Use AWS Cheatsheets – I also found the cheatsheets provided by Tutorials Dojo very helpful. In my opinion, it is better than Jayendrapatil Patil’s blog since it contains more updated information that complements your review notes. #AWS Cheat Sheet
Watch this exam readiness 3hr video, it very recent webinar this provides what is expected in the exam. #AWS Exam Prep Video
Start off watching Ryan’s videos. Try and completely focus on the hands on. Take your time to understand what you are trying to learn and achieve in those LAB Sessions. #AWS Exam Prep Video
Do not rush into completing the videos. Take your time and hone the basics. Focus and spend a lot of time for the back bone of AWS infrastructure – Compute/EC2 section, Storage (S3/EBS/EFS), Networking (Route 53/Load Balancers), RDS, VPC, Route 3. These sections are vast, with lot of concepts to go over and have loads to learn. Trust me you will need to thoroughly understand each one of them to ensure you pass the certification comfortably. #AWS Exam Prep Video
Make sure you go through resources section and also AWS documentation for each components. Go over FAQs. If you have a question, please post it in the community. Trust me, each answer here helps you understand more about AWS. #AWS Faqs
Like any other product/service, each AWS offering has a different flavor. I will take an example of EC2 (Spot/Reserved/Dedicated/On Demand etc.). Make sure you understand what they are, what are the pros/cons of each of these flavors. Applies for all other offerings too. #AWS Services
Follow Neal K Davis on Linkedin and Read his updates about DVA-C01 #AWS Services
What is the AWS Certified Developer Associate Exam?
The AWS Certified Developer – Associate examination is intended for individuals who perform a development role and have one or more years of hands-on experience developing and maintaining an AWS-based application. It validates an examinee’s ability to:
Demonstrate an understanding of core AWS services, uses, and basic AWS architecture best practices
Demonstrate proficiency in developing, deploying, and debugging cloud-based applications using AWS
There are two types of questions on the examination:
Multiple-choice: Has one correct response and three incorrect responses (distractors).
Provide implementation guidance based on best practices to the organization throughout the lifecycle of the project.
Select one or more responses that best complete the statement or answer the question. Distractors, or incorrect answers, are response options that an examinee with incomplete knowledge or skill would likely choose. However, they are generally plausible responses that fit in the content area defined by the test objective. Unanswered questions are scored as incorrect; there is no penalty for guessing.
To succeed with the real exam, do not memorize the answers below. It is very important that you understand why a question is right or wrong and the concepts behind it by carefully reading the reference documents in the answers.
What are unique distinctions and similarities between AWS, Azure and Google Cloud services? For each AWS service, what is the equivalent Azure and Google Cloud service? For each Azure service, what is the corresponding Google Service? AWS Services vs Azure vs Google Services? Side by side comparison between AWS, Google Cloud and Azure Service?
Category: Marketplace Easy-to-deploy and automatically configured third-party applications, including single virtual machine or multiple virtual machine solutions. References: [AWS]:AWS Marketplace [Azure]:Azure Marketplace [Google]:Google Cloud Marketplace Tags: #AWSMarketplace, #AzureMarketPlace, #GoogleMarketplace Differences: They are both digital catalog with thousands of software listings from independent software vendors that make it easy to find, test, buy, and deploy software that runs on their respective cloud platform.
Tags: #AmazonLex, #CogintiveServices, #AzureSpeech, #Api.ai, #DialogFlow, #Tensorflow Differences: api.ai provides us with such a platform which is easy to learn and comprehensive to develop conversation actions. It is a good example of the simplistic approach to solving complex man to machine communication problem using natural language processing in proximity to machine learning. Api.ai supports context based conversations now, which reduces the overhead of handling user context in session parameters. On the other hand in Lex this has to be handled in session. Also, api.ai can be used for both voice and text based conversations (assistant actions can be easily created using api.ai).
Category: Serverless Description: Integrate systems and run backend processes in response to events or schedules without provisioning or managing servers. References: [AWS]:AWS Lambda [Azure]:Azure Functions [Google]:Google Cloud Functions Tags:#AWSLAmbda, #AzureFunctions, #GoogleCloudFunctions Differences: Both AWS Lambda and Microsoft Azure Functions and Google Cloud Functions offer dynamic, configurable triggers that you can use to invoke your functions on their platforms. AWS Lambda, Azure and Google Cloud Functions support Node.js, Python, and C#. The beauty of serverless development is that, with minor changes, the code you write for one service should be portable to another with little effort – simply modify some interfaces, handle any input/output transforms, and an AWS Lambda Node.JS function is indistinguishable from a Microsoft Azure Node.js Function. AWS Lambda provides further support for Python and Java, while Azure Functions provides support for F# and PHP. AWS Lambda is built from the AMI, which runs on Linux, while Microsoft Azure Functions run in a Windows environment. AWS Lambda uses the AWS Machine architecture to reduce the scope of containerization, letting you spin up and tear down individual pieces of functionality in your application at will.
Category:Caching Description:An in-memory–based, distributed caching service that provides a high-performance store typically used to offload non transactional work from a database. References: [AWS]:AWS ElastiCache (works as an in-memory data store and cache to support the most demanding applications requiring sub-millisecond response times.) [Azure]:Azure Cache for Redis (based on the popular software Redis. It is typically used as a cache to improve the performance and scalability of systems that rely heavily on backend data-stores.) [Google]:Memcache (In-memory key-value store, originally intended for caching) Tags:#Redis, #Memcached <Differences: They all support horizontal scaling via sharding.They all improve the performance of web applications by allowing you to retrive information from fast, in-memory caches, instead of relying on slower disk-based databases.”, “Differences”: “ElastiCache supports Memcached and Redis. Memcached Cloud provides various data persistence options as well as remote backups for disaster recovery purposes. Redis offers persistence to disk, Memcache does not. This can be very helpful if you cache lots of data, since you remove the slowness around having a fully cold cache. Redis also offers several extra data structures that Memcache doesn’t— Lists, Sets, Sorted Sets, etc. Memcache only has Key/Value pairs. Memcache is multi-threaded. Redis is single-threaded and event driven. Redis is very fast, but it’ll never be multi-threaded. At hight scale, you can squeeze more connections and transactions out of Memcache. Memcache tends to be more memory efficient. This can make a big difference around the magnitude of 10s of millions or 100s of millions of keys. ElastiCache supports Memcached and Redis. Memcached Cloud provides various data persistence options as well as remote backups for disaster recovery purposes. Redis offers persistence to disk, Memcache does not. This can be very helpful if you cache lots of data, since you remove the slowness around having a fully cold cache. Redis also offers several extra data structures that Memcache doesn’t— Lists, Sets, Sorted Sets, etc. Memcache only has Key/Value pairs. Memcache is multi-threaded. Redis is single-threaded and event driven. Redis is very fast, but it’ll never be multi-threaded. At hight scale, you can squeeze more connections and transactions out of Memcache. Memcache tends to be more memory efficient. This can make a big difference around the magnitude of 10s of millions or 100s of millions of keys.
Category: Enterprise application services Description:Fully integrated Cloud service providing communications, email, document management in the cloud and available on a wide variety of devices. References: [AWS]:Amazon WorkMail, Amazon WorkDocs, Amazon Kendra (Sync and Index) [Azure]:Office 365 [Google]:G Suite Tags: #AmazonWorkDocs, #Office365, #GoogleGSuite Differences: G suite document processing applications like Google Docs are far behind Office 365 popular Word and Excel software, but G Suite User interface is intuite, simple and easy to navigate. Office 365 is too clunky. Get 20% off G-Suite Business Plan with Promo Code: PCQ49CJYK7EATNC
Category: Management Description: A unified management console that simplifies building, deploying, and operating your cloud resources. References: [AWS]:AWS Management Console, Trusted Advisor, AWS Usage and Billing Report, AWS Application Discovery Service, Amazon EC2 Systems Manager, AWS Personal Health Dashboard, AWS Compute Optimizer (Identify optimal AWS Compute resources) [Azure]:Azure portal, Azure Advisor, Azure Billing API, Azure Migrate, Azure Monitor, Azure Resource Health [Google]:Google CLoud Platform, Cost Management, Security Command Center, StackDriver Tags: #AWSConsole, #AzurePortal, #GoogleCloudConsole, #TrustedAdvisor, #AzureMonitor, #SecurityCommandCenter Differences: AWS Console categorizes its Infrastructure as a Service offerings into Compute, Storage and Content Delivery Network (CDN), Database, and Networking to help businesses and individuals grow. Azure excels in the Hybrid Cloud space allowing companies to integrate onsite servers with cloud offerings. Google has a strong offering in containers, since Google developed the Kubernetes standard that AWS and Azure now offer. GCP specializes in high compute offerings like Big Data, analytics and machine learning. It also offers considerable scale and load balancing – Google knows data centers and fast response time.
