The typical Google Machine Learning Engineer salary is $147,218. Machine Learning Engineer salaries at Google can range from $110,000 – $152,183.
Machine learning is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can access data and use it to learn for themselves.
- By the end of 2020, 85% of customer interactions will be handled without a human (Call Center, Chatbot, etc…)
- 61% of marketers say artificial intelligence is the most important aspect of their data strategy.
- 80% of business and tech leaders say AI already boosts productivity (Robotic Process Automation, Power Automate, etc..)
- Current AI technology can boost business productivity by up to 40%
What does a Professional Machine Learning Engineer do?
A Professional Machine Learning Engineer designs, builds, and productionizes ML models to solve business challenges using Google Cloud technologies and knowledge of proven ML models and techniques. The ML Engineer collaborates closely with other job roles to ensure long-term success of models. The ML Engineer should be proficient in all aspects of model architecture, data pipeline interaction, and metrics interpretation. The ML Engineer needs familiarity with application development, infrastructure management, data engineering, and security. Through an understanding of training, retraining, deploying, scheduling, monitoring, and improving models, they design and create scalable solutions for optimal performance.
The AWS Certified Machine Learning – Specialty certification is intended for individuals who perform a development or data science role. It validates a candidate’s ability to design, implement, deploy, and maintain machine learning (ML) solutions for given business problems.
This blog covers Machine Learning 101, Top 20 AWS Certified Machine Learning Specialty Questions and Answers, Top 20 Google Professional Machine Learning Engineer Sample Questions, Machine Learning Quizzes, Machine Learning Q&A, Top 10 Machine Learning Algorithms, Machine Learning Latest Hot News, Machine Learning Demos (Ex: Tensorflow Demos)
Below are the Top 20 AWS Certified Machine Learning Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps.
Question1: A machine learning team has several large CSV datasets in Amazon S3. Historically, models built with the Amazon SageMaker Linear Learner algorithm have taken hours to train on similar-sized datasets. The team’s leaders need to accelerate the training process. What can a machine learning specialist do to address this concern?
A) Use Amazon SageMaker Pipe mode.
B) Use Amazon Machine Learning to train the models.
C) Use Amazon Kinesis to stream the data to Amazon SageMaker.
D) Use AWS Glue to transform the CSV dataset to the JSON format.
Question 2) A local university wants to track cars in a parking lot to determine which students are parking in the lot. The university is wanting to ingest videos of the cars parking in near-real time, use machine learning to identify license plates, and store that data in an AWS data store. Which solution meets these requirements with the LEAST amount of development effort?
A) Use Amazon Kinesis Data Streams to ingest the video in near-real time, use the Kinesis Data Streams consumer integrated with Amazon Rekognition Video to process the license plate information, and then store results in DynamoDB.
B) Use Amazon Kinesis Video Streams to ingest the videos in near-real time, use the Kinesis Video Streams integration with Amazon Rekognition Video to identify the license plate information, and then store the results in DynamoDB.
C) Use Amazon Kinesis Data Streams to ingest videos in near-real time, call Amazon Rekognition to identify license plate information, and then store results in DynamoDB.
D) Use Amazon Kinesis Firehose to ingest the video in near-real time and outputs results onto S3. Set up a Lambda function that triggers when a new video is PUT onto S3 to send results to Amazon Rekognition to identify license plate information, and then store results in DynamoDB.
Question 3) A term frequency–inverse document frequency (tf–idf) matrix using both unigrams and bigrams is built from a text corpus consisting of the following two sentences:
Question 4: A company is setting up a system to manage all of the datasets it stores in Amazon S3. The company would like to automate running transformation jobs on the data and maintaining a catalog of the metadata concerning the datasets. The solution should require the least amount of setup and maintenance. Which solution will allow the company to achieve its goals?
Question 5) Which service in the Kinesis family allows you to easily load streaming data into data stores and analytics tools?
Question 14) You have been tasked with capturing two different types of streaming events. The first event type includes mission-critical data that needs to immediately be processed before operations can continue. The second event type includes data of less importance, but operations can continue without immediately processing. What is the most appropriate solution to record these different types of events?
