The Cloud Education Certification App is an EduFlix App for AWS, Azure, Google Cloud Certification Prep[Android, iOS]
Technology is changing and is moving towards the cloud. The cloud will power most businesses in the coming years and is not taught in schools. How do we ensure that our kids and youth and ourselves are best prepared for this challenge?
Building mobile educational apps that work offline and on any device can help greatly in that sense.
The ability to tab on a button and learn the cloud fundamentals and take quizzes is a great opportunity to help our children and youth to boost their job prospects and be more productive at work.
The App covers the following certifications : AWS Cloud Practitioner Exam Prep CCP CLF-C01, Azure Fundamentals AZ 900 Exam Prep, AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate SAA-C02 Exam Prep, AWS Certified Developer Associate DVA-C01 Exam Prep, Azure Administrator AZ 104 Exam Prep, Google Associate Cloud Engineer Exam Prep, Data Analytics for AWS DAS-C01, Machine Learning for AWS and Google, AWS Certified Security – Specialty (SCS-C01), AWS Certified Machine Learning – Specialty (MLS-C01), Google Cloud Professional Machine Learning Engineer and more… [Android, iOS]
The App covers the following cloud categories:
AWS Technology, AWS Security and Compliance, AWS Cloud Concepts, AWS Billing and Pricing , AWS Design High Performing Architectures, AWS Design Cost Optimized Architectures, AWS Specify Secure Applications And Architectures, AWS Design Resilient Architecture, Development With AWS, AWS Deployment, AWS Security, AWS Monitoring, AWS Troubleshooting, AWS Refactoring, Azure Pricing and Support, Azure Cloud Concepts , Azure Identity, governance, and compliance, Azure Services , Implement and Manage Azure Storage, Deploy and Manage Azure Compute Resources, Configure and Manage Azure Networking Services, Monitor and Backup Azure Resources, GCP Plan and configure a cloud solution, GCP Deploy and implement a cloud solution, GCP Ensure successful operation of a cloud solution, GCP Configure access and security, GCP Setting up a cloud solution environment, AWS Incident Response, AWS Logging and Monitoring, AWS Infrastructure Security, AWS Identity and Access Management, AWS Data Protection, AWS Data Engineering, AWS Exploratory Data Analysis, AWS Modeling, AWS Machine Learning Implementation and Operations, GCP Frame ML problems, GCP Architect ML solutions, GCP Prepare and process data, GCP Develop ML models, GCP Automate & orchestrate ML pipelines, GCP Monitor, optimize, and maintain ML solutions, etc.. [Android, iOS]
The App covers the following Cloud Services, Framework and technologies:
Features: – Practice exams – 1000+ Q&A updated frequently. – 3+ Practice exams per Certification – Scorecard / Scoreboard to track your progress – Quizzes with score tracking, progress bar, countdown timer. – Can only see scoreboard after completing the quiz. – FAQs for most popular Cloud services – Cheat Sheets – Flashcards – works offline
Note and disclaimer: We are not affiliated with AWS, Azure, Microsoft or Google. The questions are put together based on the certification study guide and materials available online. The questions in this app should help you pass the exam but it is not guaranteed. We are not responsible for any exam you did not pass.
Important: To succeed with the real exam, do not memorize the answers in this app. It is very important that you understand why a question is right or wrong and the concepts behind it by carefully reading the reference documents in the answers.
Almost 4.57 billion people were active internet users as of July 2020, encompassing 59 percent of the global population. 94% of enterprises use cloud. 77% of organizations worldwide have at least one application running on the cloud. This results in an exponential growth of cyber attacks. Therefore, CyberSecurity is one the biggest challenge to individuals and organizations worldwide: 158,727 cyber attacks per hour, 2,645 per minute and 44 every second of every day.
I- The AWS Certified Security – Specialty (SCS-C01) examination is intended for individuals who perform a security role. This exam validates an examinee’s ability to effectively demonstrate knowledge about securing the AWS platform.
It validates an examinee’s ability to demonstrate:
An understanding of specialized data classifications and AWS data protection mechanisms.
An understanding of data-encryption methods and AWS mechanisms to implement them.
An understanding of secure Internet protocols and AWS mechanisms to implement them.
A working knowledge of AWS security services and features of services to provide a secure production environment.
Competency gained from two or more years of production deployment experience using AWS security services and features.
The ability to make tradeoff decisions with regard to cost, security, and deployment complexity given a set of application requirements.
An understanding of security operations and risks.
Below are the Top 25 AWS Certified Security Specialty Questions and Answers Dumps including Notes, Hint and References:
Question 1: When requested through an STS API call, credentials are returned with what three components?
A) Security Token, Access Key ID, Signed URL
B) Security Token, Access Key ID, Secret Access Key
C) Signed URL, Security Token, Username
D) Security Token, Secret Access Key, Personal Pin Code
Question 2: A company has AWS workloads in multiple geographical locations. A Developer has created an Amazon Aurora database in the us-west-1 Region. The database is encrypted using a customer-managed AWS KMS key. Now the Developer wants to create the same encrypted database in the us-east-1 Region. Which approach should the Developer take to accomplish this task?
A) Create a snapshot of the database in the us-west-1 Region. Copy the snapshot to the us-east-1 Region and specify a KMS key in the us-east-1 Region. Restore the database from the copied snapshot.
B) Create an unencrypted snapshot of the database in the us-west-1 Region. Copy the snapshot to the useast-1 Region. Restore the database from the copied snapshot and enable encryption using the KMS key from the us-east-1 Region
C) Disable encryption on the database. Create a snapshot of the database in the us-west-1 Region. Copy the snapshot to the us-east-1 Region. Restore the database from the copied snapshot.
D) In the us-east-1 Region, choose to restore the latest automated backup of the database from the us-west1 Region. Enable encryption using a KMS key in the us-east-1 Region
If a user copies an encrypted snapshot, the copy of the snapshot must also be encrypted. If a user copies an encrypted snapshot across Regions, users cannot use the same AWS KMS encryption key for the copy as used for the source snapshot, because KMS keys are Region specific. Instead, users must specify a KMS key that is valid in the destination Region
Question 3: A corporate cloud security policy states that communication between the company’s VPC and KMS must travel entirely within the AWS network and not use public service endpoints. Which combination of the following actions MOST satisfies this requirement? (Select TWO.)
A) Add the aws:sourceVpce condition to the AWS KMS key policy referencing the company’s VPC endpoint ID.
B) Remove the VPC internet gateway from the VPC and add a virtual private gateway to the VPC to prevent direct, public internet connectivity.
C) Create a VPC endpoint for AWS KMS with private DNS enabled.
D) Use the KMS Import Key feature to securely transfer the AWS KMS key over a VPN. E) Add the following condition to the AWS KMS key policy: “aws:SourceIp”: “10.0.0.0/16“.
A and C
An IAM policy can deny access to AWS KMS except through your VPC endpoint with the following condition statement:
If you select the Enable Private DNS Name option, the standard AWS KMS DNS hostname resolves to your VPC endpoint.
Question 4: An application team is designing a solution with two applications. The security team wants the applications’ logs to be captured in two different places, because one of the applications produces logs with sensitive data. Which solution meets the requirement with the LEAST risk and effort?
A) Use Amazon CloudWatch Logs to capture all logs, write an AWS Lambda function that parses the log file, and move sensitive data to a different log.
B) Use Amazon CloudWatch Logs with two log groups, with one for each application, and use an AWS IAM policy to control access to the log groups, as required.
C) Aggregate logs into one file, then use Amazon CloudWatch Logs, and then design two CloudWatch metric filters to filter sensitive data from the logs.
D) Add logic to the application that saves sensitive data logs on the Amazon EC2 instances’ local storage, and write a batch script that logs into the Amazon EC2 instances and moves sensitive logs to a secure location.
In an n-tier architecture, each tier’s security group allows traffic from the security group sending it traffic only. The presentation tier opens traffic for HTTP and HTTPS from the internet. Since security groups are stateful, only inbound rules are required.
Question 6: A security engineer is working with a product team building a web application on AWS. The application uses Amazon S3 to host the static content, Amazon API Gateway to provide RESTful services, and Amazon DynamoDB as the backend data store. The users already exist in a directory that is exposed through a SAML identity provider. Which combination of the following actions should the engineer take to enable users to be authenticated into the web application and call APIs? (Select THREE).
A) Create a custom authorization service using AWS Lambda.
B) Configure a SAML identity provider in Amazon Cognito to map attributes to the Amazon Cognito user pool attributes.
C) Configure the SAML identity provider to add the Amazon Cognito user pool as a relying party.
D) Configure an Amazon Cognito identity pool to integrate with social login providers.
E) Update DynamoDB to store the user email addresses and passwords.
F) Update API Gateway to use an Amazon Cognito user pool authorizer.
B, C and F
When Amazon Cognito receives a SAML assertion, it needs to be able to map SAML attributes to user pool attributes. When configuring Amazon Cognito to receive SAML assertions from an identity provider, you need ensure that the identity provider is configured to have Amazon Cognito as a relying party.Amazon API Gateway will need to be able to understand the authorization being passed from Amazon Cognito, which is a configuration step.
Question 7: A company is hosting a web application on AWS and is using an Amazon S3 bucket to store images. Users should have the ability to read objects in the bucket. A security engineer has written the following bucket policy to grant public read access:
Attempts to read an object, however, receive the error: “Action does not apply to any resource(s) in statement.” What should the engineer do to fix the error?
A) Change the IAM permissions by applying PutBucketPolicy permissions.
B) Verify that the policy has the same name as the bucket name. If not, make it the same.
C) Change the resource section to “arn:aws:s3:::appbucket/*”.
D) Add an s3:ListBucket action.
The resource section should match with the type of operation. Change the ARN to include /* at the end, as it is an object operation.
Question 8: A company decides to place database hosts in its own VPC, and to set up VPC peering to different VPCs containing the application and web tiers. The application servers are unable to connect to the database. Which network troubleshooting steps should be taken to resolve the issue? (Select TWO.)
A) Check to see if the application servers are in a private subnet or public subnet.
B) Check the route tables for the application server subnets for routes to the VPC peering connection.
C) Check the NACLs for the database subnets for rules that allow traffic from the internet.
D) Check the database security groups for rules that allow traffic from the application servers.
E) Check to see if the database VPC has an internet gateway.
Question 9: A company is building a data lake on Amazon S3. The data consists of millions of small files containing sensitive information. The security team has the following requirements for the architecture:
Data must be encrypted in transit.
Data must be encrypted at rest.
The bucket must be private, but if the bucket is accidentally made public, the data must remain confidential.
Which combination of steps would meet the requirements? (Select TWO.)
A) Enable AES-256 encryption using server-side encryption with Amazon S3-managed encryption keys (SSE-S3) on the S3 bucket.
B) Enable default encryption with server-side encryption with AWS KMS-managed keys (SSE-KMS) on the S3 bucket.
C) Add a bucket policy that includes a deny if a PutObject request does not include aws:SecureTransport.
D) Add a bucket policy with aws:SourceIp to allow uploads and downloads from the corporate intranet only.
E) Enable Amazon Macie to monitor and act on changes to the data lake’s S3 bucket.
Question 10: A security engineer must ensure that all API calls are collected across all company accounts, and that they are preserved online and are instantly available for analysis for 90 days. For compliance reasons, this data must be restorable for 7 years. Which steps must be taken to meet the retention needs in a scalable, cost-effective way?
