near-real-time analytics in data lakes.
Machine learning (ML) models may generate predictions that are not fair, whether because of biased data, a model that contains bias, or bias that emerges over time as real-world conditions change. Likewise, closed-box ML models are opaque, making it difficult to explain to internal stakeholders, auditors, external regulators, and customers alike why models make predictions both overall and for individual inferences. In this session, learn how Amazon SageMaker Clarify is providing built-in tools to detect bias across the ML workflow including during data prep, after training, and over time in your deployed model.
Amazon EMR on Amazon EKS introduces a new deployment option in Amazon EMR that allows you to run open-source big data frameworks on Amazon EKS. This session digs into the technical details of Amazon EMR on Amazon EKS, helps you understand benefits for customers using Amazon EMR or running open-source Spark on Amazon EKS, and discusses performance considerations.
Finding unexpected anomalies in metrics can be challenging. Some organizations look for data that falls outside of arbitrary ranges; if the range is too narrow, they miss important alerts, and if it is too broad, they receive too many false alerts. In this session, learn about Amazon Lookout for Metrics, a fully managed anomaly detection service that is powered by machine learning and over 20 years of anomaly detection expertise at Amazon to quickly help organizations detect anomalies and understand what caused them. This session guides you through setting up your own solution to monitor for anomalies and showcases how to deliver notifications via various integrations with the service.
As applications become increasingly distributed and complex, developers and IT operations teams need more automated practices to maintain application availability and reduce the time and effort spent detecting, debugging, and resolving operational issues manually. In this session, discover Amazon DevOps Guru, an ML-powered cloud operations service, informed by years of Amazon.com and AWS operational excellence, that provides an easy and automated way to improve an application’s operational performance and availability. See how you can transform your IT operations and reduce mean time to recovery (MTTR) with contextual insights.
Amazon Connect Voice ID provides real-time caller authentication that makes voice interactions in contact centers more secure and efficient. Voice ID uses machine learning to verify the identity of genuine customers by analyzing a caller’s unique voice characteristics. This allows contact centers to use an additional security layer that doesn’t rely on the caller answering multiple security questions, and it makes it easy to enroll and verify customers without disrupting the natural flow of the conversation. Join this session to see how fast and secure ML-based voice authentication can power your contact center.
G4ad instances feature the latest AMD Radeon Pro V520 GPUs and second-generation AMD EPYC processors. These new instances deliver the best price performance in Amazon EC2 for graphics-intensive applications such as virtual workstations, game streaming, and graphics rendering. This session dives deep into these instances, ideal use cases, and performance benchmarks, and it provides a demo.
new capability that enables deployment of Amazon ECS tasks on customer-managed infrastructure. This session covers the evolution of Amazon ECS over time, including new on-premises capabilities to manage your hybrid footprint using a common fully managed control plane and API. You learn some foundational technical details and important tenets that AWS is using to design these capabilities, and the session ends with a short demo of Amazon ECS Anywhere.
Amazon Aurora Serverless is an on-demand, auto scaling configuration of Amazon Aurora that automatically adjusts database capacity based on application demand. With Amazon Aurora Serverless v2, you can now scale database workloads instantly from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of transactions per second and adjust capacity in fine-grained increments to provide just the right amount of database resources. This session dives deep into Aurora Serverless v2 and shows how it can help you operate even the most demanding database workloads worry-free.
Apple delights its customers with stunning devices like iPhones, iPads, MacBooks, Apple Watches, and Apple TVs, and developers want to create applications that run on iOS, macOS, iPadOS, tvOS, watchOS, and Safari. In this session, learn how Amazon is innovating to improve the development experience for Apple applications. Come learn how AWS now enables you to develop, build, test, and sign Apple applications with the flexibility, scalability, reliability, and cost benefits of Amazon EC2.
When industrial equipment breaks down, this means costly downtime. To avoid this, you perform maintenance at regular intervals, which is inefficient and increases your maintenance costs. Predictive maintenance allows you to plan the required repair at an optimal time before a breakdown occurs. However, predictive maintenance solutions can be challenging and costly to implement given the high costs and complexity of sensors and infrastructure. You also have to deal with the challenges of interpreting sensor data and accurately detecting faults in order to send alerts. Come learn how Amazon Monitron helps you solve these challenges by offering an out-of-the-box, end-to-end, cost-effective system.