Question 15) You are collecting clickstream data from an e-commerce website to make near-real time product suggestions for users actively using the site. Which combination of tools can be used to achieve the quickest recommendations and meets all of the requirements?
Question 16) Which service built by AWS makes it easy to set up a retry mechanism, aggregate records to improve throughput, and automatically submits CloudWatch metrics?
Question 17) You have been tasked with capturing data from an online gaming platform to run analytics on and process through a machine learning pipeline. The data that you are ingesting is players controller inputs every 1 second (up to 10 players in a game) that is in JSON format. The data needs to be ingested through Kinesis Data Streams and the JSON data blob is 100 KB in size. What is the minimum number of shards you can use to successfully ingest this data?
Question 18) Which services in the Kinesis family allows you to analyze streaming data, gain actionable insights, and respond to your business and customer needs in real time?
Question 19) You are a ML specialist needing to collect data from Twitter tweets. Your goal is to collect tweets that include only the name of your company and the tweet body, and store it off into a data store in AWS. What set of tools can you use to stream, transform, and load the data into AWS with the LEAST amount of effort?
Question 20) Which service in the Kinesis family allows you to build custom applications that process or analyze streaming data for specialized needs?
Top 10 Google Professional Machine Learning Engineer Sample Questions
Question 1: You work for a textile manufacturer and have been asked to build a model to detect and classify fabric defects. You trained a machine learning model with high recall based on high resolution images taken at the end of the production line. You want quality control inspectors to gain trust in your model. Which technique should you use to understand the rationale of your classifier?
A. Use K-fold cross validation to understand how the model performs on different test datasets.
B. Use the Integrated Gradients method to efficiently compute feature attributions for each predicted image.
C. Use PCA (Principal Component Analysis) to reduce the original feature set to a smaller set of easily understood features.
D. Use k-means clustering to group similar images together, and calculate the Davies-Bouldin index to evaluate the separation between clusters.
Question 2: You need to write a generic test to verify whether Dense Neural Network (DNN) models automatically released by your team have a sufficient number of parameters to learn the task for which they were built. What should you do?
Question 4: You work on a team where the process for deploying a model into production starts with data scientists training different versions of models in a Kubeflow pipeline. The workflow then stores the new model artifact into the corresponding Cloud Storage bucket. You need to build the next steps of the pipeline after the submitted model is ready to be tested and deployed in production on AI Platform. How should you configure the architecture before deploying the model to production?
Question 10) You work for a large financial institution that is planning to use Dialogflow to create a chatbot for the company’s mobile app. You have reviewed old chat logs and tagged each conversation for intent based on each customer’s stated intention for contacting customer service. About 70% of customer inquiries are simple requests that are solved within 10 intents. The remaining 30% of inquiries require much longer and more complicated requests. Which intents should you automate first?
Machine Learning Q&A Part I:
Azure and AWS are second class citizens in this area.
Sure, AWS has 70% of the market.
Sure, Azure is the easiest turn key and super user friendly.
But, the king of machine learning in the cloud is GCP.
GCP = Google Cloud Platform
Google has the largest data science team in the world, not mention they have Hinton.
Let’s forgot for a minute they created TensorFlow and give it away.
Let’s just talk about building a real world model with data that doesn’t fit into a excel spreadsheet.
The vast majority of applied machine learning is supervised and that means we need data.
Not just normal data, we need very clean highly structured data.
Where’s the easiest place in the world to upload and model a Petabyte of structured data? BigQuery of course.
Why BigQuery? I don’t have to do anything but upload my data. No spinning up RedShit clusters or whatever I have to do in Azure, just upload and massage data with my familiar SQL. If I do have to wrangle my data it won’t take my six months to update 5 rows here, minutes usually.
Then, you’ll need a front end. Cloud datalab is a Jupyter notebook, which is good because I don’t want nor do I need anything else.
Then, with a single line of code I connect by datalab (Jupyter) notebook to my data in BigQuery and build away.
I’ve worked in all three and the only thing I care about is getting to my job the fastest and right now that means I build my models in GCP.