A) Enable AWS CloudTrail logging across all accounts to a centralized Amazon S3 bucket with versioning enabled. Set a lifecycle policy to move the data to Amazon Glacier daily, and expire the data after 90 days.
B) Enable AWS CloudTrail logging across all accounts to S3 buckets. Set a lifecycle policy to expire the data in each bucket after 7 years.
C) Enable AWS CloudTrail logging across all accounts to Amazon Glacier. Set a lifecycle policy to expire the data after 7 years.
D) Enable AWS CloudTrail logging across all accounts to a centralized Amazon S3 bucket. Set a lifecycle policy to move the data to Amazon Glacier after 90 days, and expire the data after 7 years.
Meets all requirements and is cost effective by using lifecycle policies to transition to Amazon Glacier.
Question 11: A security engineer has been informed that a user’s access key has been found on GitHub. The engineer must ensure that this access key cannot continue to be used, and must assess whether the access key was used to perform any unauthorized activities. Which steps must be taken to perform these tasks?
A) Review the user’s IAM permissions and delete any unrecognized or unauthorized resources.
B) Delete the user, review Amazon CloudWatch Logs in all regions, and report the abuse.
C) Delete or rotate the user’s key, review the AWS CloudTrail logs in all regions, and delete any unrecognized or unauthorized resources.
D) Instruct the user to remove the key from the GitHub submission, rotate keys, and re-deploy any instances that were launched.
Question 12: You have a CloudFront distribution configured with the following path patterns: When users request objects that start with ‘static2/’, they are receiving 404 response codes. What might be the problem?
A) CloudFront distributions cannot have multiple different origin types
B) The ‘*’ path pattern must appear after the ‘static2/*’ path
C) CloudFront distributions cannot have origins in different AWS regions
D) The ‘*’ path pattern must appear before ‘static1/*’ path
CloudFront distributions cannot have origins in different AWS regions
Question 13: An application running on EC2 instances processes sensitive information stored on Amazon S3. The information is accessed over the Internet. The security team is concerned that the Internet connectivity to Amazon S3 is a security risk. Which solution will resolve the security concern?
A) Access the data through an Internet Gateway.”,
B) Access the data through a VPN connection.”,
C) Access the data through a NAT Gateway.”,
D) Access the data through a VPC endpoint for Amazon S3″,
VPC endpoints for Amazon S3 provide secure connections to S3 buckets that do not require a gateway or NAT instances. NAT Gateways and Internet Gateways still route traffic over the Internet to the public endpoint for Amazon S3. There is no way to connect to Amazon S3 via VPN.
Question 14: An organization is building an Amazon Redshift cluster in their shared services VPC. The cluster will host sensitive data. How can the organization control which networks can access the cluster?
A) Run the cluster in a different VPC and connect through VPC peering
B) Create a database user inside the Amazon Redshift cluster only for users on the network
C) Define a cluster security group for the cluster that allows access from the allowed networks
D) Only allow access to networks that connect with the shared services network via VPN
A security group can grant access to traffic from the allowed networks via the CIDR range for each network. VPC peering and VPN are connectivity services and cannot control traffic for security. Amazon Redshift user accounts address authentication and authorization at the user level and have no control over network traffic
Question 15: From a security perspective, what is a principal?
A) An identity
B) An anonymous user
C) An authenticated user
D) A resource
B and C
An anonymous user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an anonymous user acting on a system. An authenticated user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an authenticated user acting on a system
Question 16: A company is storing an access key (access key ID and secret access key) in a text file on a custom AMI. The company uses the access key to access DynamoDB tables from instances created from the AMI. The security team has mandated a more secure solution. Which solution will meet the security team’s mandate?
A) Put the access key in an S3 bucket, and retrieve the access key on boot from the instance.
B) Pass the access key to the instances through instance user data.
C) Obtain the access key from a key server launched in a private subnet
D) Create an IAM role with permissions to access the table, and launch all instances with the new role
IAM roles for EC2 instances allow applications running on the instance to access AWS resources without having to create and store any access keys. Any solution involving the creation of an access key then introduces the complexity of managing that secret
Question 18: You are using AWS Envelope Encryption for encrypting all sensitive data. Which of the followings is True with regards to Envelope Encryption?
A) Data is encrypted be encrypting Data key which is further encrypted using encrypted Master Key.
B) Data is encrypted by plaintext Data key which is further encrypted using encrypted Master Key.
C) Data is encrypted by encrypted Data key which is further encrypted using plaintext Master Key.
D) Data is encrypted by plaintext Data key which is further encrypted using plaintext Master Key.”,
With Envelope Encryption, unencrypted data is encrypted using plaintext Data key. This Data is further encrypted using plaintext Master key. This plaintext Master key is securely stored in AWS KMS & known as Customer Master Keys.
A) Create an Amazon S3 role in IAM with access to the specific DynamoDB tables, and assign it to the bucket hosting your website
B) Configure S3 bucket tags with your AWS access keys for your bucket hosting your website so that the application can query them for access.
C) Configure a web identity federation role within IAM to enable access to the correct DynamoDB resources and retrieve temporary credentials
D) Store AWS keys in global variables within your application and configure the application to use these credentials when making requests.
With web identity federation, you don't need to create custom sign-in code or manage your own user identities. Instead, users of your app can sign in using a well-known identity provider (IdP) —such as Login with Amazon, Facebook, Google, or any other OpenID Connect (OIDC)-compatible IdP, receive an authentication token, and then exchange that token for temporary security credentials in AWS that map to an IAM role with permissions to use the resources in your AWS account. Using an IdP helps you keep your AWS account secure, because you don't have to embed and distribute long-term security credentials with your application. Option A is invalid since Roles cannot be assigned to S3 buckets Options B and D are invalid since the AWS Access keys should not be used
Question 20: Your application currently makes use of AWS Cognito for managing user identities. You want to analyze the information that is stored in AWS Cognito for your application. Which of the following features of AWS Cognito should you use for this purpose?
A) Cognito Data
B) Cognito Events
C) Cognito Streams
D) Cognito Callbacks
Amazon Cognito Streams gives developers control and insight into their data stored in Amazon Cognito. Developers can now configure a Kinesis stream to receive events as data is updated and synchronized. Amazon Cognito can push each dataset change to a Kinesis stream you own in real time. All other options are invalid since you should use Cognito Streams
Question 23:Which of the following is an encrypted key used by KMS to encrypt your data
A) Customer Managed Key
B) Encryption Key
C) Envelope Key
D) Customer Master Key
Your Data key also known as the Enveloppe key is encrypted using the master key. This approach is known as Envelope encryption. Envelope encryption is the practice of encrypting plaintext data with a data key, and then encrypting the data key under another key
Cryptography: Practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries.
Hacking: catch-all term for any type of misuse of a computer to break the security of another computing system to steal data, corrupt systems or files, commandeer the environment or disrupt data-related activities in any way.
Cyberwarfare: Uuse of technology to attack a nation, causing comparable harm to actual warfare. There is significant debate among experts regarding the definition of cyberwarfare, and even if such a thing exists
Penetration testing: Colloquially known as a pen test, pentest or ethical hacking, is an authorized simulated cyberattack on a computer system, performed to evaluate the security of the system. Not to be confused with a vulnerability assessment.
Malwares: Any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server, client, or computer network. A wide variety of malware types exist, including computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, rogue software, and scareware.
Malware Analysis Tool: Any .Run Malware hunting with live access to the heart of an incident https://any.run/Malware Analysis Total: VirusTotal – Analyze suspicious files and URLs to detect types of malware, automatically share them with the security community https://www.virustotal.com/gui/
VPN: A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network. Applications running across a VPN may therefore benefit from the functionality, security, and management of the private network. Encryption is a common, although not an inherent, part of a VPN connection.
Antivirus: Antivirus software, or anti-virus software (abbreviated to AV software), also known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent, detect, and remove malware.
DDos: A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is one of the most powerful weapons on the internet. When you hear about a website being “brought down by hackers,” it generally means it has become a victim of a DDoS attack.
Fraud Detection: Set of activities undertaken to prevent money or property from being obtained through false pretenses. Fraud detection is applied to many industries such as banking or insurance. In banking, fraud may include forging checks or using stolen credit cards.
Spywares: Spyware describes software with malicious behavior that aims to gather information about a person or organization and send such information to another entity in a way that harms the user; for example by violating their privacy or endangering their device’s security.
Spoofing: Disguising a communication from an unknown source as being from a known, trusted source
Pharming: Malicious websites that look legitimate and are used to gather usernames and passwords.
Catfishing: Creating a fake profile for fraudulent or deceptive purposes
SSL: Stands for secure sockets layer. Protocol for web browsers and servers that allows for the authentication, encryption and decryption of data sent over the Internet.
Phishing emails: Disguised as trustworthy entity to lure someone into providing sensitive information
Intrusion detection System: Device or software application that monitors a network or systems for malicious activity or policy violations. Any intrusion activity or violation is typically reported either to an administrator or collected centrally using a security information and event management system.
Encryption: Encryption is the method by which information is converted into secret code that hides the information’s true meaning. The science of encrypting and decrypting information is called cryptography. In computing, unencrypted data is also known as plaintext, and encrypted data is called ciphertext.
MFA: Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is defined as a security mechanism that requires an individual to provide two or more credentials in order to authenticate their identity. In IT, these credentials take the form of passwords, hardware tokens, numerical codes, biometrics, time, and location.
Vulnerabilities: A vulnerability is a hole or a weakness in the application, which can be a design flaw or an implementation bug, that allows an attacker to cause harm to the stakeholders of an application. Stakeholders include the application owner, application users, and other entities that rely on the application.
SQL injections: SQL injection is a code injection technique, used to attack data-driven applications, in which malicious SQL statements are inserted into an entry field for execution.
Cyber attacks: In computers and computer networks an attack is any attempt to expose, alter, disable, destroy, steal or gain unauthorized access to or make unauthorized use of an asset.
Confidentiality: Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.
Secure channel: In cryptography, a secure channel is a way of transferring data that is resistant to overhearing and tampering. A confidential channel is a way of transferring data that is resistant to overhearing, but not necessarily resistant to tampering.
Tunneling: Communications protocol that allows for the movement of data from one network to another. It involves allowing private network communications to be sent across a public network through a process called encapsulation.
SSH: Secure Shell is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network. Typical applications include remote command-line, login, and remote command execution, but any network service can be secured with SSH.
SSL Certificates: SSL certificates are what enable websites to move from HTTP to HTTPS, which is more secure. An SSL certificate is a data file hosted in a website’s origin server. SSL certificates make SSL/TLS encryption possible, and they contain the website’s public key and the website’s identity, along with related information.
Phishing: Phishing is a cybercrime in which a target or targets are contacted by email, telephone or text message by someone posing as a legitimate institution to lure individuals into providing sensitive data such as personally identifiable information, banking and credit card details, and passwords.
Cybercrime: Cybercrime, or computer-oriented crime, is a crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Cybercrime may threaten a person, company or a nation’s security and financial health.
Backdoor: A backdoor is a means to access a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system’s customary security mechanisms. A developer may create a backdoor so that an application or operating system can be accessed for troubleshooting or other purposes.
Salt and Hash: A cryptographic salt is made up of random bits added to each password instance before its hashing. Salts create unique passwords even in the instance of two users choosing the same passwords. Salts help us mitigate rainbow table attacks by forcing attackers to re-compute them using the salts.