As data grows, we need innovative approaches to get insight from all the information at scale and speed. AQUA is a new hardware-accelerated cache that uses purpose-built analytics processors to deliver up to 10 times better query performance than other cloud data warehouses by automatically boosting certain types of queries. It’s available in preview on Amazon Redshift RA3 nodes in select regions at no extra cost and without any code changes. Attend this session to understand how AQUA works and which analytic workloads will benefit the most from AQUA.
Figuring out if a part has been manufactured correctly, or if machine part is damaged, is vitally important. Making this determination usually requires people to inspect objects, which can be slow and error-prone. Some companies have applied automated image analysis—machine vision—to detect anomalies. While useful, these systems can be very difficult and expensive to maintain. In this session, learn how Amazon Lookout for Vision can automate visual inspection across your production lines in few days. Get started in minutes, and perform visual inspection and identify product defects using as few as 30 images, with no machine learning (ML) expertise required.
AWS Proton is a new service that enables infrastructure operators to create and manage common container-based and serverless application stacks and automate provisioning and code deployments through a self-service interface for their developers. Learn how infrastructure teams can empower their developers to use serverless and container technologies without them first having to learn, configure, and maintain the underlying resources.
Migrating applications from SQL Server to an open-source compatible database can be time-consuming and resource-intensive. Solutions such as the AWS Database Migration Service (AWS DMS) automate data and database schema migration, but there is often more work to do to migrate application code. This session introduces Babelfish for Aurora PostgreSQL, a new translation layer for Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL that enables Amazon Aurora to understand commands from applications designed to run on Microsoft SQL Server. Learn how Babelfish for Aurora PostgreSQL works to reduce the time, risk, and effort of migrating Microsoft SQL Server-based applications to Aurora, and see some of the capabilities that make this possible.
Over the past decade, we’ve witnessed a digital transformation in healthcare, with organizations capturing huge volumes of patient information. But this data is often unstructured and difficult to extract, with information trapped in clinical notes, insurance claims, recorded conversations, and more. In this session, explore how the new Amazon HealthLake service removes the heavy lifting of organizing, indexing, and structuring patient information to provide a complete view of each patient’s health record in the FHIR standard format. Come learn how to use prebuilt machine learning models to analyze and understand relationships in the data, identify trends, and make predictions, ultimately delivering better care for patients.
When business users want to ask new data questions that are not answered by existing business intelligence (BI) dashboards, they rely on BI teams to create or update data models and dashboards, which can take several weeks to complete. In this session, learn how Merlin lets users simply enter their questions on the Merlin search bar and get answers in seconds. Merlin uses natural language processing and semantic data understanding to make sense of the data. It extracts business terminologies and intent from users’ questions, retrieves the corresponding data from the source, and returns the answer in the form of a number, chart, or table in Amazon QuickSight.
When developers publish images publicly for anyone to find and use—whether for free or under license—they must make copies of common images and upload them to public websites and registries that do not offer the same availability commitment as Amazon ECR. This session explores a new Amazon public registry, Amazon ECR Public, built with AWS experience operating Amazon ECR. Here, developers can share georeplicated container software worldwide for anyone to discover and download. Developers can quickly publish public container images with a single command. Learn how anyone can browse and pull container software for use in their own applications.
Industrial companies are constantly working to avoid unplanned downtime due to equipment failure and to improve operational efficiency. Over the years, they have invested in physical sensors, data connectivity, data storage, and dashboarding to monitor equipment and get real-time alerts. Current data analytics methods include single-variable thresholds and physics-based modeling approaches, which are not effective at detecting certain failure types and operating conditions. In this session, learn how Amazon Lookout for Equipment uses data from your sensors to detect abnormal equipment behavior so that you can take action before machine failures occur and avoid unplanned downtime.