Enables both Speech to Text, and Text into Speech capabilities. The Speech Services are the unification of speech-to-text, text-to-speech, and speech-translation into a single Azure subscription. It’s easy to speech enable your applications, tools, and devices with the Speech SDK, Speech Devices SDK, or REST APIs. Amazon Polly is a Text-to-Speech (TTS) service that uses advanced deep learning technologies to synthesize speech that sounds like a human voice. With dozens of lifelike voices across a variety of languages, you can select the ideal voice and build speech-enabled applications that work in many different countries. Amazon Transcribe is an automatic speech recognition (ASR) service that makes it easy for developers to add speech-to-text capability to their applications. Using the Amazon Transcribe API, you can analyze audio files stored in Amazon S3 and have the service return a text file of the transcribed speech.
Computer Vision: Extract information from images to categorize and process visual data. Amazon Rekognition is a simple and easy to use API that can quickly analyze any image or video file stored in Amazon S3. Amazon Rekognition is always learning from new data, and we are continually adding new labels and facial recognition features to the service.
Face: Detect, identy, and analyze faces in photos.
The Virtual Assistant Template brings together a number of best practices we’ve identified through the building of conversational experiences and automates integration of components that we’ve found to be highly beneficial to Bot Framework developers.
Redeploy and extend your VMware-based enterprise workloads to Azure with Azure VMware Solution by CloudSimple. Keep using the VMware tools you already know to manage workloads on Azure without disrupting network, security, or data protection policies.
Fully managed service that enables developers to deploy microservices applications without managing virtual machines, storage, or networking. AWS App Mesh is a service mesh that provides application-level networking to make it easy for your services to communicate with each other across multiple types of compute infrastructure. App Mesh standardizes how your services communicate, giving you end-to-end visibility and ensuring high-availability for your applications.
Integrate systems and run backend processes in response to events or schedules without provisioning or managing servers. AWS Lambda is an event-driven, serverless computing platform provided by Amazon as a part of the Amazon Web Services. It is a computing service that runs code in response to events and automatically manages the computing resources required by that code
Managed relational database service where resiliency, scale, and maintenance are primarily handled by the platform. Amazon Relational Database Service is a distributed relational database service by Amazon Web Services. It is a web service running “in the cloud” designed to simplify the setup, operation, and scaling of a relational database for use in applications. Administration processes like patching the database software, backing up databases and enabling point-in-time recovery are managed automatically. Scaling storage and compute resources can be performed by a single API call as AWS does not offer an ssh connection to RDS instances.
An in-memory–based, distributed caching service that provides a high-performance store typically used to offload non transactional work from a database. Amazon ElastiCache is a fully managed in-memory data store and cache service by Amazon Web Services. The service improves the performance of web applications by retrieving information from managed in-memory caches, instead of relying entirely on slower disk-based databases. ElastiCache supports two open-source in-memory caching engines: Memcached and Redis.
Migration of database schema and data from one database format to a specific database technology in the cloud. AWS Database Migration Service helps you migrate databases to AWS quickly and securely. The source database remains fully operational during the migration, minimizing downtime to applications that rely on the database. The AWS Database Migration Service can migrate your data to and from most widely used commercial and open-source databases.
Comprehensive solution for collecting, analyzing, and acting on telemetry from your cloud and on-premises environments. Amazon CloudWatch is a monitoring and observability service built for DevOps engineers, developers, site reliability engineers (SREs), and IT managers. CloudWatch provides you with data and actionable insights to monitor your applications, respond to system-wide performance changes, optimize resource utilization, and get a unified view of operational health. CloudWatch collects monitoring and operational data in the form of logs, metrics, and events, providing you with a unified view of AWS resources, applications, and services that run on AWS and on-premises servers. AWS X-Ray is an application performance management service that enables a developer to analyze and debug applications in the Amazon Web Services (AWS) public cloud. A developer can use AWS X-Ray to visualize how a distributed application is performing during development or production, and across multiple AWS regions and accounts.
A cloud service for collaborating on code development. AWS CodeDeploy is a fully managed deployment service that automates software deployments to a variety of compute services such as Amazon EC2, AWS Fargate, AWS Lambda, and your on-premises servers. AWS CodeDeploy makes it easier for you to rapidly release new features, helps you avoid downtime during application deployment, and handles the complexity of updating your applications. AWS CodePipeline is a fully managed continuous delivery service that helps you automate your release pipelines for fast and reliable application and infrastructure updates. CodePipeline automates the build, test, and deploy phases of your release process every time there is a code change, based on the release model you define. AWS CodeCommit is a source code storage and version-control service for Amazon Web Services’ public cloud customers. CodeCommit was designed to help IT teams collaborate on software development, including continuous integration and application delivery.
Collection of tools for building, debugging, deploying, diagnosing, and managing multiplatform scalable apps and services. The AWS Developer Tools are designed to help you build software like Amazon. They facilitate practices such as continuous delivery and infrastructure as code for serverless, containers, and Amazon EC2.
Built on top of the native REST API across all cloud services, various programming language-specific wrappers provide easier ways to create solutions. The AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) is a unified tool to manage your AWS services. With just one tool to download and configure, you can control multiple AWS services from the command line and automate them through scripts.
Configures and operates applications of all shapes and sizes, and provides templates to create and manage a collection of resources. AWS OpsWorks is a configuration management service that provides managed instances of Chef and Puppet. Chef and Puppet are automation platforms that allow you to use code to automate the configurations of your servers.
Provides a way for users to automate the manual, long-running, error-prone, and frequently repeated IT tasks. AWS CloudFormation provides a common language for you to describe and provision all the infrastructure resources in your cloud environment. CloudFormation allows you to use a simple text file to model and provision, in an automated and secure manner, all the resources needed for your applications across all regions and accounts.
Provides an isolated, private environment in the cloud. Users have control over their virtual networking environment, including selection of their own IP address range, creation of subnets, and configuration of route tables and network gateways.
Azure Digital Twins is an IoT service that helps you create comprehensive models of physical environments. Create spatial intelligence graphs to model the relationships and interactions between people, places, and devices. Query data from a physical space rather than disparate sensors.
Allows users to securely control access to services and resources while offering data security and protection. Create and manage users and groups, and use permissions to allow and deny access to resources.
Azure Policy is a service in Azure that you use to create, assign, and manage policies. These policies enforce different rules and effects over your resources, so those resources stay compliant with your corporate standards and service level agreements.
Azure management groups provide a level of scope above subscriptions. You organize subscriptions into containers called “management groups” and apply your governance conditions to the management groups. All subscriptions within a management group automatically inherit the conditions applied to the management group. Management groups give you enterprise-grade management at a large scale, no matter what type of subscriptions you have.
Easily join your distributed microservice architectures into a single global application using HTTP load balancing and path-based routing rules. Automate turning up new regions and scale-out with API-driven global actions, and independent fault-tolerance to your back end microservices in Azure—or anywhere.
Azure Stack is a hybrid cloud platform that enables you to run Azure services in your company’s or service provider’s datacenter. As a developer, you can build apps on Azure Stack. You can then deploy them to either Azure Stack or Azure, or you can build truly hybrid apps that take advantage of connectivity between an Azure Stack cloud and Azure.
Basically, it all comes down to what your organizational needs are and if there’s a particular area that’s especially important to your business (ex. serverless, or integration with Microsoft applications).
Some of the main things it comes down to is compute options, pricing, and purchasing options.
Here’s a brief comparison of the compute option features across cloud providers:
Here’s an example of a few instances’ costs (all are Linux OS):
Each provider offers a variety of options to lower costs from the listed On-Demand prices. These can fall under reservations, spot and preemptible instances and contracts.