Password: A password, sometimes called a passcode, is a memorized secret, typically a string of characters, usually used to confirm the identity of a user. Using the terminology of the NIST Digital Identity Guidelines, the secret is memorized by a party called the claimant while the party verifying the identity of the claimant is called the verifier. When the claimant successfully demonstrates knowledge of the password to the verifier through an established authentication protocol, the verifier is able to infer the claimant’s identity.
Fingerprint: A fingerprint is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. The recovery of partial fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science. Moisture and grease on a finger result in fingerprints on surfaces such as glass or metal.
Facial recognition: Facial recognition works better for a person as compared to fingerprint detection. It releases the person from the hassle of moving their thumb or index finger to a particular place on their mobile phone. A user would just have to bring their phone in level with their eye.
Asymmetric key ciphers versus symmetric key ciphers (Difference between symmetric and Asymmetric encryption): The basic difference between these two types of encryption is that symmetric encryption uses one key for both encryption and decryption, and the asymmetric encryption uses public key for encryption and a private key for decryption.
Decryption: The conversion of encrypted data into its original form is called Decryption. It is generally a reverse process of encryption. It decodes the encrypted information so that an authorized user can only decrypt the data because decryption requires a secret key or password.
Algorithms: Finite sequence of well-defined, computer-implementable instructions, typically to solve a class of problems or to perform a computation.
DFIR: Digital forensic and incident response: Multidisciplinary profession that focuses on identifying, investigating, and remediating computer network exploitation. This can take varied forms and involves a wide variety of skills, kinds of attackers, an kinds of targets. We’ll discuss those more below.
OTP: One Time Password: A one-time password, also known as one-time PIN or dynamic password, is a password that is valid for only one login session or transaction, on a computer system or other digital device
Proxy Server and Reverse Proxy Server:A proxyserver is a go‑between or intermediary server that forwards requests for content from multiple clients to different servers across the Internet. A reverseproxyserver is a type of proxyserver that typically sits behind the firewall in a private network and directs client requests to the appropriate backend server.
Offensive * Exploit Database – The Exploit Database is maintained by Offensive Security, an information security training company that provides various Information Security Certifications as well as high end penetration testing services. https://www.exploit-db.com/
The Hacker News – The Hacker News (THN) is a leading, trusted, widely-acknowledged dedicated cybersecurity news platform, attracting over 8 million monthly readers including IT professionals, researchers, hackers, technologists, and enthusiasts. https://thehackernews.com
SANS NewsBites – “A semiweekly high-level executive summary of the most important news articles that have been published on computer security during the last week. Each news item is very briefly summarized and includes a reference on the web for detailed information, if possible.” Published for free on Tuesdays and Fridays. https://www.sans.org/newsletters/newsbites
SimplyCyber Weekly vids, Simply Cyber brings Information security related content to help IT or Information Security professionals take their career further, faster. Current cyber security industry topics and techniques are explored to promote a career in the field. Topics cover offense, defense, governance, risk, compliance, privacy, education, certification, conferences; all with the intent of professional development. https://www.youtube.com/c/GeraldAuger
TheCyberMentor – Heath Adams uploads regular videos related to various facets of cyber security, from bug bounty hunts to specific pentest methodologies like API, buffer overflows, networking. https://www.youtube.com/c/TheCyberMentor/
Risky Business Published weekly, the Risky Business podcast features news and in-depth commentary from security industry luminaries. Hosted by award-winning journalist Patrick Gray, Risky Business has become a must-listen digest for information security professionals. https://risky.biz/
Pauls Security Weekly This show features interviews with folks in the security community; technical segments, which are just that, very technical; and security news, which is an open discussion forum for the hosts to express their opinions about the latest security headlines, breaches, new exploits and vulnerabilities, “not” politics, “cyber” policies and more. https://securityweekly.com/category-shows/paul-security-weekly/
Security Now – Steve Gibson, the man who coined the term spyware and created the first anti-spyware program, creator of Spinrite and ShieldsUP, discusses the hot topics in security today with Leo Laporte. https://twit.tv/shows/security-now
Daily Information Security Podcast (“StormCast”) Stormcasts are daily 5-10 minute information security threat updates. The podcast is produced each work day, and typically released late in the day to be ready for your morning commute. https://isc.sans.edu/podcast.html
Don’t Panic – The Unit 42 Podcast Don’t Panic! is the official podcast from Unit 42 at Palo Alto Networks. We find the big issues that are frustrating cyber security practitioners and help simplify them so they don’t need to panic. https://unit42.libsyn.com/
Recorded Future Recorded Future takes you inside the world of cyber threat intelligence. We’re sharing stories from the trenches and the operations floor as well as giving you the skinny on established and emerging adversaries. We also talk current events, technical tradecraft, and offer up insights on the big picture issues in our industry. https://www.recordedfuture.com/resources/podcast/
The Cybrary Podcast Listen in to the Cybrary Podcast where we discuss a range topics from DevSecOps and Ransomware attacks to diversity and how to retain of talent. Entrepreneurs at all stages of their startup companies join us to share their stories and experience, including how to get funding, hiring the best talent, driving sales, and choosing where to base your business. https://www.cybrary.it/info/cybrary-podcast/
Cyber Life The Cyber Life podcast is for cyber security (InfoSec) professionals, people trying to break into the industry, or business owners looking to learn how to secure their data. We will talk about many things, like how to get jobs, cover breakdowns of hot topics, and have special guest interviews with the men and women “in the trenches” of the industry. https://redcircle.com/shows/cyber-life
Down the Security Rabbitholehttp://podcast.wh1t3rabbit.net/ Down the Security Rabbithole is hosted by Rafal Los and James Jardine who discuss, by means of interviewing or news analysis, everything about Cybersecurity which includes Cybercrime, Cyber Law, Cyber Risk, Enterprise Risk & Security and many more. If you want to hear issues that are relevant to your organization, subscribe and tune-in to this podcast.
The Privacy, Security, & OSINT Showhttps://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-privacy-security-osint-show/id1165843330 The Privacy, Security, & OSINT Show, hosted by Michael Bazzell, is your weekly dose of digital security, privacy, and Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) opinion and news. This podcast will help listeners learn some ideas on how to stay secure from cyber-attacks and help them become “digitally invisible”.
Defensive Security Podcasthttps://defensivesecurity.org/ Hosted by Andrew Kalat (@lerg) and Jerry Bell (@maliciouslink), the Defensive Security Podcasts aims to look/discuss the latest security news happening around the world and pick out the lessons that can be applied to keeping organizations secured. As of today, they have more than 200 episodes and some of the topics discussed include Forensics, Penetration Testing, Incident Response, Malware Analysis, Vulnerabilities and many more.
Darknet Diarieshttps://darknetdiaries.com/episode/ Darknet Diaries Podcast is hosted and produced by Jack Rhysider that discuss topics related to information security. It also features some true stories from hackers who attacked or have been attacked. If you’re a fan of the show, you might consider buying some of their souvenirs here (https://shop.darknetdiaries.com/).
Brakeing Down Securityhttps://www.brakeingsecurity.com/ Brakeing Down Security started in 2014 and is hosted by Bryan Brake, Brian Boettcher, and Amanda Berlin. This podcast discusses everything about the Cybersecurity world, Compliance, Privacy, and Regulatory issues that arise in today’s organizations. The hosts will teach concepts that Information Security Professionals need to know and discuss topics that will refresh the memories of seasoned veterans.
Open Source Security Podcasthttps://www.opensourcesecuritypodcast.com/ Open Source Security Podcast is a podcast that discusses security with an open-source slant. The show started in 2016 and is hosted by Josh Bressers and Kurt Siefried. As of this writing, they now posted around 190+ podcasts
Cyber Motherboardhttps://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/cyber/id1441708044 Ben Makuch is the host of the podcast CYBER and weekly talks to Motherboard reporters Lorenzo Franceschi-Bicchierai and Joseph Cox. They tackle topics about famous hackers and researchers about the biggest news in cybersecurity. The Cyber- stuff gets complicated really fast, but Motherboard spends its time fixed in the infosec world so we don’t have to.
Hak5https://shop.hak5.org/pages/videos Hak5 is a brand that is created by a group of security professionals, hardcore gamers and “IT ninjas”. Their podcast, which is mostly uploaded on YouTube discusses everything from open-source software to penetration testing and network infrastructure. Their channel currently has 590,000 subscribers and is one of the most viewed shows when you want to learn something about security networks.
Threatpost Podcast Serieshttps://threatpost.com/category/podcasts/ Threatpost is an independent news site which is a leading source of information about IT and business security for hundreds of thousands of professionals worldwide. With an award-winning editorial team produces unique and high-impact content including security news, videos, feature reports and more, with their global editorial activities are driven by industry-leading journalist Tom Spring, editor-in-chief.
CISO-Security Vendor Relationship Podcasthttps://cisoseries.com Co-hosted by the creator of the CISO/Security Vendor Relationship Series, David Spark, and Mike Johnson, in 30 minutes, this weekly program challenges the co-hosts, guests, and listeners to critique, share true stories. This podcast, The CISO/Security Vendor Relationship, targets to enlighten and educate listeners on improving security buyer and seller relationships.
Getting Into Infosec Podcast Stories of how Infosec and Cybersecurity pros got jobs in the field so you can be inspired, motivated, and educated on your journey. – https://gettingintoinfosec.com/
Unsupervised Learning Weekly podcasts and biweekly newsletters as a curated summary intersection of security, technology, and humans, or a standalone idea to provoke thought, by Daniel Miessler. https://danielmiessler.com/podcast/
Building Secure & Reliable Systems Best Practices for Designing, Implementing and Maintaining Systems (O’Reilly) By Heather Adkins, Betsy Beyer, Paul Blankinship, Ana Oprea, Piotr Lewandowski, Adam Stubblefield https://landing.google.com/sre/books/
The Cyber Skill Gap By Vagner Nunes – The Cyber Skill Gap: How To Become A Highly Paid And Sought After Information Security Specialist! (Use COUPON CODE: W4VSPTW8G7 to make it free) https://payhip.com/b/PdkW
Texas A&M Security Courses The web-based courses are designed to ensure that the privacy, reliability, and integrity of the information systems that power the global economy remain intact and secure. The web-based courses are offered through three discipline-specific tracks: general, non-technical computer users; technical IT professionals; and business managers and professionals. https://teex.org/program/dhs-cybersecurity/
Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) Workshop Training – The Chief Information Security Office (CISO) workshop contains a collection of security learnings, principles, and recommendations for modernizing security in your organization. This training workshop is a combination of experiences from Microsoft security teams and learnings from customers. – https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/security/ciso-workshop/ciso-workshop
CLARK Center Plan C – Free cybersecurity curriculum that is primarily video-based or provide online assignments that can be easily integrated into a virtual learning environments https://clark.center/home
Hack.me is a FREE, community based project powered by eLearnSecurity. The community can build, host and share vulnerable web application code for educational and research purposes. It aims to be the largest collection of “runnable” vulnerable web applications, code samples and CMS’s online. The platform is available without any restriction to any party interested in Web Application Security. https://hack.me/
Enroll Now Free: PCAP Programming Essentials in Pythonhttps://www.netacad.com/courses/programming/pcap-programming-essentials-python Python is the very versatile, object-oriented programming language used by startups and tech giants, Google, Facebook, Dropbox and IBM. Python is also recommended for aspiring young developers who are interested in pursuing careers in Security, Networking and Internet-of-Things. Once you complete this course, you are ready to take the PCAP – Certified Associate in Python programming. No prior knowledge of programming is required.