In this session, learn how Contact Lens for Amazon Connect enables your contact center supervisors to understand the sentiment of customer conversations, identify call drivers, evaluate compliance with company guidelines, and analyze trends. This can help supervisors train agents, replicate successful interactions, and identify crucial company and product feedback. Your supervisors can conduct fast full-text search on all transcripts to quickly troubleshoot customer issues. With real-time capabilities, you can get alerted to issues during live customer calls and deliver proactive assistance to agents while calls are in progress, improving customer satisfaction. Join this session to see how real-time ML-powered analytics can power your contact center.
AWS Local Zones places compute, storage, database, and other select services closer to locations where no AWS Region exists today. Last year, AWS launched the first two Local Zones in Los Angeles, and organizations are using Local Zones to deliver applications requiring ultra-low-latency compute. AWS is launching Local Zones in 15 metro areas to extend access across the contiguous US. In this session, learn how you can run latency-sensitive portions of applications local to end users and resources in a specific geography, delivering single-digit millisecond latency for use cases such as media and entertainment content creation, real-time gaming, reservoir simulations, electronic design automation, and machine learning.
Your customers expect a fast, frictionless, and personalized customer service experience. In this session, learn about Amazon Connect Customer Profiles—a new unified customer profile capability to allow agents to provide more personalized service during a call. Customer Profiles automatically brings together customer information from multiple applications, such as Salesforce, Marketo, Zendesk, ServiceNow, and Amazon Connect contact history, into a unified customer profile. With Customer Profiles, agents have the information they need, when they need it, directly in their agent application, resulting in improved customer satisfaction and reduced call resolution times (by up to 15%).
Preparing training data can be tedious. Amazon SageMaker Data Wrangler provides a faster, visual way to aggregate and prepare data for machine learning. In this session, learn how to use SageMaker Data Wrangler to connect to data sources and use prebuilt visualization templates and built-in data transforms to streamline the process of cleaning, verifying, and exploring data without having to write a single line of code. See a demonstration of how SageMaker Data Wrangler can be used to perform simple tasks as well as more advanced use cases. Finally, see how you can take your data preparation workflows into production with a single click.
To provide access to critical resources when needed and also limit the potential financial impact of an application outage, a highly available application design is critical. In this session, learn how you can use Amazon CloudWatch and AWS X-Ray to increase the availability of your applications. Join this session to learn how AWS observability solutions can help you proactively detect, efficiently investigate, and quickly resolve operational issues. All of which help you manage and improve your application’s availability.
Security is critical for your Kubernetes-based applications. Join this session to learn about the security features and best practices for Amazon EKS. This session covers encryption and other configurations and policies to keep your containers safe.
Don’t miss the AWS Partner Keynote with Doug Yeum, head of Global Partner Organization; Sandy Carter, vice president, Global Public Sector Partners and Programs; and Dave McCann, vice president, AWS Migration, Marketplace, and Control Services, to learn how AWS is helping partners modernize their businesses to help their customers transform.
Join Swami Sivasubramanian for the first-ever Machine Learning Keynote, live at re:Invent. Hear how AWS is freeing builders to innovate on machine learning with the latest developments in AWS machine learning, demos of new technology, and insights from customers.
Join Peter DeSantis, senior vice president of Global Infrastructure and Customer Support, to learn how AWS has optimized its cloud infrastructure to run some of the world’s most demanding womath.ceilrkloads and give your business a competitive edge.
Join Dr. Werner Vogels at 8:00AM (PST) as he goes behind the scenes to show how Amazon is solving today’s hardest technology problems. Based on his experience working with some of the largest and most successful applications in the world, Dr. Vogels shares his insights on building truly resilient architectures and what that means for the future of software development.
Cloud architecture has evolved over the years as the nature of adoption has changed and the level of maturity in our thinking continues to develop. In this session, Rudy Valdez, VP of Solutions Architecture and Training & Certification, walks
Organizations around the world are minimizing operations and maximizing agility by developing with serverless building blocks. Join David Richardson, VP of Serverless, for a closer look at the serverless programming model, including event-dri
AWS edge computing solutions provide infrastructure and software that move data processing and analysis as close to the endpoint where data is generated as required by customers. In this session, learn about new edge computing capabilities announced at re:Invent and how customers are using purpose-built edge solutions to extend the cloud to the edge.