If you’re new to machine learning don’t start in GCP or any cloud vendor for that matter. Start learning Python from the comfort of your laptop.
The course below is free to the first 20.
Here, I want to share the best research paper on Machine Learning classification methods, titled ‘Do we Need Hundreds of Classifiers to Solve Real World Classification Problems?’, published in the ‘Journal of Machine Learning Research’.
This paper nicely explained 179 classification techniques and applied them on 121 data sets thus sharing small summary of the paper:
Do we Need Hundreds of Classifiers to Solve Real World Classification Problems?
The paper evaluated 179 classifiers arising from 17 ML families (discriminant analysis, Bayesian, neural networks, support vector machines, decision trees, rule-based classifiers, boosting, bagging, stacking, random forests and other ensembles, generalized linear models, nearest neighbours, partial least squares and principal component regression, logistic and multinomial regression, multiple adaptive regression splines and other methods), implemented in Weka, R ( with and without the caret package), C and Matlab, including all the relevant classifiers available today.
Experiments used total 121 data sets , which represent the whole UCI data base (excluding the large-scale problems) and other own real problems, in order to achieve significant conclusions about the classifier behaviour, not dependent on the data set collection.
The whole data set and partitions are available from: http://persoal.citius.usc.es/manuel.fernandez.delgado/papers/jmlr/data.tar.gz
The classifiers most likely to be the bests are the random forest (RF) versions, the best of which (implemented in R and accessed via caret) achieves 94.1% of the maximum accuracy overcoming 90% in the 84.3% of the data sets. However, the difference is not statistically significant with the second best, the SVM with Gaussian kernel implemented in C using LibSVM, which achieves 92.3% of the maximum accuracy. A few models are clearly better than the remaining ones: random forest, SVM with Gaussian and polynomial kernels, extreme learning machine with Gaussian kernel, C5.0 and avNNet (a committee of multi-layer perceptrons implemented in R with the caret package).
The random forest is clearly the best family of classifiers (3 out of 5 bests classifiers are RF), followed by SVM (4 classifiers in the top-10), neural networks and boosting ensembles (5 and 3 members in the top-20, respectively).
You can see the table with the complete results: http://persoal.citius.usc.es/manuel.fernandez.delgado/papers/jmlr/results.txt
I hope it will be helpful for Statistic and Machine Leaning aspirants!
Machine Learning Q&A -Part II:
Machine Learning Latest News
Top 10 Machine Learning Algorithms
What are the simplest examples of machine learning algorithms?
In machine learning, there’s something called the “No Free Lunch” theorem. In a nutshell, it states that no one algorithm works best for every problem. It’s especially relevant for supervised learning. For example, you can’t say that neural networks are always better than decision trees or vice-versa. Furthermore, there are many factors at play, such as the size and structure of your dataset. As a result, you should try many different algorithms for your problem!
Top ML Algorithms
1. Linear Regression
Regression is a technique for numerical prediction. Additionally, regression is a statistical measure that attempts to determine the strength of the relationship between two variables. One is a dependent variable. Other is from a series of other changing variables which are our independent variables. Moreover, just like Classification is for predicting categorical labels, Regression is for predicting a continuous value. For example, we may wish to predict the salary of university graduates with 5 years of work experience. We use regression to determine how much specific factors or sectors influence the dependent variable.
Linear regression attempts to model the relationship between a scalar variable and explanatory variables by fitting a linear equation. For example, one might want to relate the weights of individuals to their heights using a linear regression model.
Additionally, this operator calculates a linear regression model. It uses the Akaike criterion for model selection. Furthermore, the Akaike information criterion is a measure of the relative goodness of a fit of a statistical model.
2. Logistic Regression
Logistic regression is a classification model. It uses input variables to predict a categorical outcome variable. The variable can take on one of a limited set of class values. A binomial logistic regression relates to two binary output categories. A multinomial logistic regression allows for more than two classes. Examples of logistic regression include classifying a binary condition as “healthy” / “not healthy”. Logistic regression applies the logistic sigmoid function to weighted input values to generate a prediction of the data class.