Stanford University Webinar – Hacked! Security Lessons from Big Name Breaches 50 minute cyber lecture from Stanford.You Will Learn: — The root cause of key breaches and how to prevent them; How to measure your organization’s external security posture; How the attacker lifecycle should influence the way you allocate resources https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V9agUAz0DwI
Stanford University Webinar – Hash, Hack, Code: Emerging Trends in Cyber Security Join Professor Dan Boneh as he shares new approaches to these emerging trends and dives deeper into how you can protect networks and prevent harmful viruses and threats. 50 minute cyber lecture from Stanford. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=544rhbcDtc8
Kill Chain: The Cyber War on America’s Elections (Documentary) (Referenced at GRIMMCON), In advance of the 2020 Presidential Election, Kill Chain: The Cyber War on America’s Elections takes a deep dive into the weaknesses of today’s election technology, an issue that is little understood by the public or even lawmakers. https://www.hbo.com/documentaries/kill-chain-the-cyber-war-on-americas-elections
Pluralsight and Microsoft Partnership to help you become an expert in Azure. With skill assessments and over 200+ courses, 40+ Skill IQs and 8 Role IQs, you can focus your time on understanding your strengths and skill gaps and learn Azure as quickly as possible.https://www.pluralsight.com/partners/microsoft/azure
Blackhat Webcast Series Monthly webcast of varying cyber topics. I will post specific ones in the training section below sometimes, but this is worth bookmarking and checking back. They always have top tier speakers on relevant, current topics. https://www.blackhat.com/html/webcast/webcast-home.html
Federal Virtual Training Environment – US Govt sponsored free courses. There are 6 available, no login required. They are 101 Coding for the Public, 101 Critical Infrastructure Protection for the Public, Cryptocurrency for Law Enforcement for the Public, Cyber Supply Chain Risk Management for the Public, 101 Reverse Engineering for the Public, Fundamentals of Cyber Risk Management. https://fedvte.usalearning.gov/public_fedvte.php
Harrisburg University CyberSecurity Collection of 18 curated talks. Scroll down to CYBER SECURITY section. You will see there are 4 categories Resource Sharing, Tools & Techniques, Red Team (Offensive Security) and Blue Teaming (Defensive Security). Lot of content in here; something for everyone. https://professionaled.harrisburgu.edu/online-content/
OnRamp 101-Level ICS Security Workshop Starts this 4/28. 10 videos, Q&A / discussion, bonus audio, great links. Get up to speed fast on ICS security. It runs for 5 weeks. 2 videos per week. Then we keep it open for another 3 weeks for 8 in total. https://onramp-3.s4xevents.com
HackXOR WebApp CTF Hackxor is a realistic web application hacking game, designed to help players of all abilities develop their skills. All the missions are based on real vulnerabilities I’ve personally found while doing pentests, bug bounty hunting, and research. https://hackxor.net/
flAWS System Through a series of levels you’ll learn about common mistakes and gotchas when using Amazon Web Services (AWS). Multiple levels, “Buckets” of fun. http://flaws.cloud/
Stanford CS 253 Web Security A free course from Stanford providing a comprehensive overview of web security. The course begins with an introduction to the fundamentals of web security and proceeds to discuss the most common methods for web attacks and their countermeasures. The course includes video lectures, slides, and links to online reading assignments. https://web.stanford.edu/class/cs253
Linux Journey A free, handy guide for learning Linux. Coverage begins with the fundamentals of command line navigation and basic text manipulation. It then extends to more advanced topics, such as file systems and networking. The site is well organized and includes many examples along with code snippets. Exercises and quizzes are provided as well. https://linuxjourney.com
Ryan’s Tutorials A collection of free, introductory tutorials on several technology topics including: Linux command line, Bash scripting, creating and styling webpages with HTML and CSS, counting and converting between different number systems, and writing regular expressions. https://ryanstutorials.net
CYBER INTELLIGENCE ANALYTICS AND OPERATIONS Learn:The ins and outs of all stages of the intelligence cycle from collection to analysis from seasoned intel professionals. How to employ threat intelligence to conduct comprehensive defense strategies to mitigate potential compromise. How to use TI to respond to and minimize impact of cyber incidents. How to generate comprehensive and actionable reports to communicate gaps in defenses and intelligence findings to decision makers. https://www.shadowscape.io/cyber-intelligence-analytics-operat
Linux Command Line for Beginners 25 hours of training – In this course, you’ll learn from one of Fullstack’s top instructors, Corey Greenwald, as he guides you through learning the basics of the command line through short, digestible video lectures. Then you’ll use Fullstack’s CyberLab platform to hone your new technical skills while working through a Capture the Flag game, a special kind of cybersecurity game designed to challenge participants to solve computer security problems by solving puzzles. Finally, through a list of carefully curated resources through a series of curated resources, we’ll introduce you to some important cybersecurity topics so that you can understand some of the common language, concepts and tools used in the industry. https://prep.fullstackacademy.com/
Hacking 101 6 hours of free training – First, you’ll take a tour of the world and watch videos of hackers in action across various platforms (including computers, smartphones, and the power grid). You may be shocked to learn what techniques the good guys are using to fight the bad guys (and which side is winning). Then you’ll learn what it’s like to work in this world, as we show you the different career paths open to you and the (significant) income you could make as a cybersecurity professional. https://cyber.fullstackacademy.com/prepare/hacking-101
Choose Your Own Cyber Adventure Series: Entry Level Cyber Jobs Explained YouTube Playlist (videos from my channel #simplyCyber) This playlist is a collection of various roles within the information security field, mostly entry level, so folks can understand what different opportunities are out there. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4Q-ttyNIRAqog96mt8C8lKWzTjW6f38F
NETINSTRUCT.COM Free Cybersecurity, IT and Leadership Courses – Includes OS and networking basics. Critical to any Cyber job. https://netinstruct.com/courses
HackerSploit – HackerSploit is the leading provider of free and open-source Infosec and cybersecurity training. https://hackersploit.org/
Computer Science courses with video lectures Intent of this list is to act as Online bookmarks/lookup table for freely available online video courses. Focus would be to keep the list concise so that it is easy to browse. It would be easier to skim through 15 page list, find the course and start learning than having to read 60 pages of text. If you are student or from non-CS background, please try few courses to decide for yourself as to which course suits your learning curve best. https://github.com/Developer-Y/cs-video-courses?utm_campaign=meetedgar&utm_medium=social&utm_source=meetedgar.com
Cryptography I -offered by Stanford University – Rolling enrollment – Cryptography is an indispensable tool for protecting information in computer systems. In this course you will learn the inner workings of cryptographic systems and how to correctly use them in real-world applications. The course begins with a detailed discussion of how two parties who have a shared secret key can communicate securely when a powerful adversary eavesdrops and tampers with traffic. We will examine many deployed protocols and analyze mistakes in existing systems. The second half of the course discusses public-key techniques that let two parties generate a shared secret key. https://www.coursera.org/learn/crypto
Software Security Rolling enrollment -offered by University of Maryland, College Park via Coursera – This course we will explore the foundations of software security. We will consider important software vulnerabilities and attacks that exploit them — such as buffer overflows, SQL injection, and session hijacking — and we will consider defenses that prevent or mitigate these attacks, including advanced testing and program analysis techniques. Importantly, we take a “build security in” mentality, considering techniques at each phase of the development cycle that can be used to strengthen the security of software systems. https://www.coursera.org/learn/software-security
Intro to Information Security Georgia Institute of Technology via Udacity – Rolling Enrollment. This course provides a one-semester overview of information security. It is designed to help students with prior computer and programming knowledge — both undergraduate and graduate — understand this important priority in society today. Offered at Georgia Tech as CS 6035 https://www.udacity.com/course/intro-to-information-security–ud459
Cyber-Physical Systems Security Georgia Institute of Technology via Udacity – This course provides an introduction to security issues relating to various cyber-physical systems including industrial control systems and those considered critical infrastructure systems. 16 week course – Offered at Georgia Tech as CS 8803 https://www.udacity.com/course/cyber-physical-systems-security–ud279
Finding Your Cybersecurity Career Path – University of Washington via edX – 4 weeks long – self paced – In this course, you will focus on the pathways to cybersecurity career success. You will determine your own incoming skills, talent, and deep interests to apply toward a meaningful and informed exploration of 32 Digital Pathways of Cybersecurity. https://www.edx.org/course/finding-your-cybersecurity-career-path
Building a Cybersecurity Toolkit – University of Washington via edX – 4 weeks self-paced The purpose of this course is to give learners insight into these type of characteristics and skills needed for cybersecurity jobs and to provide a realistic outlook on what they really need to add to their “toolkits” – a set of skills that is constantly evolving, not all technical, but fundamentally rooted in problem-solving. https://www.edx.org/course/building-a-cybersecurity-toolkit
Cybersecurity: The CISO’s View – University of Washington via edX – 4 weeks long self-paced – This course delves into the role that the CISO plays in cybersecurity operations. Throughout the lessons, learners will explore answers to the following questions: How does cybersecurity work across industries? What is the professionals’ point of view? How do we keep information secure https://www.edx.org/course/cybersecurity-the-cisos-view
Introduction to Cybersecurity – University of Washington via edX – In this course, you will gain an overview of the cybersecurity landscape as well as national (USA) and international perspectives on the field. We will cover the legal environment that impacts cybersecurity as well as predominant threat actors. – https://www.edx.org/course/introduction-to-cybersecurity
Cyber Attack Countermeasures New York University (NYU) via Coursera – This course introduces the basics of cyber defense starting with foundational models such as Bell-LaPadula and information flow frameworks. These underlying policy enforcements mechanisms help introduce basic functional protections, starting with authentication methods. Learners will be introduced to a series of different authentication solutions and protocols, including RSA SecureID and Kerberos, in the context of a canonical schema. – https://www.coursera.org/learn/cyber-attack-countermeasures
Introduction to Cyber Attacks New York University (NYU) via Coursera – This course provides learners with a baseline understanding of common cyber security threats, vulnerabilities, and risks. An overview of how basic cyber attacks are constructed and applied to real systems is also included. Examples include simple Unix kernel hacks, Internet worms, and Trojan horses in software utilities. Network attacks such as distributed denial of service (DDOS) and botnet- attacks are also described and illustrated using real examples from the past couple of decades. https://www.coursera.org/learn/intro-cyber-attacks
Enterprise and Infrastructure Security New York University (NYU) via Coursera – This course introduces a series of advanced and current topics in cyber security, many of which are especially relevant in modern enterprise and infrastructure settings. The basics of enterprise compliance frameworks are provided with introduction to NIST and PCI. Hybrid cloud architectures are shown to provide an opportunity to fix many of the security weaknesses in modern perimeter local area networks. https://www.coursera.org/learn/enterprise-infrastructure-security
Network Security Georgia Institute of Technology via Udacity – This course provides an introduction to computer and network security. Students successfully completing this class will be able to evaluate works in academic and commercial security, and will have rudimentary skills in security research. The course begins with a tutorial of the basic elements of cryptography, cryptanalysis, and systems security, and continues by covering a number of seminal papers and monographs in a wide range of security areas. – https://www.udacity.com/course/network-security–ud199
Real-Time Cyber Threat Detection and Mitigation – New York University (NYU) via Coursera This course introduces real-time cyber security techniques and methods in the context of the TCP/IP protocol suites. Explanation of some basic TCP/IP security hacks is used to introduce the need for network security solutions such as stateless and stateful firewalls. Learners will be introduced to the techniques used to design and configure firewall solutions such as packet filters and proxies to protect enterprise assets. https://www.coursera.org/learn/real-time-cyber-threat-detection
Hey everyone, I’ve started getting into hacking, and would like to know the cheapest but best Wi-Fi cracking/deauthing/hacking adapter. I’m on a fairly tight budget of 20AUD and am willing to compromise if needed. Priority is a card with monitor mode, then cracking capabilities, then deauthing, etc. Thank you guys! By the way, if there are any beginner tips you are willing to give, please let me know!