Do you need to know what’s happening with your applications that run on Amazon EKS? In this session, learn how you can combine open-source tools, such as Prometheus and Grafana, with Amazon CloudWatch using CloudWatch Container Insights. Come to this session for a demo of Prometheus metrics with Container Insights.
The hard part is done. You and your team have spent weeks poring over pull requests, building microservices and containerizing them. Congrats! But what do you do now? How do you get those services on AWS? How do you manage multiple environments? How do you automate deployments? AWS Copilot is a new command line tool that makes building, developing, and operating containerized applications on AWS a breeze. In this session, learn how AWS Copilot can help you and your team manage your services and deploy them to production, safely and delightfully.
Five years ago, if you talked about containers, the assumption was that you were running them on a Linux VM. Fast forward to today, and now that assumption is challenged—in a good way. Come to this session to explore the best data plane option to meet your needs. This session covers the advantages of different abstraction models (Amazon EC2 or AWS Fargate), the operating system (Linux or Windows), the CPU architecture (x86 or Arm), and the commercial model (Spot or On-Demand Instances.)
Security is critical for your Kubernetes-based applications. Join this session to learn about the security features and best practices for Amazon EKS. This session covers encryption and other configurations and policies to keep your containers safe.
In this session, learn how the Commonwealth Bank of Australia (CommBank) built a platform to run containerized applications in a regulated environment and then replicated it across multiple departments using Amazon EKS, AWS CDK, and GitOps. This session covers how to manage multiple multi-team Amazon EKS clusters across multiple AWS accounts while ensuring compliance and observability requirements and integrating Amazon EKS with AWS Identity and Access Management, Amazon CloudWatch, AWS Secrets Manager, Application Load Balancer, Amazon Route 53, and AWS Certificate Manager.
Amazon EKS is a fully managed service that makes it easy to deploy, manage, and scale containerized applications using Kubernetes on AWS. Join this session to learn about how Verizon runs its core applications on Amazon EKS at scale. Verizon also discusses how it worked with AWS to overcome several post-Amazon EKS migration challenges and ensured that the platform was robust.
Containers have helped revolutionize modern application architecture. While managed container services have enabled greater agility in application development, coordinating safe deployments and maintainable infrastructure has become more important than ever. This session outlines how to integrate CI/CD best practices into deployments of your Amazon ECS and AWS Fargate services using pipelines and the latest in AWS developer tooling.
With Amazon ECS, you can run your containerized workloads securely and with ease. In this session, learn how to utilize the full spectrum of Amazon ECS security features and its tight integrations with AWS security features to help you build highly secure applications.
Do you have to budget your spend for container workloads? Do you need to be able to optimize your spend in multiple services to reduce waste? If so, this session is for you. It walks you through how you can use AWS services and configurations to improve your cost visibility. You learn how you can select the best compute options for your containers to maximize utilization and reduce duplication. This combined with various AWS purchase options helps you ensure that you’re using the best options for your services and your budget.
You have a choice of approach when it comes to provisioning compute for your containers. Some users prefer to have more direct control of their instances, while others could do away with the operational heavy lifting. AWS Fargate removes the need to provision and manage servers, lets you specify and pay for resources per application, and improves security through application isolation by design. This session explores the benefits and considerations of running on Fargate or directly on Amazon EC2 instances. You hear about new and upcoming features and learn how Amenity Analytics benefits from the serverless operational model.
Are you confused by the many choices of containers services that you can run on AWS? This session explores all your options and the advantages of each. Whether you are just beginning to learn Docker or are an expert with Kubernetes, join this session to learn how to pick the right services that would work best for you.
Leading containers migration and modernization initiatives can be daunting, but AWS is making it easier. This session explores architectural choices and common patterns, and it provides real-world customer examples. Learn about core technologies to help you build and operate container environments at scale. Discover how abstractions can reduce the pain for infrastructure teams, operators, and developers. Finally, hear the AWS vision for how to bring it all together with improved usability for more business agility.
As the number of services grow within an application, it becomes difficult to pinpoint the exact location of errors, reroute traffic after failures, and safely deploy code changes. In this session, learn how to integrate AWS App Mesh with Amazon ECS to export monitoring data and implement consistent communications control logic across your application. This makes it easy to quickly pinpoint the exact locations of errors and automatically reroute network traffic, keeping your container applications highly available and performing well.