A logistic regression model estimates the probability of a dependent variable as a function of independent variables. The dependent variable is the output that we are trying to predict. The independent variables or explanatory variables are the factors that we feel could influence the output. Multiple regression refers to regression analysis with two or more independent variables. Multivariate regression, on the other hand, refers to regression analysis with two or more dependent variables.
3. Linear Discriminant Analysis
Logistic Regression is a classification algorithm traditionally for two-class classification problems. If you have more than two classes then the Linear Discriminant Analysis algorithm is the preferred linear classification technique.
The representation of LDA is pretty straight forward. It consists of statistical properties of your data, calculated for each class. For a single input variable this includes:
- The mean value for each class.
- The variance calculated across all classes.
We make predictions by calculating a discriminate value for each class. After that we make a prediction for the class with the largest value. The technique assumes that the data has a Gaussian distribution. Hence, it is a good idea to remove outliers from your data beforehand. It’s a simple and powerful method for classification predictive modelling problems.
4. Classification and Regression Trees
Prediction Trees are for predicting response or class YY from input X1, X2,…,XnX1,X2,…,Xn. If it is a continuous response it is a regression tree, if it is categorical, it is a classification tree. At each node of the tree, we check the value of one the input XiXi. Depending on the (binary) answer we continue to the left or to the right subbranch. When we reach a leaf we will find the prediction.
Contrary to linear or polynomial regression which are global models, trees try to partition the data space into small enough parts where we can apply a simple different model on each part. The non-leaf part of the tree is just the procedure to determine for each data xx what is the model we will use to classify it.
5. Naive Bayes
A Naive Bayes Classifier is a supervised machine-learning algorithm that uses the Bayes’ Theorem, which assumes that features are statistically independent. The theorem relies on the naive assumption that input variables are independent of each other, i.e. there is no way to know anything about other variables when given an additional variable. Regardless of this assumption, it has proven itself to be a classifier with good results.
Naive Bayes Classifiers rely on the Bayes’ Theorem, which is based on conditional probability or in simple terms, the likelihood that an event (A) will happen given that another event (B) has already happened. Essentially, the theorem allows a hypothesis to be updated each time new evidence is introduced. The equation below expresses Bayes’ Theorem in the language of probability:
Let’s explain what each of these terms means.
- “P” is the symbol to denote probability.
- P(A | B) = The probability of event A (hypothesis) occurring given that B (evidence) has occurred.
- P(B | A) = The probability of the event B (evidence) occurring given that A (hypothesis) has occurred.
- P(A) = The probability of event B (hypothesis) occurring.
- P(B) = The probability of event A (evidence) occurring.
6. K-Nearest Neighbors
k-nearest neighbours (or k-NN for short) is a simple machine learning algorithm that categorizes an input by using its k nearest neighbours.
For example, suppose a k-NN algorithm has an input of data points of specific men and women’s weight and height, as plotted below. To determine the gender of an unknown input (green point), k-NN can look at the nearest k neighbours (suppose ) and will determine that the input’s gender is male. This method is a very simple and logical way of marking unknown inputs, with a high rate of success.
Also, we can k-NN in a variety of machine learning tasks; for example, in computer vision, k-NN can help identify handwritten letters and in gene expression analysis, the algorithm can determine which genes contribute to a certain characteristic. Overall, k-nearest neighbours provide a combination of simplicity and effectiveness that makes it an attractive algorithm to use for many machine learning tasks.
7. Learning Vector Quantization
A downside of K-Nearest Neighbors is that you need to hang on to your entire training dataset. The Learning Vector Quantization algorithm (or LVQ for short) is an artificial neural network algorithm that allows you to choose how many training instances to hang onto and learns exactly what those instances should look like.
Additionally, the representation for LVQ is a collection of codebook vectors. We select them randomly in the beginning and adapted to best summarize the training dataset over a number of iterations of the learning algorithm. After learned, the codebook vectors can make predictions just like K-Nearest Neighbors. Also, we find the most similar neighbour (best matching codebook vector) by calculating the distance between each codebook vector and the new data instance. The class value or (real value in the case of regression) for the best matching unit is then returned as the prediction. Moreover, you can get the best results if you rescale your data to have the same range, such as between 0 and 1.