Authentication — The process of checking if a user is allowed to gain access to a system. eg. Login forms with username and password.
Authorization — Checking if the authenticated user has access to perform an action. eg. user, admin, super admin roles.
Audit — Conduct a complete inspection of an organization’s network to find vulnerable endpoints or malicious software.
Access Control List — A list that contains users and their level of access to a system.
Aircrack-ng — Wifi penetration testing software suite. Contains sniffing, password cracking, and general wireless attacking tools.
Backdoor — A piece of code that lets hackers get into the system easily after it has been compromised.
Burp Suite — Web application security software, helps test web apps for vulnerabilities. Used in bug bounty hunting.
Banner Grabbing — Capturing basic information about a server like the type of web server software (eg. apache) and services running on it.
Botnet — A network of computers controlled by a hacker to perform attacks such as Distributed Denial of Service.
Brute-Force Attack — An attack where the hacker tries different login combinations to gain access. eg. trying to crack a 9 -digit numeric password by trying all the numbers from 000000000 to 999999999
Buffer Overflow — When a program tries to store more information than it is allowed to, it overflows into other buffers (memory partitions) corrupting existing data.
Cache — Storing the response to a particular operation in temporary high-speed storage is to serve other incoming requests better. eg. you can store a database request in a cache till it is updated to reduce calling the database again for the same query.
Cipher — Cryptographic algorithm for encrypting and decrypting data.
Code Injection — Injecting malicious code into a system by exploiting a bug or vulnerability.
Cross-Site Scripting — Executing a script on the client-side through a legitimate website. This can be prevented if the website sanitizes user input.
Compliance — A set of rules defined by the government or other authorities on how to protect your customer’s data. Common ones include HIPAA, PCI-DSS, and FISMA.
Dictionary Attack — Attacking a system with a pre-defined list of usernames and passwords. eg. admin/admin is a common username/password combination used by amateur sysadmins.
Dumpster Diving — Looking into a company’s trash cans for useful information.
Denial of Service & Distributed Denial of Service — Exhausting a server’s resources by sending too many requests is Denial of Service. If a botnet is used to do the same, its called Distributed Denial of Service.
DevSecOps — Combination of development and operations by considering security as a key ingredient from the initial system design.
Directory Traversal — Vulnerability that lets attackers list al the files and folders within a server. This can include system configuration and password files.
Domain Name System (DNS) — Helps convert domain names into server IP addresses. eg. Google.com -> 188.8.131.52
DNS Spoofing — Trikcnig a system’s DNS to point to a malicious server. eg. when you enter ‘facebook.com’, you might be redirected to the attacker’s website that looks like Facebook.
Encryption — Encoding a message with a key so that only the parties with the key can read the message.
Exploit — A piece of code that takes advantage of a vulnerability in the target system. eg. Buffer overflow exploits can get you to root access to a system.
Enumeration — Mapping out all the components of a network by gaining access to a single system.
Footprinting — Gathering information about a target using active methods such as scanning and enumeration.
Flooding — Sending too many packets of data to a target system to exhaust its resources and cause a Denial of Service or similar attacks.
Firewall — A software or hardware filter that can be configured to prevent common types of attacks.
Fork Bomb — Forking a process indefinitely to exhaust system resources. Related to a Denial of Service attack.
Fuzzing — Sending automated random input to a software program to test its exception handling capacity.
Hardening — Securing a system from attacks like closing unused ports. Usually done using scripts for servers.
Hash Function — Mapping a piece of data into a fixed value string. Hashes are used to confirm data integrity.
Honey Pot — An intentionally vulnerable system used to lure attackers. This is then used to understand the attacker’s strategies.
HIPAA — The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. If you are working with healthcare data, you need to make sure you are HIPAA compliant. This is to protect the customer’s privacy.
Input Validation — Checking user inputs before sending them to the database. eg. sanitizing form input to prevent SQL injection attacks.
Integrity — Making sure the data that was sent from the server is the same that was received by the client. This ensures there was no tampering and integrity is achieved usually by hashing and encryption.
Intrusion Detection System — A software similar to a firewall but with advanced features. Helps in defending against Nmap scans, DDoS attacks, etc.
IP Spoofing — Changing the source IP address of a packet to fool the target into thinking a request is coming from a legitimate server.
John The Ripper — Brilliant password cracking tool, runs on all major platforms.
Kerberos — Default authorization software used by Microsoft, uses a stronger encryption system.
KeyLogger — A software program that captures all keystrokes that a user performs on the system.
Logic Bombs — A piece of code (usually malicious) that runs when a condition is satisfied.
Light Weight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) — Lightweight client-server protocol on Windows, central place for authentication. Stores usernames and passwords to validate users on a network.
Malware — Short for “Malicious Software”. Everything from viruses to backdoors is malware.
MAC Address — Unique address assigned to a Network Interface Card and is used as an identifier for local area networks. Easy to spoof.
Multi-factor Authentication — Using more than one method of authentication to access a service. eg. username/password with mobile OTP to access a bank account (two-factor authentication)
MD5 — Widely used hashing algorithm. Once a favorite, it has many vulnerabilities.
Meterpreter — An advanced Metasploit payload that lives in memory and hard to trace.
Null-Byte Injection — An older exploit, uses null bytes (i.e. %00, or 0x00 in hexadecimal) to URLs. This makes web servers return random/unwanted data which might be useful for the attacker. Easily prevented by doing sanity checks.
Network Interface Card(NIC) — Hardware that helps a device connect to a network.
Network Address Translation — Utility that translates your local IP address into a global IP address. eg. your local IP might be 192.168.1.4 but to access the internet, you need a global IP address (from your router).
Netcat — Simple but powerful tool that can view and record data on a TCP or UDP network connections. Since it is not actively maintained, NCat is preferred.
Nikto — A popular web application scanner, helps to find over 6700 vulnerabilities including server configurations and installed web server software.
Nessus — Commercial alternative to NMap, provides a detailed list of vulnerabilities based on scan results.
Packet — Data is sent and received by systems via packets. Contains information like source IP, destination IP, protocol, and other information.
Password Cracking — Cracking an encrypted password using tools like John the Ripper when you don’t have access to the key.
Password Sniffing — Performing man-in-the-middle attacks using tools like Wireshark to find password hashes.
Patch — A software update released by a vendor to fix a bug or vulnerability in a software system.
Phishing — Building fake web sites that look remarkably similar to legitimate websites (like Facebook) to capture sensitive information.
Ping Sweep — A technique that tries to ping a system to see if it is alive on the network.
Public Key Cryptography — Encryption mechanism that users a pair of keys, one private and one public. The sender will encrypt a message using your public key which then you can decrypt using your private key.
Public Key Infrastructure — A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a system to create, store, and distribute digital certificates. This helps sysadmins verify that a particular public key belongs to a certain authorized entity.
Personally Identifiable Information (PII) — Any information that identified a user. eg. Address, Phone number, etc.
Payload — A piece of code (usually malicious) that performs a specific function. eg. Keylogger.
PCI-DSS — Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard. If you are working with customer credit cards, you should be PCI-DSS compliant.
Ransomware — Malware that locks your system using encryption and asks you to pay a price to get the key to unlock it.
Rainbow Table — Pre calculated password hashes that will help you crack password hashes of the target easily.
Reconnaissance — Finding data about the target using methods such as google search, social media, and other publicly available information.
Reverse Engineering — Rebuilding a piece of software based on its functions.
Role-Based Access — Providing a set of authorizations for a role other than a user. eg. “Managers” role will have a set of permissions while the “developers” role will have a different set of permissions.
Rootkit — A rootkit is a malware that provides unauthorized users admin privileges. Rootkits include keyloggers, password sniffers, etc.
Scanning — Sending packets to a system and gaining information about the target system using the packets received. This involved the 3-way-handshake.
Secure Shell (SSH) — Protocol that establishes an encrypted communication channel between a client and a server. You can use ssh to login to remote servers and perform system administration.
Session — A session is a duration in which a communication channel is open between a client and a server. eg. the time between logging into a website and logging out is a session.
Session Hijacking — Taking over someone else’s session by pretending to the client. This is achieved by stealing cookies and session tokens. eg. after you authenticate with your bank, an attacker can steal your session to perform financial transactions on your behalf.
Social Engineering — The art of tricking people into making them do something that is not in their best interest. eg. convincing someone to provide their password over the phone.
Secure Hashing Algorithm (SHA) — Widely used family of encryption algorithms. SHA256 is considered highly secure compared to earlier versions like SHA 1. It is also a one-way algorithm, unlike an encryption algorithm that you can decrypt. Once you hash a message, you can only compare with another hash, you cannot re-hash it to its earlier format.
Sniffing — performing man-in-the-middle attacks on networks. Includes wired and wireless networks.
Spam — Unwanted digital communication, including email, social media messages, etc. Usually tries to get you into a malicious website.
Syslog — System logging protocol, used by system administrators to capture all activity on a server. Usually stored on a separate server to retain logs in the event of an attack.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) — Establishes an encrypted tunnel between the client and server. eg. when you submit passwords on Facebook, only the encrypted text will be visible for sniffers and not your original password.
Snort — Lightweight open-source Intrusion Detection System for Windows and Linux.
SQL Injection — A type of attack that can be performed on web applications using SQL databases. Happens when the site does not validate user input.
Trojan — A malware hidden within useful software. eg. a pirated version of MS office can contain trojans that will execute when you install and run the software.
Traceroute — Tool that maps the route a packet takes between the source and destination.
Tunnel — Creating a private encrypted channel between two or more computers. Only allowed devices on the network can communicate through this tunnel.
Virtual Private Network — A subnetwork created within a network, mainly to encrypt traffic. eg. connecting to a VPN to access a blocked third-party site.
Virus — A piece of code that is created to perform a specific action on the target systems. A virus has to be triggered to execute eg. autoplaying a USB drive.
Vulnerability — A point of attack that is caused by a bug / poor system design. eg. lack of input validation causes attackers to perform SQL injection attacks on a website.
War Driving — Travelling through a neighborhood looking for unprotected wifi networks to attack.
WHOIS — Helps to find information about IP addresses, its owners, DNS records, etc.
Wireshark — Open source program to analyze network traffic and filter requests and responses for network debugging.
Worm — A malware program capable of replicating itself and spreading to other connected systems. eg. a worm to built a botnet. Unlike Viruses, Worms don’t need a trigger.
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) — Protocol that helps mobile devices connect to the internet.
Web Application Firewall (WAF) — Firewalls for web applications that help with cross-site scripting, Denial of Service, etc.
Zero-Day — A newly discovered vulnerability in a system for which there is no patch yet. Zero-day vulnerabilities are the most dangerous type of vulnerabilities since there is no possible way to protect against one.