Both AWS and Azure offer a way for customers to purchase compute capacity in advance in exchange for a discount: AWS Reserved Instances and Azure Reserved Virtual Machine Instances. There are a few interesting variations between the instances across the cloud providers which could affect which is more appealing to a business.
Another discounting mechanism is the idea of spot instances in AWS and low-priority VMs in Azure. These options allow users to purchase unused capacity for a steep discount.
With AWS and Azure, enterprise contracts are available. These are typically aimed at enterprise customers, and encourage large companies to commit to specific levels of usage and spend in exchange for an across-the-board discount – for example, AWS EDPs and Azure Enterprise Agreements.
You can read more about the differences between AWS and Azure to help decide which your business should use in this blog post
What is the AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner Exam?
The AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner Exam (CLF-C01) is an introduction to AWS services and the intention is to examine the candidates ability to define what the AWS cloud is and its global infrastructure. It provides an overview of AWS core services security aspects, pricing and support services. The main objective is to provide an overall understanding about the Amazon Web Services Cloud platform. The course helps you get the conceptual understanding of the AWS and can help you know about the basics of AWS and cloud computing, including the services, cases and benefits.
To succeed with the real exam, do not memorize the answers below. It is very important that you understand why a question is right or wrong and the concepts behind it by carefully reading the reference documents in the answers.
Ensure one CloudTrail is enabled for all regions. Turn on CloudTrail for all regions in your environment and CloudTrail will deliver log files from all regions to one S3 bucket. AWS CloudTrail is a service that enables governance, compliance, operational auditing, and risk auditing of your AWS account. With CloudTrail, you can log, continuously monitor, and retain account activity related to actions across your AWS infrastructure. CloudTrail provides event history of your AWS account activity, including actions taken through the AWS Management Console, AWS SDKs, command line tools, and other AWS services. This event history simplifies security analysis, resource change tracking, and troubleshooting.
Use a VPC Endpoint to access S3. A VPC endpoint enables you to privately connect your VPC to supported AWS services and VPC endpoint services powered by PrivateLink without requiring an internet gateway, NAT device, VPN connection, or AWS Direct Connect connection. Instances in your VPC do not require public IP addresses to communicate with resources in the service. Traffic between your VPC and the other service does not leave the Amazon network.
AWS PrivateLink simplifies the security of data shared with cloud-based applications by eliminating the exposure of data to the public Internet.
Answer: iOS – Android (A and D) It is AWS responsibility to secure Edge locations and decommission the data. AWS responsibility “Security of the Cloud” – AWS is responsible for protecting the infrastructure that runs all of the services offered in the AWS Cloud. This infrastructure is composed of the hardware, software, networking, and facilities that run AWS Cloud services.
Q4:You have EC2 instances running at 90% utilization and you expect this to continue for at least a year. What type of EC2 instance would you choose to ensure your cost stay at a minimum?
A. Dedicated host instances
B. On-demand instances
C. Spot instances
D. Reserved instances
Answer: iOS – Android Reserved instances are the best choice for instances with continuous usage and offer a reduced cost because you purchase the instance for the entire year. Amazon EC2 Reserved Instances (RI) provide a significant discount (up to 75%) compared to On-Demand pricing and provide a capacity reservation when used in a specific Availability Zone.
Q5:What tool would you use to get an estimated monthly cost for your environment?
A. TCO Calculator
B. Simply Monthly Calculator
C. Cost Explorer
D. Consolidated Billing
Answer: iOS – Android (B) The AWS Simple Monthly Calculator helps customers and prospects estimate their monthly AWS bill more efficiently. Using this tool, they can add, modify and remove services from their 'bill' and it will recalculate their estimated monthly charges automatically.
Q6: How do you make sure your organization does not exceed its monthly budget?
A. Sign up for the free alert under filing preferences in the AWS Management Console.
B. Set a schedule to regularly review the Billing an Cost Management dashboard each month.
C. Create an email alert in AWS Budget
D. In CloudWatch, create an alarm that triggers each time the limit is exceeded.
Answer: iOS – Android (C) AWS Budgets gives you the ability to set custom budgets that alert you when your costs or usage exceed (or are forecasted to exceed) your budgeted amount. You can also use AWS Budgets to set reservation utilization or coverage targets and receive alerts when your utilization drops below the threshold you define. Reservation alerts are supported for Amazon EC2, Amazon RDS, Amazon Redshift, Amazon ElastiCache, and Amazon Elasticsearch reservations.
Q7:An Edge Location is a specialization AWS data centre that works with which services?
D. Route 53
Answer: iOS – Android Lambda@Edge lets you run Lambda functions to customize the content that CloudFront delivers, executing the functions in AWS locations closer to the viewer. Amazon CloudFront is a web service that speeds up distribution of your static and dynamic web content, such as .html, .css, .js, and image files, to your users. CloudFront delivers your content through a worldwide network of data centers called edge locations. When a user requests content that you're serving with CloudFront, the user is routed to the edge location that provides the lowest latency (time delay), so that content is delivered with the best possible performance.
CloudFront speeds up the distribution of your content by routing each user request through the AWS backbone network to the edge location that can best serve your content. Typically, this is a CloudFront edge server that provides the fastest delivery to the viewer. Using the AWS network dramatically reduces the number of networks that your users' requests must pass through, which improves performance. Users get lower latency—the time it takes to load the first byte of the file—and higher data transfer rates.
You also get increased reliability and availability because copies of your files (also known as objects) are now held (or cached) in multiple edge locations around the world.
Q8:What is the preferred method of linking 2 AWS accounts?
A. AWS Organizations
B. Cost Explorer
C. VPC Peering
D. Consolidated billing
Answer: iOS – Android (A) AWS Organizations is an account management service that enables you to consolidate multiple AWS accounts into an organization that you create and centrally manage. AWSOrganizations includes account management and consolidated billing capabilities that enable you to better meet the budgetary, security, and compliance needs of your business.
Route 53 is a domain name system service by AWS. When a Disaster does occur , it can be easy to switch to secondary sites using the Route53 service.
Amazon Route 53 is a highly available and scalable cloud Domain Name System (DNS) web service. It is designed to give developers and businesses an extremely reliable and cost effective way to route end users to Internet applications by translating names like www.example.com into the numeric IP addresses like 192.0.2.1 that
computers use to connect to each other. Amazon Route 53 is fully compliant with IPv6 as well.
The below snapshot from the AWS Documentation shows the spectrum of the Disaster recovery methods. If you go to the further end of the spectrum you have the least time for downtime for the users.
Q11:Your company is planning to host resources in the AWS Cloud. They want to use services which can be used to decouple resources hosted on the cloud. Which of the following services can help fulfil this requirement?
A. AWS EBS Volumes
B. AWS EBS Snapshots
C. AWS Glacier
D. AWS SQS
D. AWS SQS: Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) offers a reliable, highly-scalable hosted queue for storing messages as they travel between applications or microservices. It moves data between distributed application components and helps you decouple these components.
You can use Amazon CloudWatch Logs to monitor, store, and access your log files from Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances, AWS CloudTrail, and other sources. You can then retrieve the associated log data from CloudWatch Log.
Q22:A company is deploying a new two-tier web application in AWS. The company wants to store their most frequently used data so that the response time for the application is improved. Which AWS service provides the solution for the company’s requirements?
A. MySQL Installed on two Amazon EC2 Instances in a single Availability Zone
Amazon ElastiCache is a web service that makes it easy to deploy, operate, and scale an in-memory data store or cache in the cloud. The service improves the performance of web applications by allowing you to retrieve information from fast, managed, in-memory data stores, instead of relying entirely on slower disk-based databases.
Q23:You have a distributed application that periodically processes large volumes of data across multiple Amazon EC2 Instances. The application is designed to recover gracefully from Amazon EC2 instance failures. You are required to accomplish this task in the most cost-effective way. Which of the following will meet your requirements?
When you think of cost effectiveness, you can either have to choose Spot or Reserved instances. Now when you have a regular processing job, the best is to use spot instances and since your application is designed recover gracefully from Amazon EC2 instance failures, then even if you lose the Spot instance , there is no issue because your application can recover.