If you discover that KNN gives good results on your dataset try using LVQ to reduce the memory requirements of storing the entire training dataset.
8. Bagging and Random Forest
A Random Forest consists of a collection or ensemble of simple tree predictors, each capable of producing a response when presented with a set of predictor values. For classification problems, this response takes the form of a class membership, which associates, or classifies, a set of independent predictor values with one of the categories present in the dependent variable. Alternatively, for regression problems, the tree response is an estimate of the dependent variable given the predictors.e
A Random Forest consists of an arbitrary number of simple trees, which determine the final outcome. For classification problems, the ensemble of simple trees votes for the most popular class. In the regression problem, we average responses to obtain an estimate of the dependent variable. Using tree ensembles can lead to significant improvement in prediction accuracy (i.e., better ability to predict new data cases).
A Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a supervised machine learning algorithm that can be employed for both classification and regression purposes. Also, SVMs have more common usage in classification problems and as such, this is what we will focus on in this post.
SVMs are based on the idea of finding a hyperplane that best divides a dataset into two classes, as shown in the image below.
Also, you can think of a hyperplane as a line that linearly separates and classifies a set of data.
Intuitively, the further from the hyperplane our data points lie, the more confident we are that they have been correctly classified. We, therefore, want our data points to be as far away from the hyperplane as possible, while still being on the correct side of it.
So when we add a new testing data , whatever side of the hyperplane it lands will decide the class that we assign to it.
The distance between the hyperplane and the nearest data point from either set is the margin. Furthermore, the goal is to choose a hyperplane with the greatest possible margin between the hyperplane and any point within the training set, giving a greater chance of correct classification of data.
But the data is rarely ever as clean as our simple example above. A dataset will often look more like the jumbled balls below which represent a linearly non-separable dataset.
10. Boosting and AdaBoost
Boosting is an ensemble technique that attempts to create a strong classifier from a number of weak classifiers. We do this by building a model from the training data, then creating a second model that attempts to correct the errors from the first model. We can add models until the training set is predicted perfectly or a maximum number of models are added.
AdaBoost was the first really successful boosting algorithm developed for binary classification. It is the best starting point for understanding boosting. Modern boosting methods build on AdaBoost, most notably stochastic gradient boosting machines.
AdaBoost is used with short decision trees. After the first tree is created, the performance of the tree on each training instance is used to weight how much attention the next tree that is created should pay attention to each training instance. Training data that is hard to predict is given more weight, whereas easy to predict instances are given less weight. Models are created sequentially one after the other, each updating the weights on the training instances that affect the learning performed by the next tree in the sequence. After all the trees are built, predictions are made for new data, and the performance of each tree is weighted by how accurate it was on training data.
Because so much attention is put on correcting mistakes by the algorithm it is important that you have clean data with outliers removed.
A typical question asked by a beginner, when facing a wide variety of machine learning algorithms, is “which algorithm should I use?” The answer to the question varies depending on many factors, including: (1) The size, quality, and nature of data; (2) The available computational time; (3) The urgency of the task; and (4) What you want to do with the data.
Even an experienced data scientist cannot tell which algorithm will perform the best before trying different algorithms. Although there are many other Machine Learning algorithms, these are the most popular ones. If you’re a newbie to Machine Learning, these would be a good starting point to learn.
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The foundations of most algorithms lie in linear algebra, multivariable calculus, and optimization methods. Most algorithms use a sequence of combinations to estimate an objective function given a set of data, and the sequence order and included methods distinguish one algorithm from another. It’s helpful to learn enough math to read the development papers associated with key algorithms in the field, as many other methods (or one’s own innovations) include pieces of those algorithms. It’s like learning the language of machine learning. Once you are fluent in it, it’s pretty easy to modify algorithms as needed and create new ones likely to improve on a problem in a short period of time.