Zombie — A compromised computer, controlled by an attacker. A group of zombies is called a Botnet.
Increased distributed working: With organizations embracing work from home, incremental risks have been observed due to a surge in Bring Your Own Device (BYOD), Virtual Private Network (VPN), Software As A Service (SaaS), O365 and Shadow IT, as it could be exploited by various Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack vectors.
Reimagine Business Models: Envisioning new business opportunities, modes of working, and renewed investment priorities. With reduced workforce capability, compounded with skill shortages, staff who are focusing on business as usual tasks can be victimized, via social engineering.
Digital Transformation and new digital infrastructure: With the change in nature for organizations across the industrial and supply chain sector – security is deprioritized. Hardening of the industrial systems and cloud based infrastructure is crucial as cyber threats exploit these challenges via vulnerability available for unpatched systems.
With an extreme volume of digital communication, security awareness is lowered with increased susceptibility. Malicious actors are using phishing techniques to exploit such situations.
Re-evaluate your approach to cyber
Which cyber scenarios your organization appears to be preparing for or is prepared?
Is there a security scenario that your organization is currently ignoring – but shouldn’t be?
What would your organization need to do differently in order to win, in each of the identified cyber scenarios?
What capabilities, cyber security partnerships, and workforce strategies do you need to strengthen?
The organizations should reflect the following scenarios at a minimum and consider:
Which cyber scenarios your organization appears to be preparing for or is prepared?
Is there a security scenario that your organization is currently ignoring – but shouldn’t be?
What would your organization need to do differently in order to win, in each of the identified cyber scenarios?
What capabilities, cyber security partnerships, and workforce strategies do you need to strengthen?
To tackle the outcome from the above scenarios, the following measures are the key:
Inoculation through education: Educate and / or remind your employees about –
Your organization’s defense – remote work cyber security policies and best practices
Potential threats to your organization and how will it attack – with a specific focus on social engineering scams and identifying COVID-19 phishing campaigns
Assisting remote employees with enabling MFA across the organization assets
Adjust your defenses: Gather cyber threat intelligence and execute a patching sprint:
Set intelligence collection priorities
Share threat intelligence with other organizations
Use intelligence to move at the speed of the threat
Focus on known tactics, such as phishing and C-suite fraud.
Prioritize unpatched critical systems and common vulnerabilities.
Enterprise recovery: If the worst happens and an attack is successful, follow a staged approach to recovering critical business operations which may include tactical items such as:
Protect key systems through isolation
Fully understand and contain the incident
Eradicate any malware
Implement appropriate protection measures to improve overall system posture
Identify and prioritize the recovery of key business processes to deliver operations
Implement a prioritized recovery plan
Cyber Preparedness and Response: It is critical to optimize the detection capability thus, re-evaluation of the detection strategy aligned with the changing landscape is crucial. Some key trends include:
Secure and monitor your cloud environments and remote working applications
Increase monitoring to identify threats from shadow IT
Analyze behavior patterns to improve detection content
Finding the right cyber security partner: To be ready to respond identify the right partner with experience and skillset in Social Engineering, Cyber Response, Cloud Security, and Data Security.
Critical actions to address
At this point, as the organizations are setting the direction towards the social enterprise, it is an unprecedented opportunity to lead with cyber discussions and initiatives. Organizations should immediately gain an understanding of newly introduced risks and relevant controls by:
Getting a seat at the table
Understanding the risk prioritization:
Remote workforce/technology performance
Operational and financial implications
Emerging insider and external threats
Business continuity capabilities
Assessing cyber governance and security awareness in the new operating environment
Assessing the highest areas of risk and recommend practical mitigation strategies that minimize impact to constrained resources.
Keeping leadership and the Board apprised of ever-changing risk profile
Given the complexity of the pandemic and associated cyber challenges, there is reason to believe that the recovery phase post-COVID-19 will require unprecedented levels of cyber orchestration, communication, and changing of existing configurations across the organization.
CyberSecurity: Protect Yourself on Internet
Use two factor authentication when possible. If not possible, use strong unique passwords that are difficult to guess or crack. This means avoiding passwords that use of common words, your birthdate, your SSN, names and birthdays of close associates, etc.
Make sure the devices you are using are up-to-date and have some form of reputable anti-virus/malware software installed.
Never open emails, attachments, programs unless they are from a trusted source (i.e., a source that can be verified). Also disregard email or web requests that ask you to share your personal or account information unless you are sure the request and requestor are legitimate.
Try to only use websites that are encrypted. To do this, look for either the trusted security lock symbol before the website address and/or the extra “s” at the end of http in the URL address bar.
Avoid using an administrator level account when using the internet.
Only enable cookies when absolutely required by a website.
Make social media accounts private or don’t use social media at all.
Consider using VPNs and encrypting any folders/data that contains sensitive data.
Stay away from using unprotected public Wi-Fi networks.
Social media is genetically engineered in Area 51 to harvest as much data from you as possible. Far beyond just having your name and age and photograph.
Never use the same username twice anywhere, or the same password twice anywhere.
Use Tor/Tor Browser whenever possible. It’s not perfect, but it is a decent default attempt at anonymity.
Use a VPN. Using VPN and Tor can be even better.
Search engines like DuckDuckGo offer better privacy (assuming they’re honest, which you can never be certain of) than Google which, like social media, works extremely hard to harvest every bit of data from you that they can.
Never give your real details anywhere. Certainly not things like your name or pictures of yourself, but even less obvious things like your age or country of origin. Even things like how you spell words and grammatical quirks can reveal where you’re from.
Erase your comments from websites after a few days/weeks. It might not erase them from the website’s servers, but it will at least remove them from public view. If you don’t, you can forget they exist and you never know how or when they can and will be used against you.
With Reddit, you can create an account fairly easily over Tor using no real information. Also, regularly nuke your accounts in case Reddit or some crazy stalker is monitoring your posts to build a profile of who you might be. Source: Reddit
Adrian Lamo – gained media attention for breaking into several high-profile computer networks, including those of The New York Times, Yahoo!, and Microsoft, culminating in his 2003 arrest. Lamo was best known for reporting U.S. soldier Chelsea Manning to Army criminal investigators in 2010 for leaking hundreds of thousands of sensitive U.S. government documents to WikiLeaks.
Albert Gonzales – an American computer hacker and computer criminal who is accused of masterminding the combined credit card theft and subsequent reselling of more than 170 million card and ATM numbers from 2005 to 2007: the biggest such fraud in history.
Barnaby Jack – was a New Zealand hacker, programmer and computer security expert. He was known for his presentation at the Black Hat computer security conference in 2010, during which he exploited two ATMs and made them dispense fake paper currency on the stage. Among his other most notable works were the exploitation of various medical devices, including pacemakers and insulin pumps.
Gary McKinnon – a Scottish systems administrator and hacker who was accused in 2002 of perpetrating the “biggest military computer hack of all time,” although McKinnon himself states that he was merely looking for evidence of free energy suppression and a cover-up of UFO activity and other technologies potentially useful to the public. 👽🛸
George Hotz aka geohot – “The former Facebook engineer took on the giants of the tech world by developing the first iPhone carrier-unlock techniques,” says Mark Greenwood, head of data science at Netacea, “followed a few years later by reverse engineering Sony’s PlayStation 3, clearing the way for users to run their own code on locked-down hardware. George sparked an interest in a younger generation frustrated with hardware and software restrictions being imposed on them and led to a new scene of opening up devices, ultimately leading to better security and more openness.”
Guccifer 2.0 – a persona which claimed to be the hacker(s) that hacked into the Democratic National Committee (DNC) computer network and then leaked its documents to the media, the website WikiLeaks, and a conference event.
Hector Monsegur (known as Sabu) – an American computer hacker and co-founder of the hacking group LulzSec. He Monsegur became an informant for the FBI, working with the agency for over ten months to aid them in identifying the other hackers from LulzSec and related groups.
Jacob Appelbaum – an American independent journalist, computer security researcher, artist, and hacker. He has been employed by the University of Washington, and was a core member of the Tor project, a free software network designed to provide online anonymity.
Jeanson James Ancheta – On May 9, 2006, Jeanson James Ancheta (born 1985) became the first person to be charged for controlling large numbers of hijacked computers or botnets.
Jeremy Hammond – He was convicted of computer fraud in 2013 for hacking the private intelligence firm Stratfor and releasing data to the whistle-blowing website WikiLeaks, and sentenced to 10 years in prison.
John Draper – also known as Captain Crunch, Crunch or Crunchman (after the Cap’n Crunch breakfast cereal mascot), is an American computer programmer and former legendary phone phreak.
Kimberley Vanvaeck (known as Gigabyte) – a virus writer from Belgium known for a long-standing dispute which involved the internet security firm Sophos and one of its employees, Graham Cluley. Vanvaeck wrote several viruses, including Quis, Coconut and YahaSux (also called Sahay). She also created a Sharp virus (also called “Sharpei”), credited as being the first virus to be written in C#.
Lauri Love – a British activist charged with stealing data from United States Government computers including the United States Army, Missile Defense Agency, and NASA via computer intrusion.
Michael Calce (known as MafiaBoy) – a security expert from Île Bizard, Quebec who launched a series of highly publicized denial-of-service attacks in February 2000 against large commercial websites, including Yahoo!, Fifa.com, Amazon.com, Dell, Inc., E*TRADE, eBay, and CNN.
Mudge – Peiter C. Zatko, better known as Mudge, is a network security expert, open source programmer, writer, and a hacker. He was the most prominent member of the high-profile hacker think tank the L0pht as well as the long-lived computer and culture hacking cooperative the Cult of the Dead Cow.
PRAGMA – Also known as Impragma or PHOENiX, PRAGMA is the author of Snipr, one of the most prolific credential stuffing tools available online.
The 414s – The 414s were a group of computer hackers who broke into dozens of high-profile computer systems, including ones at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and Security Pacific Bank, in 1982 and 1983.
The Shadow Brokers – is a hacker group who first appeared in the summer of 2016. They published several leaks containing hacking tools from the National Security Agency (NSA), including several zero-day exploits. Specifically, these exploits and vulnerabilities targeted enterprise firewalls, antivirus software, and Microsoft products. The Shadow Brokers originally attributed the leaks to the Equation Group threat actor, who have been tied to the NSA’s Tailored Access Operations unit.
The Strange History of Ransomware The first ransomware virus predates e-mail, even the Internet as we know it, and was distributed on floppy disk by the postal service. It sounds quaint, but in some ways this horse-and-buggy version was even more insidious than its modern descendants. Contemporary ransomware tends to bait victims using legitimate-looking email attachments — a fake invoice from UPS, or a receipt from Delta airlines. But the 20,000 disks dispatched to 90 countries in December of 1989 were masquerading as something far more evil: AIDS education software.
How to protect sensitive data for its entire lifecycle in AWS
You can protect data in-transit over individual communications channels using transport layer security (TLS), and at-rest in individual storage silos using volume encryption, object encryption or database table encryption. However, if you have sensitive workloads, you might need additional protection that can follow the data as it moves through the application stack. Fine-grained data protection techniques such as field-level encryption allow for the protection of sensitive data fields in larger application payloads while leaving non-sensitive fields in plaintext. This approach lets an application perform business functions on non-sensitive fields without the overhead of encryption, and allows fine-grained control over what fields can be accessed by what parts of the application. Read m ore here…
Definition 1:Amazon DynamoDB is a fully managed proprietary NoSQL database service that supports key-value and document data structures and is offered by Amazon.com as part of the Amazon Web Services portfolio. DynamoDB exposes a similar data model to and derives its name from Dynamo, but has a different underlying implementation. Dynamo had a multi-master design requiring the client to resolve version conflicts and DynamoDB uses synchronous replication across multiple datacenters for high durability and availability.