Enterprises are continually looking to develop new applications using container technologies and leveraging modern CI/CD tools to automate their software delivery lifecycles. This session highlights the types of applications and associated factors that make a candidate suitable to be containerized. It also covers best practices that can be considered as you embark on your modernization journey.
Because of its security, reliability, and scalability capabilities, Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (Amazon EKS) is used by organization in their most sensitive and mission-critical applications. This session focuses on how Amazon EKS networking works with an Amazon VPC and how to expose your Kubernetes application using Elastic Load Balancing load balancers. It also looks at options for more efficient IP address utilization.
Network design is a critical component in your large-scale migration journey. This session covers some of the real-world networking challenges faced when migrating to the cloud. You learn how to overcome these challenges by diving deep into topics such as establishing private connectivity to your on-premises data center and accelerating data migrations using AWS Direct Connect/Direct Connect gateway, centralizing and simplifying your networking with AWS Transit Gateway, and extending your private DNS into the cloud. The session also includes a discussion of related best practices.
5G will be the catalyst for the next industrial revolution. In this session, come learn about key technical use cases for different industry segments that will be enabled by 5G and related technologies, and hear about the architectural patterns that will support these use cases. You also learn about AWS-enabled 5G reference architectures that incorporate AWS services.
AWS offers a breadth and depth of machine learning (ML) infrastructure you can use through either a do-it-yourself approach or a fully managed approach with Amazon SageMaker. In this session, explore how to choose the proper instance for ML inference based on latency and throughput requirements, model size and complexity, framework choice, and portability. Join this session to compare and contrast compute-optimized CPU-only instances, such as Amazon EC2 C4 and C5; high-performance GPU instances, such as Amazon EC2 G4 and P3; cost-effective variable-size GPU acceleration with Amazon Elastic Inference; and highest performance/cost with Amazon EC2 Inf1 instances powered by custom-designed AWS Inferentia chips.
When it comes to architecting your workloads on VMware Cloud on AWS, it is important to understand design patterns and best practices. Come join this session to learn how you can build well-architected cloud-based solutions for your VMware workloads. This session covers infrastructure designs with native AWS service integrations across compute, networking, storage, security, and operations. It also covers the latest announcements for VMware Cloud on AWS and how you can use these new features in your current architecture.
One of the most critical phases of executing a migration is moving traffic from your existing endpoints to your newly deployed resources in the cloud. This session discusses practices and patterns that can be leveraged to ensure a successful cutover to the cloud. The session covers preparation, tools and services, cutover techniques, rollback strategies, and engagement mechanisms to ensure a successful cutover.
AWS DeepRacer is the fastest way to get rolling with machine learning. Developers of all skill levels can get hands-on, learning how to train reinforcement learning models in a cloud based 3D racing simulator. Attend a session to get started, and then test your skills by competing for prizes and glory in an exciting autonomous car racing experience throughout re:Invent!
AWS DeepRacer gives you an interesting and fun way to get started with reinforcement learning (RL). RL is an advanced machine learning (ML) technique that takes a very different approach to training models than other ML methods. Its super power is that it learns very complex behaviors without requiring any labeled training data, and it can make short-term decisions while optimizing for a longer-term goal. AWS DeepRacer makes it fast and easy to build models in Amazon SageMaker and train, test, and iterate quickly and easily on the track in the AWS DeepRacer 3D racing simulator.
As more organizations are looking to migrate to the cloud, Red Hat OpenShift Service offers a proven, reliable, and consistent platform across the hybrid cloud. Red Hat and AWS recently announced a fully managed joint service that can be deployed directly from the AWS Management Console and can integrate with other AWS Cloud-native services. In this session, you learn about this new service, which delivers production-ready Kubernetes that many enterprises use on premises today, enhancing your ability to shift workloads to the AWS Cloud and making it easier to adopt containers and deploy applications faster. This presentation is brought to you by Red Hat, an AWS Partner.
Event-driven architecture can help you decouple services and simplify dependencies as your applications grow. In this session, you learn how Amazon EventBridge provides new options for developers who are looking to gain the benefits of this approach.