A network access control list (ACL) is an optional layer of security for your VPC that acts as a firewall for controlling traffic in and out of one or more subnets. You might set up network ACLs with rules similar to your security groups in order to add an additional layer of security to your VPC.
Always build components which are loosely coupled. This is so that even if one component does fail, the entire system does not fail. Also if you build with the assumption that everything will fail, then you will ensure that the right measures are taken to build a highly available and fault tolerant system.
Q29: You have 2 accounts in your AWS account. One for the Dev and the other for QA. All are part of consolidated billing. The master account has purchase 3 reserved instances. The Dev department is currently using 2 reserved instances. The QA team is planning on using 3 instances which of the same instance type. What is the pricing tier of the instances that can be used by the QA Team?
Since all are a part of consolidating billing, the pricing of reserved instances can be shared by All. And since 2 are already used by the Dev team , another one can be used by the QA team. The rest of the instances can be on-demand instances.
Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) offers a reliable, highly-scalable hosted queue for storing messages as they travel between applications or microservices. It moves data between distributed application components and helps you decouple these components.
Q32:You are exploring what services AWS has off-hand. You have a large number of data sets that need to be processed. Which of the following services can help fulfil this requirement.
D. Storage Gateway
A. Amazon EMR helps you analyze and process vast amounts of data by distributing the computational work across a cluster of virtual servers running in the AWS Cloud. The cluster is managed using an open-source framework called Hadoop. Amazon EMR lets you focus on crunching or analyzing your data without having to worry about time-consuming setup, management, and tuning of Hadoop clusters or the compute capacity they rely on.
Amazon Inspector enables you to analyze the behaviour of your AWS resources and helps you to identify potential security issues. Using Amazon Inspector, you can define a collection of AWS resources that you want to include in an assessment target. You can then create an assessment template and launch a security assessment run of this target.
Q34:Your company is planning to offload some of the batch processing workloads on to AWS. These jobs can be interrupted and resumed at any time. Which of the following instance types would be the most cost effective to use for this purpose.
C. Full Upfront Reserved
D. Partial Upfront Reserved
B. Spot Instances are a cost-effective choice if you can be flexible about when your applications run and if your applications can be interrupted. For example, Spot Instances are well-suited for data analysis, batch jobs, background processing, and optional tasks
Snowball is a petabyte-scale data transport solution that uses secure appliances to transfer large amounts of data& into and out of the AWS cloud. Using Snowball addresses common challenges with large-scale data transfers including high network costs, long transfer times, and security concerns. Transferring data with Snowball is simple, fast, secure, and can be as little as one-fifth the cost of high-speed Internet.
Amazon Inspector enables you to analyze the behavior of your AWS resources and helps you to identify potential security issues. Using Amazon Inspector, you can define a collection of AWS resources that you want to include in an assessment target. You can then create an assessment template and launch a security assessment run of this target.
AWS Database Migration Service helps you migrate databases to AWS quickly and securely. The source database remains fully operational during the migration, minimizing downtime to applications that rely on the database. The AWS Database Migration Service can migrate your data to and from most widely used commercial and open source databases.
You can reduce the load on your source DB Instance by routing read queries from your applications to the read replica. Read replicas allow you to elastically scale out beyond the capacity constraints of a single DB instance for read-heavy database workloads.
Q42:Your company is planning to host a large e-commerce application on the AWS Cloud. One of their major concerns is Internet attacks such as DDos attacks. Which of the following services can help mitigate this concern. Choose 2 answers from the options given below
One of the first techniques to mitigate DDoS attacks is to minimize the surface area that can be attacked thereby limiting the options for attackers and allowing you to build protections in a single place. We want to ensure that we do not expose our application or resources to ports, protocols or applications from where they do not expect any communication. Thus, minimizing the possible points of attack and letting us concentrate our mitigation efforts. In some cases, you can do this by placing your computation resources behind Content Distribution Networks (CDNs), Load Balancers and restricting direct Internet traffic to certain parts of your infrastructure like your database servers. In other cases, you can use firewalls or Access Control Lists (ACLs) to control what traffic reaches your applications.
You can use the consolidated billing feature in AWS Organizations to consolidate payment for multiple AWS accounts or multiple AISPL accounts. With consolidated billing, you can see a combined view of AWS charges incurred by all of your accounts. You also can get a cost report for each member account that is associated with your master account. Consolidated billing is offered at no additional charge.
One of the first techniques to mitigate DDoS attacks is to minimize the surface area that can be attacked thereby limiting the options for attackers and allowing you to build protections in a single place. We want to ensure that we do not expose our application or resources to ports, protocols or applications from where they do not expect any communication. Thus, minimizing the possible points of attack and letting us concentrate our mitigation efforts. In some cases, you can do this by placing your computation resources behind; Content Distribution Networks (CDNs), Load Balancers and restricting direct Internet traffic to certain parts of your infrastructure like your database servers. In other cases, you can use firewalls or Access Control Lists (ACLs) to control what traffic reaches your applications.
If the database is going to be used for a minimum of one year at least , then it is better to get Reserved Instances. You can save on costs , and if you use a partial upfront options , you can get a better discount
Security groups acts as a virtual firewall for your instance to control inbound and outbound traffic. Network access control list (ACL) is an optional layer of security for your VPC that acts as a firewall for controlling traffic in and out of one or more subnets.
C: AWS is defined as a cloud services provider. They provide hundreds of services of which compute and storage are included (not not limited to).
Q60: Which AWS service can be used as a global content delivery network (CDN) service?
A. Amazon SES
B. Amazon CouldTrail
C. Amazon CloudFront
D. Amazon S3
C: Amazon CloudFront is a web service that gives businesses and web application developers an easy
and cost effective way to distribute content with low latency and high data transfer speeds. Like other AWS services, Amazon CloudFront is a self-service, pay-per-use offering, requiring no long term commitments or minimum fees. With CloudFront, your files are delivered to end-users using a global network of edge locations.Reference: AWS cloudfront
Q61:What best describes the concept of fault tolerance?
Choose the correct answer:
A. The ability for a system to withstand a certain amount of failure and still remain functional.
B. The ability for a system to grow in size, capacity, and/or scope.
C. The ability for a system to be accessible when you attempt to access it.
D. The ability for a system to grow and shrink based on demand.
A: Fault tolerance describes the concept of a system (in our case a web application) to have failure in some of its components and still remain accessible (highly available). Fault tolerant web applications will have at least two web servers (in case one fails).
Q62: The firm you work for is considering migrating to AWS. They are concerned about cost and the initial investment needed. Which of the following features of AWS pricing helps lower the initial investment amount needed? Choose 2 answers from the options given below:
A. The ability to choose the lowest cost vendor.
B. The ability to pay as you go
C. No upfront costs
D. Discounts for upfront payments
B and C: The best features of moving to the AWS Cloud is: No upfront cost and The ability to pay as you go where the customer only pays for the resources needed. Reference: AWS pricing
Q64: Your company has started using AWS. Your IT Security team is concerned with the security of hosting resources in the Cloud. Which AWS service provides security optimization recommendations that could help the IT Security team secure resources using AWS?
An online resource to help you reduce cost, increase performance, and improve security by optimizing your AWS environment, Trusted Advisor provides real time guidance to help you provision your resources following AWS best practices. Reference: AWS trusted advisor
Q65:What is the relationship between AWS global infrastructure and the concept of high availability?
Choose the correct answer:
A. AWS is centrally located in one location and is subject to widespread outages if something happens at that one location.
B. AWS regions and Availability Zones allow for redundant architecture to be placed in isolated parts of the world.
C. Each AWS region handles a different AWS services, and you must use all regions to fully use AWS.
As an AWS user, you can create your applications infrastructure and duplicate it. By placing duplicate infrastructure in multiple regions, high availability is created because if one region fails you have a backup (in a another region) to use.
Q66: You are hosting a number of EC2 Instances on AWS. You are looking to monitor CPU Utilization on the Instance. Which service would you use to collect and track performance metrics for AWS services?
Amazon CloudWatch is a monitoring service for AWS cloud resources and the applications you run on AWS. You can use Amazon CloudWatch to collect and track metrics, collect and monitor log files, set alarms, and automatically react to changes in your AWS resources. Reference: AWS cloudwatch/
Q67: Which of the following support plans give access to all the checks in the Trusted Advisor service. Choose 2 answers from the options given below:
Q68: Which of the following in AWS maps to a separate geographic location?