Definition 2:DynamoDB is a fast and flexible non-relational database service for any scale. DynamoDB enables customers to offload the administrative burdens of operating and scaling distributed databases to AWS so that they don’t have to worry about hardware provisioning, setup and configuration, throughput capacity planning, replication, software patching, or cluster scaling.
Amazon DynamoDB explained
Fast, consistent Performance
Fine-grained access control
AWS DynamoDB Facts and Summaries
Amazon DynamoDB is a low-latency NoSQL database.
DynamoDB consists of Tables, Items, and Attributes
DynamoDb supports both document and key-value data models
DynamoDB Supported documents formats are JSON, HTML, XML
DynamoDB has 2 types of Primary Keys: Partition Key and combination of Partition Key + Sort Key (Composite Key)
DynamoDB has 2 consistency models: Strongly Consistent / Eventually Consistent
DynamoDB Access is controlled using IAM policies.
DynamoDB has fine grained access control using IAM Condition parameter dynamodb:LeadingKeys to allow users to access only the items where the partition key vakue matches their user ID.
DynamoDB Indexes enable fast queries on specific data columns
DynamoDB indexes give you a different view of your data based on alternative Partition / Sort Keys.
DynamoDB Local Secondary indexes must be created when you create your table, they have same partition Key as your table, and they have a different Sort Key.
DynamoDB Global Secondary Index Can be created at any time: at table creation or after. They have a different partition Key as your table and a different sort key as your table.
A DynamoDB query operation finds items in a table using only the primary Key attribute: You provide the Primary Key name and a distinct value to search for.
A DynamoDB Scan operation examines every item in the table. By default, it return data attributes.
DynamoDB Query operation is generally more efficient than a Scan.
With DynamoDB, you can reduce the impact of a query or scan by setting a smaller page size which uses fewer read operations.
To optimize DynamoDB performance, isolate scan operations to specific tables and segregate them from your mission-critical traffic.
To optimize DynamoDB performance, try Parallel scans rather than the default sequential scan.
To optimize DynamoDB performance: Avoid using scan operations if you can: design tables in a way that you can use Query, Get, or BatchGetItems APIs.
When you scan your table in Amazon DynamoDB, you should follow the DynamoDB best practices for avoiding sudden bursts of read activity.
DynamoDb Provisioned Throughput is measured in Capacity Units.
1 Write Capacity Unit = 1 x 1KB Write per second.
1 Read Capacity Unit = 1 x 4KB Strongly Consistent Read Or 2 x 4KB Eventually Consistent Reads per second. Eventual consistent reads give us the maximum performance with the read operation.
What is the maximum throughput that can be provisioned for a single DynamoDB table?
DynamoDB is designed to scale without limits. However, if you want to exceed throughput rates of 10,000 write capacity units or 10,000 read capacity units for an individual table, you must Contact AWS to increase it.
If you want to provision more than 20,000 write capacity units or 20,000 read capacity units from a single subscriber account, you must first contact AWS to request a limit increase.
Dynamo Db Performance: DAX is a DynamoDB-compatible caching service that enables you to benefit from fast in-memory performance for demanding applications.
As an in-memory cache, DAX reduces the response times of eventually-consistent read workloads by an order of magnitude, from single-digit milliseconds to microseconds
DAX improves response times for Eventually Consistent reads only.
With DAX, you point your API calls to the DAX cluster instead of your table.
If the item you are querying is on the cache, DAX will return it; otherwise, it will perform and Eventually Consistent GetItem operation to your DynamoDB table.
DAX reduces operational and application complexity by providing a managed service that is API compatible with Amazon DynamoDB, and thus requires only minimal functional changes to use with an existing application.
DAX is not suitable for write-intensive applications or applications that require Strongly Consistent reads.
For read-heavy or bursty workloads, DAX provides increased throughput and potential operational cost savings by reducing the need to over-provision read capacity units. This is especially beneficial for applications that require repeated reads for individual keys.
Dynamo Db Performance: ElastiCache
In-memory cache sits between your application and database
2 different caching strategies: Lazy loading and Write Through: Lazy loading only caches the data when it is requested
Elasticache Node failures are not fatal, just lots of cache misses
Avoid stale data by implementing a TTL.
Write-Through strategy writes data into cache whenever there is a change to the database. Data is never stale
Write-Through penalty: Each write involves a write to the cache. Elasticache node failure means that data is missing until added or updated in the database.
Elasticache is wasted resources if most of the data is never used.
Time To Live (TTL) for DynamoDB allows you to define when items in a table expire so that they can be automatically deleted from the database. TTL is provided at no extra cost as a way to reduce storage usage and reduce the cost of storing irrelevant data without using provisioned throughput. With TTL enabled on a table, you can set a timestamp for deletion on a per-item basis, allowing you to limit storage usage to only those records that are relevant.
DynamoDB Security: DynamoDB uses the CMK to generate and encrypt a unique data key for the table, known as the table key. With DynamoDB, AWS Owned, or AWS Managed CMK can be used to generate & encrypt keys. AWS Owned CMK is free of charge while AWS Managed CMK is chargeable. Customer managed CMK’s are not supported with encryption at rest.
Amazon DynamoDB offers fully managed encryption at rest. DynamoDB encryption at rest provides enhanced security by encrypting your data at rest using an AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) managed encryption key for DynamoDB. This functionality eliminates the operational burden and complexity involved in protecting sensitive data.
DynamoDB is a alternative solution which can be used for storage of session management. The latency of access to data is less , hence this can be used as a data store for session management
DynamoDB Streams Use Cases and Design Patterns:
How do you set up a relationship across multiple tables in which, based on the value of an item from one table, you update the item in a second table?
How do you trigger an event based on a particular transaction?
How do you audit or archive transactions?
How do you replicate data across multiple tables (similar to that of materialized views/streams/replication in relational data stores)?
As a NoSQL database, DynamoDB is not designed to support transactions. Although client-side libraries are available to mimic the transaction capabilities, they are not scalable and cost-effective. For example, the Java Transaction Library for DynamoDB creates 7N+4 additional writes for every write operation. This is partly because the library holds metadata to manage the transactions to ensure that it’s consistent and can be rolled back before commit.
You can use DynamoDB Streams to address all these use cases. DynamoDB Streams is a powerful service that you can combine with other AWS services to solve many similar problems. When enabled, DynamoDB Streams captures a time-ordered sequence of item-level modifications in a DynamoDB table and durably stores the information for up to 24 hours. Applications can access a series of stream records, which contain an item change, from a DynamoDB stream in near real time.
AWS maintains separate endpoints for DynamoDB and DynamoDB Streams. To work with database tables and indexes, your application must access a DynamoDB endpoint. To read and process DynamoDB Streams records, your application must access a DynamoDB Streams endpoint in the same Region
20 global secondary indexes are allowed per table? (by default)
What is one key difference between a global secondary index and a local secondary index? A local secondary index must have the same partition key as the main table
How many tables can an AWS account have per region? 256
How many secondary indexes (global and local combined) are allowed per table? (by default): 25 You can define up to 5 local secondary indexes and 20 global secondary indexes per table (by default) – for a total of 25.
How can you increase your DynamoDB table limit in a region? By contacting AWS and requesting a limit increase
For any AWS account, there is an initial limit of 256 tables per region.
The minimum length of a partition key value is 1 byte. The maximum length is 2048 bytes.
The minimum length of a sort key value is 1 byte. The maximum length is 1024 bytes.
For tables with local secondary indexes, there is a 10 GB size limit per partition key value. A table with local secondary indexes can store any number of items, as long as the total size for any one partition key value does not exceed 10 GB.
The following diagram shows a local secondary index named LastPostIndex. Note that the partition key is the same as that of the Thread table, but the sort key is LastPostDateTime.
Q0: What should the Developer enable on the DynamoDB table to optimize performance and minimize costs?
A. Amazon DynamoDB auto scaling
B. Amazon DynamoDB cross-region replication
C. Amazon DynamoDB Streams
D. Amazon DynamoDB Accelerator
D. DAX is a DynamoDB-compatible caching service that enables you to benefit from fast in-memory performance for demanding applications. DAX addresses three core scenarios:
As an in-memory cache, DAX reduces the response times of eventually-consistent read workloads by an order of magnitude, from single-digit milliseconds to microseconds.
DAX reduces operational and application complexity by providing a managed service that is API-compatible with Amazon DynamoDB, and thus requires only minimal functional changes to use with an existing application.
For read-heavy or bursty workloads, DAX provides increased throughput and potential operational cost savings by reducing the need to over-provision read capacity units. This is especially beneficial for applications that require repeated reads for individual keys.
Q2: A security system monitors 600 cameras, saving image metadata every 1 minute to an Amazon DynamoDb table. Each sample involves 1kb of data, and the data writes are evenly distributed over time. How much write throughput is required for the target table?
B. When you mention the write capacity of a table in Dynamo DB, you mention it as the number of 1KB writes per second. So in the above question, since the write is happening every minute, we need to divide the value of 600 by 60, to get the number of KB writes per second. This gives a value of 10.
You can specify the Write capacity in the Capacity tab of the DynamoDB table.
Q3: You are developing an application that will interact with a DynamoDB table. The table is going to take in a lot of read and write operations. Which of the following would be the ideal partition key for the DynamoDB table to ensure ideal performance?
Use high-cardinality attributes. These are attributes that have distinct values for each item, like e-mailid, employee_no, customerid, sessionid, orderid, and so on..
Use composite attributes. Try to combine more than one attribute to form a unique key.
Reference: Choosing the right DynamoDB Partition Key
Q4: A DynamoDB table is set with a Read Throughput capacity of 5 RCU. Which of the following read configuration will provide us the maximum read throughput?
A. Read capacity set to 5 for 4KB reads of data at strong consistency
B. Read capacity set to 5 for 4KB reads of data at eventual consistency
C. Read capacity set to 15 for 1KB reads of data at strong consistency
D. Read capacity set to 5 for 1KB reads of data at eventual consistency
The calculation of throughput capacity for option B would be:
Read capacity(5) * Amount of data(4) = 20.
Since its required at eventual consistency , we can double the read throughput to 20*2=40
Q5: Your team is developing a solution that will make use of DynamoDB tables. Due to the nature of the application, the data is needed across a couple of regions across the world. Which of the following would help reduce the latency of requests to DynamoDB from different regions?
A. Enable Multi-AZ for the DynamoDB table
B. Enable global tables for DynamoDB
C. Enable Indexes for the table
D. Increase the read and write throughput for the tablez
Amazon DynamoDB global tables provide a fully managed solution for deploying a multi-region, multimaster database, without having to build and maintain your own replication solution. When you create a global table, you specify the AWS regions where you want the table to be available. DynamoDB performs all of the necessary tasks to create identical tables in these regions, and propagate ongoing data changes to all of them.
Reference: Global Tables
Q6: An application is currently accessing a DynamoDB table. Currently the tables queries are performing well. Changes have been made to the application and now the performance of the application is starting to degrade. After looking at the changes , you see that the queries are making use of an attribute which is not the partition key? Which of the following would be the adequate change to make to resolve the issue?