Matrix factorization: a simple, beautiful way to do dimensionality reduction —and dimensionality reduction is the essence of cognition. Recommender systems would be a big application of matrix factorization. Another application I’ve been using over the years (starting in 2010 with video data) is factorizing a matrix of pairwise mutual information (or pointwise mutual information, which is more common) between features, which can be used for feature extraction, computing word embeddings, computing label embeddings (that was the topic of a recent paper of mine ), etc.
Used in a convolutional settings, this acts as an excellent unsupervised feature extractor for images and videos. There’s one big issue though: it is fundamentally a shallow algorithm. Deep neural networks will quickly outperform it if any kind of supervision labels are available.
Machine Learning Demos:
See how well you synchronize to the lyrics of the popular hit “Dance Monkey.” This in-browser experience uses the Facemesh model for estimating key points around the lips to score lip-syncing accuracy.Explore demo View code
Train a server-side model to classify baseball pitch types using Node.js.View code
Get started with official templates and explore top picks from the community for inspiration.Glitch
See what the community has created and submitted to the TensorFlow.js gallery page.Explore GitHub
https://cdpn.io/jasonmayes/fullcpgrid/QWbNeJdOpen in Editor
Load in a pre-trained Body-Pix model from the TensorFlow.js team so that you can locate all pixels in an image that are part of a body, and what part of the body they belong to. Clone this to make your own TensorFlow.js powered projects to recognize body parts in images from your webcam and more!
This demo shows how we can use a pre made machine learning solution to recognize objects (yes, more than one at a time!) on any image you wish to present to it. Even better, not only do we know that the image contains an object, but we can also get the co-ordinates of the bounding box for each object it finds, which allows you to highlight the found object in the image.
For this demo we are loading a model using the ImageNet-SSD architecture, to recognize 90 common objects it has already been taught to find from the COCO dataset.
If what you want to recognize is in that list of things it knows about (for example a cat, dog, etc), this may be useful to you as is in your own projects, or just to experiment with Machine Learning in the browser and get familiar with the possibilities of machine learning.
If you are feeling particularly confident you can check out our GitHub documentation (https://github.com/tensorflow/tfjs-models/tree/master/coco-ssd) which goes into much more detail for customizing various parameters to tailor performance to your needs.
This demo shows how we can use a pre made machine learning solution to classify images (aka a binary image classifier). It should be noted that this model works best when a single item is in the image at a time. Busy images may not work so well. You may want to try our demo for Multiple Object Detection (https://codepen.io/jasonmayes/pen/qBEJxgg) for that.
For this demo we are loading a model using the MobileNet architecture, to recognize 1000 common objects it has already been taught to find from the ImageNet data set (http://image-net.org/).
If what you want to recognize is in that list of things it knows about (for example a cat, dog, etc), this may be useful to you as is in your own projects, or just to experiment with Machine Learning in the browser and get familiar with the possibilities of machine learning.
If you were looking to learn how to load in a TensorFlow.js saved model directly yourself then please see our tutorial on loading TensorFlow.js models directly.
If you want to train a system to recognize your own objects, using your own data, then check out our tutorials on “transfer learning”.
The hello world for TensorFlow.js 🙂 Absolute minimum needed to import into your website and simply prints the loaded TensorFlow.js version. From here we can do great things. Clone this to make your own TensorFlow.js powered projects or if you are following a tutorial that needs TensorFlow.js to work.
tfjs-examples provides small code examples that implement various ML tasks using TensorFlow.js.MNIST Digit Recognizer
More TensorFlow examples
Top-paying Cloud certifications:
- Google Certified Professional Cloud Architect — $175,761/year
- AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate — $149,446/year
- Azure/Microsoft Cloud Solution Architect – $141,748/yr
- Google Cloud Associate Engineer – $145,769/yr
- AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner — $131,465/year
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Support Vector Machines
Machine Learning in Practice
How to Select a Model
How to Select Features
Regularizing Your Model
Ensembling: How to Combine Your Models
Market Basket Analysis
Principal Components Analysis
Feedforward Neural Networks
Grab Bag of Neural Network Practices
Convolutional Neural Networks
Recurrent Neural Networks
Test Your Knowledge
Best Subset Features Feature