A. AWS Region
B. AWS Data Centers
C. AWS Availability Zone
Answer: iOS – Android A: Amazon cloud computing resources are hosted in multiple locations world-wide. These locations are composed of AWS Regions and Availability Zones. Each AWS Region is a separate geographic area. Reference: AWS Regions And Availability Zone
Q69:What best describes the concept of scalability?
Choose the correct answer:
A. The ability for a system to grow and shrink based on demand.
B. The ability for a system to grow in size, capacity, and/or scope.
C. The ability for a system be be accessible when you attempt to access it.
D. The ability for a system to withstand a certain amount of failure and still remain functional.
Answer: iOS – Android B: Scalability refers to the concept of a system being able to easily (and cost-effectively) scale UP. For web applications, this means the ability to easily add server capacity when demand requires.
Q70: If you wanted to monitor all events in your AWS account, which of the below services would you use?
A. AWS CloudWatch
B. AWS CloudWatch logs
C. AWS Config
D. AWS CloudTrail
D: AWS CloudTrail is a service that enables governance, compliance, operational auditing, and risk
auditing of your AWS account. With CloudTrail, you can log, continuously monitor, and retain account activity related to actions across your AWS infrastructure. CloudTrail provides event history of your AWS account activity, including actions taken through the AWS Management Console, AWS SDKs, command line tools, and other AWS services. This event history simplifies security analysis, resource change tracking, and troubleshooting. Reference: Cloudtrail
Fault tolerance, scalability, elasticity, and high availability are the four primary benefits of AWS/the cloud.
Q72:What best describes a simplified definition of the “cloud”?
Choose the correct answer:
A. All the computers in your local home network.
B. Your internet service provider
C. A computer located somewhere else that you are utilizing in some capacity.
D. An on-premise data center that your company owns.
Answer: iOS – Android (D) The simplest definition of the cloud is a computer that is located somewhere else that you are utilizing in some capacity. AWS is a cloud services provider, as the provide access to computers they own (located at AWS data centers), that you use for various purposes.
Q73: Your development team is planning to host a development environment on the cloud. This consists of EC2 and RDS instances. This environment will probably only be required for 2 months. Which types of instances would you use for this purpose?
Answer: iOS – Android (A) The best and cost effective option would be to use On-Demand Instances. The AWS documentation gives the following additional information on On-Demand EC2 Instances. With On-Demand instances you only pay for EC2 instances you use. The use of On-Demand instances frees you from the costs and complexities of planning, purchasing, and maintaining hardware and transforms what are commonly large fixed costs into much smaller variable costs. Reference: AWS ec2 pricing on-demand
Q74: Which of the following can be used to secure EC2 Instances?
security groups acts as a virtual firewall for your instance to control inbound and outbound traffic. When you launch an instance in a VPC, you can assign up to five security groups to the instance. Security groups act at the instance level, not the subnet level. Therefore, each instance in a subnet in your VPC could be assigned to a different set of security groups. If you don't specify a particular group at launch time, the instance is automatically assigned to the default security group for the VPC. Reference: VPC Security Groups
Q75: What is the purpose of a DNS server?
Choose the correct answer:
A. To act as an internet search engine.
B. To protect you from hacking attacks.
C. To convert common language domain names to IP addresses.
Domain name system servers act as a “third party” that provides the service of converting common language domain names to IP addresses (which are required for a web browser to properly make a request for web content).
High availability refers to the concept that something will be accessible when you try to access it. An object or web application is “highly available” when it is accessible a vast majority of the time.
Amazon WorkSpaces is a managed, secure Desktop-as-a-Service (DaaS) solution. You can use Amazon WorkSpaces to provision either Windows or Linux desktops in just a few minutes and quickly scale to provide thousands of desktops to workers across the globe
Q87: Your company has recently migrated large amounts of data to the AWS cloud in S3 buckets. But it is necessary to discover and protect the sensitive data in these buckets. Which AWS service can do that?
Notes:Amazon Macie is a fully managed data security and data privacy service that uses machine learning and pattern matching to discover and protect your sensitive data in AWS.
Q88:Your Finance Department has instructed you to save costs wherever possible when using the AWS Cloud. You notice that using reserved EC2 instances on a 1year contract will save money. What payment method will save the most money?
B: Partial Upfront
C: All Upfront
D: No Upfront
Notes: With the All Upfront option, you pay for the entire Reserved Instance term with one upfront payment. This option provides you with the largest discount compared to On Demand Instance pricing.
Q89:A fantasy sports company needs to run an application for the length of a football season (5 months). They will run the application on an EC2 instance and there can be no interruption. Which purchasing option best suits this use case?
Notes: This is not a long enough term to make reserved instances the better option. Plus, the application can't be interrupted, which rules out spot instances. Dedicated instances provide the option to bring along existing software licenses.
The scenario does not indicate a need to do this.
Q90:Your company is considering migrating its data center to the cloud. What are the advantages of the AWS cloud over an on-premises data center?
A. Replace upfront operational expenses with low variable operational expenses.
B. Maintain physical access to the new data center, but share responsibility with AWS.
C. Replace low variable costs with upfront capital expenses.
D. Replace upfront capital expenses with low variable costs.
Q91: You are leading a pilot program to try the AWS Cloud for one of your applications. You have been instructed to provide an estimate of your AWS bill. Which service will allow you to do this by manually entering your planned resources by service?
Notes: With the AWS Pricing Calculator, you can input the services you will use, and the configuration of those services, and get an estimate of the costs these services will accrue. AWS Pricing Calculator lets you explore AWS services, and create an estimate for the cost of your use cases on AWS.
Q92: Which AWS service would enable you to view the spending distribution in one of your AWS accounts?
Notes: AWS Cost Explorer is a free tool that you can use to view your costs and usage. You can view data up to the last 13 months, forecast how much you are likely to spend for the next three months, and get recommendations for what Reserved Instances to purchase. You can use AWS Cost Explorer to see patterns in how much you spend on AWS resources over time, identify areas that need further inquiry, and see trends that you can use to understand your costs. You can also specify time ranges for the data, and view time data by day or by month.
Q93:You are managing the company’s AWS account. The current support plan is Basic, but you would like to begin using Infrastructure Event Management. What support plan (that already includes Infrastructure Event Management without an additional fee) should you upgrade to?
A. Upgrade to Enterprise plan.
B. Do nothing. It is included in the Basic plan.
C. Upgrade to Developer plan.
D. Upgrade to the Business plan. No other steps are necessary.
Notes:AWS Infrastructure Event Management is a structured program available to Enterprise support customers (and Business Support customers for an additional fee) that helps you plan for large-scale events, such as product or application launches, infrastructure migrations, and marketing events.
With Infrastructure Event Management, you get strategic planning assistance before your event, as well as real-time support during these moments that matter most for your business.
Q94:You have decided to use the AWS Cost and Usage Report to track your EC2 Reserved Instance costs. To where can these reports be published?
A. Trusted Advisor
B. An S3 Bucket that you own.
D. An AWS owned S3 Bucket.
Notes: The AWS Cost and Usage Reports (AWS CUR) contains the most comprehensive set of cost and usage data available. You can use Cost and Usage Reports to publish your AWS billing reports to an Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket that you own. You can receive reports that break down your costs by the hour or day, by product or product resource, or by tags that you define yourself. AWS updates the report in your bucket once a day in comma-separated value (CSV) format. You can view the reports using spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel or Apache OpenOffice Calc, or access them from an application using the Amazon S3 API.
Q95:What can we do in AWS to receive the benefits of volume pricing for your multiple AWS accounts?
A. Use consolidated billing in AWS Organizations.
B. Purchase services in bulk from AWS Marketplace.
Notes: You can use the consolidated billing feature in AWS Organizations to consolidate billing and payment for multiple AWS accounts or multiple Amazon Internet Services Pvt. Ltd (AISPL) accounts. You can combine the usage across all accounts in the organization to share the volume pricing discounts, Reserved Instance discounts, and Savings Plans. This can result in a lower charge for your project, department, or company than with individual standalone accounts.
Q96:A gaming company is using the AWS Developer Tool Suite to develop, build, and deploy their applications. Which AWS service can be used to trace user requests from end-to-end through the application?
Notes:AWS X-Ray helps developers analyze and debug production, distributed applications, such as those built using a microservices architecture. With X-Ray, you can understand how your application and its underlying services are performing to identify and troubleshoot the root cause of performance issues and errors. X-Ray provides an end-to-end view of requests as they travel through your application, and shows a map of your application’s underlying components.
Q97: A company needs to use a Load Balancer which can serve traffic at the TCP, and UDP layers. Additionally, it needs to handle millions of requests per second at very low latencies. Which Load Balancer should they use?
Notes:Network Load Balancer is best suited for load balancing of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) traffic where extreme performance is required. Operating at the connection level (Layer 4), Network Load Balancer routes traffic to targets within Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) and is capable of handling millions of requests per second while maintaining ultra-low latencies.
Q98: Your company is migrating its services to the AWS cloud. The DevOps team has heard about infrastructure as code, and wants to investigate this concept. Which AWS service would they investigate?
Notes:AWS CloudFormation is a service that helps you model and set up your Amazon Web Services resources so that you can spend less time managing those resources and more time focusing on your applications that run in AWS.
Q99:You have a MySQL database that you want to migrate to the cloud, and you need it to be significantly faster there. You are looking for a speed increase up to 5 times the current performance. Which AWS offering could you use?
Notes:Amazon Aurora is a MySQL and PostgreSQL-compatible relational database built for the cloud, that combines the performance and availability of traditional enterprise databases with the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of open source databases. Amazon Aurora is up to five times faster than standard MySQL databases and three times faster than standard PostgreSQL databases.
Q100:A developer is trying to programmatically retrieve information from an EC2 instance such as public keys, ip address, and instance id. From where can this information be retrieved?
I assume it is your subscription where the VPCs are located, otherwise you can’t really discover the information you are looking for. On the EC2 server you could use AWS CLI or Powershell based scripts that query the IP information. Based on IP you can find out what instance uses the network interface, what security groups are tied to it and in which VPC the instance is hosted. Read more here…
When a Lambda “is in a VPC”, it really means that its attached Elastic Network Interface is the customer’s VPC and not the hidden VPC that AWS manages for Lambda.
The ENI is not related to the AWS Lambda management system that does the invocation (the data plane mentioned here). The AWS Step Function system can go ahead and invoke the Lambda through the API, and the network request for that can pass through the underlying VPC and host infrastructure.
Those Lambdas in turn can invoke other Lambda directly through the API, or more commonly by decoupling them, such as through Amazon SQS used as a trigger. Read more ….
5.How do I invoke an AWS Lambda function programmatically?
Invokes a Lambda function. You can invoke a function synchronously (and wait for the response), or asynchronously. To invoke a function asynchronously, set InvocationType to Event.
For synchronous invocation, details about the function response, including errors, are included in the response body and headers. For either invocation type, you can find more information in the execution log and trace.
When an error occurs, your function may be invoked multiple times. Retry behavior varies by error type, client, event source, and invocation type. For example, if you invoke a function asynchronously and it returns an error, Lambda executes the function up to two more times. For more information, see Retry Behavior.
For asynchronous invocation, Lambda adds events to a queue before sending them to your function. If your function does not have enough capacity to keep up with the queue, events may be lost. Occasionally, your function may receive the same event multiple times, even if no error occurs. To retain events that were not processed, configure your function with a dead-letter queue.
The status code in the API response doesn’t reflect function errors. Error codes are reserved for errors that prevent your function from executing, such as permissions errors, limit errors, or issues with your function’s code and configuration. For example, Lambda returns TooManyRequestsException if executing the function would cause you to exceed a concurrency limit at either the account level ( ConcurrentInvocationLimitExceeded) or function level ( ReservedFunctionConcurrentInvocationLimitExceeded).
For functions with a long timeout, your client might be disconnected during synchronous invocation while it waits for a response. Configure your HTTP client, SDK, firewall, proxy, or operating system to allow for long connections with timeout or keep-alive settings.
The subnet mask determines how many bits of the network address are relevant (and thus indirectly the size of the network block in terms of how many host addresses are available) –
192.0.2.0, subnet mask 255.255.255.0 means that 192.0.2 is the significant portion of the network number, and that there 8 bits left for host addresses (i.e. 192.0.2.0 thru 192.0.2.255)
192.0.2.0, subnet mask 255.255.255.128 means that 192.0.2.0 is the significant portion of the network number (first three octets and the most significant bit of the last octet), and that there 7 bits left for host addresses (i.e. 192.0.2.0 thru 192.0.2.127)
When in doubt, envision the network number and subnet mask in base 2 (i.e. binary) and it will become much clearer. Read more here…
The NAT EC2 instance (server), or AWS-provided NAT gateway is necessary only if the private subnet internal addresses need to make outbound connections. The NAT will translate the private subnet internal addresses to the public subnet internal addresses, and the AWS VPC Internet Gateway will translate these to external IP addresses, which can then go out to the Internet. Read more here ….
12. What are the applications (or workloads) that cannot be migrated on to cloud (AWS or Azure or GCP)?
A good example of workloads that currently are not in public clouds are mobile and fixed core telecom networks for tier 1 service providers. This is despite the fact that these core networks are increasingly software based and have largely been decoupled from the hardware. There are a number of reasons for this such as the public cloud providers such as Azure and AWS do not offer the guaranteed availability required by telecom networks. These networks require 99.999% availability and is typically referred to as telecom grade.
The regulatory environment frequently restricts hosting of subscriber data outside the of the operators data centers or in another country and key network functions such as lawful interception cannot contractually be hosted off-prem. Read more here….
13.How many CIDRs can we add to my own created VPC?
You can add up to 5 IPv4 CIDR blocks, or 1 IPv6 block per VPC. You can further segment the network by utilizing up to 200 subnets per VPC. Amazon VPC Limits. Read more …
14. Why can’t a subnet’s CIDR be changed once it has been assigned?
Sure it can, but you’ll need to coordinate with the neigbours. You can merge two /25’s into a single /24 quite effortlessly if you control the entire range it covers. In practice you’ll see many tiny allocations in public IPv4 space, like /29’s and even smaller. Those are all assigned to different people. If you want to do a big shuffle there, you have a lot of coordinating to do.. or accept the fallout from the breakage you cause. Read more…
15. Can one VPC talk to another VPC?
Yes, but a Virtual Private Cloud is usually built for the express purpose of being isolated from unwanted external traffic. I can think of several good reasons to encourage that sort of communication, so the idea is not without merit. Read more..
Good knowledge about the AWS services, and how to leverage them to solve simple to complex problems.
As your question is related to the deployment Pod, you will probably be asked about deployment methods (A/B testing like blue-green deployment) as well as pipelining strategies. You might be asked during this interview to reason about a simple task and to code it (like parsing a log file). Also review the TCP/IP stack in-depth as well as the tools to troubleshoot it for the networking round. You will eventually have some Linux questions, the range of questions can vary from common CLI tools to Linux internals like signals / syscalls / file descriptors and so on.
Last but not least the Leadership principles, I can only suggest you to prepare a story for each of them. You will quickly find what LP they are looking for and would be able to give the right signal to your interviewer.
Finally, remember that theres a debrief after the (usually 5) stages of your on site interview, and more senior and convincing interviewers tend to defend their vote so don’t screw up with them.
Be natural, focus on the question details and ask for confirmation, be cool but not too much. At the end of the day, remember that your job will be to understand customer issues and provide a solution, so treat your interviewers as if they were customers and they will see a successful CSE in you, be reassured and give you the job.
Expect questions on cloudformations, Teraform, Aws ec2/rds and stack related questions.
It also depends on the support team you are being hired for. Networking or compute teams (Ec2) have different interview patterns vs database or big data support.
In any case, basics of OS, networking are critical to the interview. If you have a phone screen, we will be looking for basic/semi advance skills of these and your speciality. For example if you mention Oracle in your resume and you are interviewing for the database team, expect a flurry of those questions.
Other important aspect is the Amazon leadership principles. Half of your interview is based on LPs. If you fail to have scenarios where you do not demonstrate our LPs, you cannot expect to work here even though your technical skills are above average (Having extraordinary skills is a different thing).
The overall interview itself will have 1 phone screen if you are interviewing in the US and 1–2 if outside US. The onsite loop will be 4 rounds , 2 of which are technical (again divided into OS and networking and the specific speciality of the team you are interviewing for ) and 2 of them are leadership principles where we test your soft skills and management skills as they are very important in this job. You need to have a strong view point, disagree if it seems valid to do so, empathy and be a team player while showing the ability to pull off things individually as well. These skills will be critical for cracking LP interviews.
You will NOT be asked to code or write queries as its not part of the job, so you can concentrate on the theoretical part of the subject and also your resume. We will grill you on topics mentioned on your resume to start with.
Monolithic architecture is something that build from single piece of material, historically from rock. Monolith term normally use for object made from single large piece of material.” – Non-Technical Definition. “Monolithic application has single code base with multiple modules.
Large Monolithic code-base (often spaghetti code) puts immense cognitive complexity on the developer’s head. As a result, the development velocity is poor. Granular scaling (i.e., scaling part of the application) is not possible. Polyglot programming or polyglot database is challenging.
Drawbacks of Monolithic Architecture
This simple approach has a limitation in size and complexity. Application is too large and complex to fully understand and made changes fast and correctly. The size of the application can slow down the start-up time. You must redeploy the entire application on each update.
Sticky sessions, also known as session affinity, allow you to route a site user to the particular web server that is managing that individual user’s session. The session’s validity can be determined by a number of methods, including a client-side cookies or via configurable duration parameters that can be set at the load balancer which routes requests to the web servers.
Some advantages with utilizing sticky sessions are that it’s cost effective due to the fact you are storing sessions on the same web servers running your applications and that retrieval of those sessions is generally fast because it eliminates network latency. A drawback for using storing sessions on an individual node is that in the event of a failure, you are likely to lose the sessions that were resident on the failed node. In addition, in the event the number of your web servers change, for example a scale-up scenario, it’s possible that the traffic may be unequally spread across the web servers as active sessions may exist on particular servers. If not mitigated properly, this can hinder the scalability of your applications. Read more here …
After you terminate an instance, it remains visible in the console for a short while, and then the entry is automatically deleted. You cannot delete the terminated instance entry yourself. After an instance is terminated, resources such as tags and volumes are gradually disassociated from the instance, therefore may no longer be visible on the terminated instance after a short while.
When an instance terminates, the data on any instance store volumes associated with that instance is deleted.
By default, Amazon EBS root device volumes are automatically deleted when the instance terminates. However, by default, any additional EBS volumes that you attach at launch, or any EBS volumes that you attach to an existing instance persist even after the instance terminates. This behavior is controlled by the volume’s DeleteOnTermination attribute, which you can modify
When you first launch an instance with gp2 volumes attached, you get an initial burst credit allowing for up to 30 minutes of 3,000 iops/sec.
After the first 30 minutes, your volume will accrue credits as follows (taken directly from AWS documentation):
Within the General Purpose (SSD) implementation is a Token Bucket model that works as follows
Each token represents an “I/O credit” that pays for one read or one write.
A bucket is associated with each General Purpose (SSD) volume, and can hold up to 5.4 million tokens.
Tokens accumulate at a rate of 3 per configured GB per second, up to the capacity of the bucket.
Tokens can be spent at up to 3000 per second per volume.
The baseline performance of the volume is equal to the rate at which tokens are accumulated — 3 IOPS per GB per second.
In addition to this, gp2 volumes provide baseline performance of 3 iops per Gb, up to 1Tb (3000 iops). Volumes larger than 1Tb no longer work on the credit system, as they already provide a baseline of 3000 iops. Gp2 volumes have a cap of 10,000 iops regardless of the volume size (so the iops max out for volumes larger than 3.3Tb)
Elastic IP addresses are free when you have them assigned to an instance, feel free to use one! Elastic IPs get disassociated when you stop an instance, so you will get charged in the mean time. The benefit is that you get to keep that IP allocated to your account though, instead of losing it like any other. Once you start the instance you just re-associate it back and you have your old IP again.
Here are the changes associated with the use of Elastic IP addresses
No cost for Elastic IP addresses while in use
* $0.01 per non-attached Elastic IP address per complete hour
* $0.00 per Elastic IP address remap – first 100 remaps / month
* $0.10 per Elastic IP address remap – additional remap / month over 100
If you require any additional information about pricing please reference the link below
The short answer to reducing your AWS EC2 costs – turn off your instances when you don’t need them.
Your AWS bill is just like any other utility bill, you get charged for however much you used that month. Don’t make the mistake of leaving your instances on 24/7 if you’re only using them during certain days and times (ex. Monday – Friday, 9 to 5).
To automatically start and stop your instances, AWS offers an “EC2 scheduler” solution. A better option would be a cloud cost management tool that not only stops and starts your instances automatically, but also tracks your usage and makes sizing recommendations to optimize your cloud costs and maximize your time and savings.
You could potentially save money using Reserved Instances. But, in non-production environments such as dev, test, QA, and training, Reserved Instances are not your best bet. Why is this the case? These environments are less predictable; you may not know how many instances you need and when you will need them, so it’s better to not waste spend on these usage charges. Instead, schedule such instances (preferably using ParkMyCloud). Scheduling instances to be only up 12 hours per day on weekdays will save you 65% – better than all but the most restrictive 3-year RIs!
They are definitely all chalk and cheese to one another.
A VPN (Virtual Private Network) is essentially an encrypted “channel” connecting two networks, or a machine to a network, generally over the public internet.
A VPS (Virtual Private Server) is a rented virtual machine running on someone else’s hardware. AWS EC2 can be thought of as a VPS, but the term is usually used to describe low-cost products offered by lots of other hosting companies.
A VPC (Virtual Private Cloud) is a virtual network in AWS (Amazon Web Services). It can be divided into private and public subnets, have custom routing rules, have internal connections to other VPCs, etc. EC2 instances and other resources are placed in VPCs similarly to how physical data centers have operated for a very long time.
Elastic IP address is basically the static IP (IPv4) address that you can allocate to your resources.
Now, in case that you allocate IP to the resource (and the resource is running), you are not charged anything. On the other hand, if you create Elastic IP, but you do not allocate it to the resource (or the resource is not running), then you are charged some amount (should be around $0.005 per hour if I remember correctly)
Additional info about these:
You are limited to 5 Elastic IP addresses per region. If you require more than that, you can contact AWS support with a request for additional addresses. You need to have a good reason in order to be approved because IPv4 addresses are becoming a scarce resource.
In general, you should be good without Elastic IPs for most of the use-cases (as every EC2 instance has its own public IP, and you can use load balancers, as well as map most of the resources via Route 53).
One of the use-cases that I’ve seen where my client is using Elastic IP is to make it easier for him to access specific EC2 instance via RDP, as well as do deployment through Visual Studio, as he targets the Elastic IP, and thus does not have to watch for any changes in public IP (in case of stopping or rebooting).
The EC2 instance is server instance whilst a Workspace is windows desktop instance
Both Windows Server and Windows workstation editions have desktops. Windows Server Core doesn’t not (and AWS doesn’t have an AMI for Windows Server Core that I could find).
It is possible to SSH into a Windows instance – this is done on port 22. You would not see a desktop when using SSH if you had enabled it. It is not enabled by default.
If you are seeing a desktop, I believe you’re “RDPing” to the Windows instance. This is done with the RDP protocol on port 3389.
Two different protocols and two different ports.
Workspaces doesn’t allow terminal or ssh services by default. You need to use Workspace client. You still can enable RDP or/and SSH but this is not recommended.
Workspaces is a managed desktop service. AWS is taking care of pre-build AMIs, software licenses, joining to domain, scaling etc.
What is Amazon EC2?Scalable, pay-as-you-go compute capacity in the cloud. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is a web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. It is designed to make web-scale computing easier for developers.
What is Amazon WorkSpaces?Easily provision cloud-based desktops that allow end-users to access applications and resources. With a few clicks in the AWS Management Console, customers can provision a high-quality desktop experience for any number of users at a cost that is highly competitive with traditional desktops and half the cost of most virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) solutions. End-users can access the documents, applications and resources they need with the device of their choice, including laptops, iPad, Kindle Fire, or Android tablets.
Elastic – Amazon EC2 enables you to increase or decrease capacity within minutes, not hours or days. You can commission one, hundreds or even thousands of server instances simultaneously.
Completely Controlled – You have complete control of your instances. You have root access to each one, and you can interact with them as you would any machine.
Flexible – You have the choice of multiple instance types, operating systems, and software packages. Amazon EC2 allows you to select a configuration of memory, CPU, instance storage, and the boot partition size that is optimal for your choice of operating system and application.
On the other hand, Amazon WorkSpaces provides the following key features:
Support Multiple Devices- Users can access their Amazon WorkSpaces using their choice of device, such as a laptop computer (Mac OS or Windows), iPad, Kindle Fire, or Android tablet.
Keep Your Data Secure and Available- Amazon WorkSpaces provides each user with access to persistent storage in the AWS cloud. When users access their desktops using Amazon WorkSpaces, you control whether your corporate data is stored on multiple client devices, helping you keep your data secure.
Choose the Hardware and Software you need- Amazon WorkSpaces offers a choice of bundles providing different amounts of CPU, memory, and storage so you can match your Amazon WorkSpaces to your requirements. Amazon WorkSpaces offers preinstalled applications (including Microsoft Office) or you can bring your own licensed software.
S3 is the storehouse for the internet i.e. object storage built to store & retrieve any amount of data from anywhere S3
AWS Backup is an externally-accessible backup provider that makes it easier to align & optimize the backup of data across AWS services in the cloud. AWS_Backup
Amazon Elastic Block Store is a web service that provides block-level storage volumes. EBS
Amazon EFS Storage
EFS offers file storage for the user’s Amazon EC2 instances. It’s kind of blob Storage. EFS
FSx supply fully managed 3rd-party file systems with the native compatibility & characteristic sets for workloads. It’s available as FSx for Windows server (Fully managed file storage built on Windows Server) & Lustre (Fully managed high-performance file system integrated with S3). FSx_WindowsFSx_Lustre
AWS Storage Gateway
Storage Gateway is a service which connects an on-premises software appliance with cloud-based storage. Storage_Gateway
DataSync makes it simple & fast to move large amounts of data online between on-premises storage & S3, EFS, or FSx for Windows File Server. DataSync
AWS Transfer Family
The Transfer Family provides fully managed support for file transfers directly into & out of S3. Transfer_Family
AWS Snow Family
Highly-secure, portable devices to collect & process data at the edge, and migrate data into and out of AWS. Snow_Family
Classification: Object storage: S3 File storage services: Elastic File System, FSx for Windows Servers & FSx for Lustre Block storage: EBS Backup: AWS Backup Data transfer: Storage gateway –> 3 types: Tape, File, Volume. Transfer Family –> SFTP, FTPS, FTP. Edge computing and storage and Snow Family –> Snowcone, Snowball, Snowmobile
Traditional applications, ERP, CRM, e-commerce
Aurora, RDS, Redshift
RDS is a web service that makes it easier to set up, control, and scale a relational database in the cloud. AuroraRDSRedshift
High-traffic web apps, e-commerce systems, gaming applications
DynamoDB is a fully administered NoSQL database service that offers quick and reliable performance with integrated scalability. DynamoDB
ElastiCache helps in setting up, managing, and scaling in-memory cache conditions. MemcachedRedis
Content management, catalogs, user profiles
DocumentDB (with MongoDB compatibility) is a quick, dependable, and fully-managed database service that makes it easy for you to set up, operate, and scale MongoDB-compatible databases.DocumentDB
High scale industrial apps for equipment maintenance, fleet management, and route optimization
Keyspaces (for Apache Cassandra)
Keyspaces is a scalable, highly available, and managed Apache Cassandra–compatible database service. Keyspaces
Fraud detection, social networking, recommendation engines
Neptune is a fast, reliable, fully managed graph database service that makes it easy to build and run applications that work with highly connected datasets. Neptune
IoT applications, DevOps, industrial telemetry
Timestream is a fast, scalable, and serverless time series database service for IoT and operational applications that makes it easy to store and analyze trillions of events per day. Timestream
Systems of record, supply chain, registrations, banking transactions
Quantum Ledger Database (QLDB)
QLDB is a fully managed ledger database that provides a transparent, immutable, and cryptographically verifiable transaction log owned by a central trusted authority. QLDB
Cloud9 is a cloud-based IDE that enables the user to write, run, and debug code. Cloud9
CodeArtifact is a fully managed artifact repository service that makes it easy for organizations of any size to securely store, publish, & share software packages used in their software development process. CodeArtifact
CodeBuild is a fully managed service that assembles source code, runs unit tests, & also generates artefacts ready to deploy. CodeBuild
CodeGuru is a developer tool powered by machine learning that provides intelligent recommendations for improving code quality & identifying an application’s most expensive lines of code. CodeGuru
Cloud Development Kit
Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK) is an open source software development framework to define cloud application resources using familiar programming languages. CDK
CodeCommit is a version control service that enables the user to personally store & manage Git archives in the AWS cloud. CodeCommit
CodeDeploy is a fully managed deployment service that automates software deployments to a variety of compute services such as EC2, Fargate, Lambda, & on-premises servers. CodeDeploy
CodePipeline is a fully managed continuous delivery service that helps automate release pipelines for fast & reliable app & infra updates. CodePipeline
CodeStar enables to quickly develop, build, & deploy applications on AWS. CodeStar
AWS CLI is a unified tool to manage AWS services & control multiple services from the command line & automate them through scripts. CLI
X-Ray helps developers analyze & debug production, distributed applications, such as those built using a microservices architecture. X-Ray
Provides scalable, cost-effective business continuity for physical, virtual, & cloud servers. CloudEndure
No cost, self-service portal for on-demand access to AWS’ compliance reports
Artifact is a web service that enables the user to download AWS security & compliance records. Artifact
Data Lakes & Analytics
Athena is an interactive query service that makes it easy to analyze data in S3 using standard SQL. Athena
Big data processing
EMR is the industry-leading cloud big data platform for processing vast amounts of data using open source tools such as Apache Spark, Hive, HBase,Flink, Hudi, & Presto. EMR
The most popular & fastest cloud data warehouse. Redshift
Kinesis makes it easy to collect, process, & analyze real-time, streaming data so one can get timely insights. Kinesis
Elasticsearch Service is a fully managed service that makes it easy to deploy, secure, & run Elasticsearch cost effectively at scale. ES
Dashboards & visualizations
QuickSight is a fast, cloud-powered business intelligence service that makes it easy to deliver insights to everyone in organization. QuickSight
Real-time data movement
1) Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (MSK) 2) Kinesis Data Streams 3) Kinesis Data Firehose 4) Kinesis Data Analytics 5) Kinesis Video Streams 6) Glue
MSK is a fully managed service that makes it easy to build & run applications that use Apache Kafka to process streaming data. MSKKDSKDFKDAKVSGlue
1) S3 2) Lake Formation
Lake Formation is a service that makes it easy to set up a secure data lake in days. A data lake is a centralized, curated, & secured repository that stores all data, both in its original form & prepared for analysis. S3LakeFormation
Backup & archive
1) S3 Glacier 2) Backup
S3 Glacier & S3 Glacier Deep Archive are a secure, durable, & extremely low-cost S3 cloud storage classes for data archiving & long-term backup. S3Glacier
1) Glue 2)) Lake Formation
Refer as above.
Data Exchange makes it easy to find, subscribe to, & use third-party data in the cloud. DataExchange
Predictive analytics && machine learning
Frameworks & interfaces
Deep Learning AMIs
Deep Learning AMIs provide machine learning practitioners & researchers with the infrastructure & tools to accelerate deep learning in the cloud, at any scale. DeepLearningAMIs
SageMaker is a fully managed service that provides every developer & data scientist with the ability to build, train, & deploy machine learning (ML) models quickly. SageMaker
Store, encrypt, and manage container images
Refer compute section
Run containerized applications or build microservices
Refer compute section
Manage containers with Kubernetes
Refer compute section
Run containers without managing servers
Fargate is a serverless compute engine for containers that works with both ECS & EKS. Fargate