A. Add an index for the DynamoDB table
B. Change all the queries to ensure they use the partition key
C. Enable global tables for DynamoDB
D. Change the read capacity on the table
Amazon DynamoDB provides fast access to items in a table by specifying primary key values. However, many applications might benefit from having one or more secondary (or alternate) keys available, to allow efficient access to data with attributes other than the primary key. To address this, you can create one or more secondary indexes on a table, and issue Query or Scan requests against these indexes.
A secondary index is a data structure that contains a subset of attributes from a table, along with an alternate key to support Query operations. You can retrieve data from the index using a Query, in much the same way as you use Query with a table. A table can have multiple secondary indexes, which gives your applications access to many different query patterns.
Q7: Company B has created an e-commerce site using DynamoDB and is designing a products table that includes items purchased and the users who purchased the item.
When creating a primary key on a table which of the following would be the best attribute for the partition key? Select the BEST possible answer.
A. None of these are correct.
B. user_id where there are many users to few products
C. category_id where there are few categories to many products
D. product_id where there are few products to many users
When designing tables it is important for the data to be distributed evenly across the entire table. It is best practice for performance to set your primary key where there are many primary keys to few rows. An example would be many users to few products. An example of bad design would be a primary key of product_id where there are few products but many users.
When designing tables it is important for the data to be distributed evenly across the entire table. It is best practice for performance to set your primary key where there are many primary keys to few rows. An example would be many users to few products. An example of bad design would be a primary key of product_id where there are few products but many users.
Reference: Partition Keys and Sort Keys
Q8: Which API call can be used to retrieve up to 100 items at a time or 16 MB of data from a DynamoDB table?
Answer: C. BatchGetItem
The BatchGetItem operation returns the attributes of one or more items from one or more tables. You identify requested items by primary key.
A single operation can retrieve up to 16 MB of data, which can contain as many as 100 items. BatchGetItem will return a partial result if the response size limit is exceeded, the table's provisioned throughput is exceeded, or an internal processing failure occurs. If a partial result is returned, the operation returns a value for UnprocessedKeys. You can use this value to retry the operation starting with the next item to get.Reference: API-Specific Limits
Q9: Which DynamoDB limits can be raised by contacting AWS support?
A. The number of hash keys per account
B. The maximum storage used per account
C. The number of tables per account
D. The number of local secondary indexes per account
E. The number of provisioned throughput units per account
Answer: C. and E.
For any AWS account, there is an initial limit of 256 tables per region.
AWS places some default limits on the throughput you can provision.
These are the limits unless you request a higher amount.
To request a service limit increase see https://aws.amazon.com/support.
Q10: Which approach below provides the least impact to provisioned throughput on the “Product”
A. Create an “Images” DynamoDB table to store the Image with a foreign key constraint to
the “Product” table
B. Add an image data type to the “Product” table to store the images in binary format
C. Serialize the image and store it in multiple DynamoDB tables
D. Store the images in Amazon S3 and add an S3 URL pointer to the “Product” table item
for each image
Amazon DynamoDB currently limits the size of each item that you store in a table (see Limits in DynamoDB). If your application needs to store more data in an item than the DynamoDB size limit permits, you can try compressing one or more large attributes, or you can store them as an object in Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) and store the Amazon S3 object identifier in your DynamoDB item.
Compressing large attribute values can let them fit within item limits in DynamoDB and reduce your storage costs. Compression algorithms such as GZIP or LZO produce binary output that you can then store in a Binary attribute type.
Reference: Best Practices for Storing Large Items and Attributes
Q11: You’re creating a forum DynamoDB database for hosting forums. Your “thread” table contains the forum name and each “forum name” can have one or more “subjects”. What primary key type would you give the thread table in order to allow more than one subject to be tied to the forum primary key name?
B. Range and Hash
C. Primary and Range
D. Hash and Range
Each forum name can have one or more subjects. In this case, ForumName is the hash attribute and Subject is the range attribute.
Definition 1: Amazon S3 or Amazon Simple Storage Service is a “simple storage service” offered by Amazon Web Services that provides object storage through a web service interface. Amazon S3 uses the same scalable storage infrastructure that Amazon.com uses to run its global e-commerce network.
Definition 2: Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) is an object storage service that offers industry-leading scalability, data availability, security, and performance.
AWS S3 Explained graphically:
AWS S3 Facts and summaries
S3 is a universal namespace, meaning each S3 bucket you create must have a unique name that is not being used by anyone else in the world.
S3 is object based: i.e allows you to upload files.
Files can be from 0 Bytes to 5 TB
What is the maximum length, in bytes, of a DynamoDB range primary key attribute value?
The maximum length of a DynamoDB range primary key attribute value is 2048 bytes (NOT 256 bytes).
S3 has unlimited storage.
Files are stored in Buckets.
Read after write consistency for PUTS of new Objects
Eventual Consistency for overwrite PUTS and DELETES (can take some time to propagate)
S3 Standard (durable, immediately available, frequently accesses)
Amazon S3 Intelligent-Tiering (S3 Intelligent-Tiering): It works by storing objects in two access tiers: one tier that is optimized for frequent access and another lower-cost tier that is optimized for infrequent access.
S3 – One Zone-Infrequent Access – S3 One Zone IA: Same ad IA. However, data is stored in a single Availability Zone only
S3 – Reduced Redundancy Storage (data that is easily reproducible, such as thumbnails, etc.)
Glacier – Archived data, where you can wait 3-5 hours before accessing
You can have a bucket that has different objects stored in S3 Standard, S3 Intelligent-Tiering, S3 Standard-IA, and S3 One Zone-IA.
The default URL for S3 hosted websites lists the bucket name first followed by s3-website-region.amazonaws.com . Example: enoumen.com.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com
Core fundamentals of an S3 object
Sub-resources (used to manage bucket-specific configuration)
Bucket Policies, ACLs,
Object-based storage only for files
Not suitable to install OS on.
Successful uploads will generate a HTTP 200 status code.
S3 Security – Summary
By default, all newly created buckets are PRIVATE.
You can set up access control to your buckets using:
Bucket Policies – Applied at the bucket level
Access Control Lists – Applied at an object level.
S3 buckets can be configured to create access logs, which log all requests made to the S3 bucket. These logs can be written to another bucket.
Encryption In-Transit (SSL/TLS)
Encryption At Rest:
Server side Encryption (SSE-S3, SSE-KMS, SSE-C)
Client Side Encryption
Remember that we can use a Bucket policy to prevent unencrypted files from being uploaded by creating a policy which only allows requests which include the x-amz-server-side-encryption parameter in the request header.
S3 CORS (Cross Origin Resource Sharing):
CORS defines a way for client web applications that are loaded in one domain to interact with resources in a different domain.
Always use the S3 website URL, not the regular bucket URL. E.g.: https://s3-eu-west-2.amazonaws.com/acloudguru
Edge locations are not just READ only – you can WRITE to them too (i.e put an object on to them.)
Objects are cached for the life of the TTL (Time to Live)
You can clear cached objects, but you will be charged. (Invalidation)
S3 Performance optimization – 2 main approaches to Performance Optimization for S3:
GET-Intensive Workloads – Use Cloudfront
Mixed Workload – Avoid sequencial key names for your S3 objects. Instead, add a random prefix like a hex hash to the key name to prevent multiple objects from being stored on the same partition.
The best way to handle large objects uploads to the S3 service is to use the Multipart upload API. The Multipart upload API enables you to upload large objects in parts.
You can enable versioning on a bucket, even if that bucket already has objects in it. The already existing objects, though, will show their versions as null. All new objects will have version IDs.
Bucket names cannot start with a . or – characters. S3 bucket names can contain both the . and – characters. There can only be one . or one – between labels. E.G mybucket-com mybucket.com are valid names but mybucket–com and mybucket..com are not valid bucket names.
What is the maximum number of S3 buckets allowed per AWS account (by default)? 100
You successfully upload an item to the us-east-1 region. You then immediately make another API call and attempt to read the object. What will happen? All AWS regions now have read-after-write consistency for PUT operations of new objects. Read-after-write consistency allows you to retrieve objects immediately after creation in Amazon S3. Other actions still follow the eventual consistency model (where you will sometimes get stale results if you have recently made changes)
S3 bucket policies require a Principal be defined. Review the access policy elements here
What checksums does Amazon S3 employ to detect data corruption?
Amazon S3 uses a combination of Content-MD5 checksums and cyclic redundancy checks (CRCs) to detect data corruption. Amazon S3 performs these checksums on data at rest and repairs any corruption using redundant data. In addition, the service calculates checksums on all network traffic to detect corruption of data packets when storing or retrieving data.
Q0: You’ve written an application that uploads objects onto an S3 bucket. The size of the object varies between 200 – 500 MB. You’ve seen that the application sometimes takes a longer than expected time to upload the object. You want to improve the performance of the application. Which of the following would you consider?
A. Create multiple threads and upload the objects in the multiple threads
B. Write the items in batches for better performance
C. Use the Multipart upload API
D. Enable versioning on the Bucket
C. All other options are invalid since the best way to handle large object uploads to the S3 service is to use the Multipart upload API. The Multipart upload API enables you to upload large objects in parts. You can use this API to upload new large objects or make a copy of an existing object. Multipart uploading is a three-step process: You initiate the upload, you upload the object parts, and after you have uploaded all the parts, you complete the multipart upload. Upon receiving the complete multipart upload request, Amazon S3 constructs the object from the uploaded parts, and you can then access the object just as you would any other object in your bucket.
A. Enable versioning for the underlying S3 bucket.
B. Enable Replication so that the objects get replicated to the other bucket
C. Enable CORS for the bucket
D. Change the Bucket policy for the bucket to allow access from the other bucket
Cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) defines a way for client web applications that are loaded in one domain to interact with resources in a different domain. With CORS support, you can build rich client-side web applications with Amazon S3 and selectively allow cross-origin access to your Amazon S3 resources.
Cross-Origin Resource Sharing: Use-case Scenarios The following are example scenarios for using CORS:
Scenario 2: Suppose that you want to host a web font from your S3 bucket. Again, browsers require a CORS check (also called a preight check) for loading web fonts. You would congure the bucket that is hosting the web font to allow any origin to make these requests.
Q4: Your mobile application includes a photo-sharing service that is expecting tens of thousands of users at launch. You will leverage Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) for storage of the user Images, and you must decide how to authenticate and authorize your users for access to these images. You also need to manage the storage of these images. Which two of the following approaches should you use? Choose two answers from the options below
A. Create an Amazon S3 bucket per user, and use your application to generate the S3 URL for the appropriate content.
B. Use AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) user accounts as your application-level user database, and offload the burden of authentication from your application code.
C. Authenticate your users at the application level, and use AWS Security Token Service (STS)to grant token-based authorization to S3 objects.
D. Authenticate your users at the application level, and send an SMS token message to the user. Create an Amazon S3 bucket with the same name as the SMS message token, and move the user’s objects to that bucket.
The AWS Security Token Service (STS) is a web service that enables you to request temporary, limited-privilege credentials for AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) users or for users that you authenticate (federated users). The token can then be used to grant access to the objects in S3.
You can then provides access to the objects based on the key values generated via the user id.
Q5: Both ACLs and Bucket Policies can be used to grant access to S3 buckets. Which of the following statements is true about ACLs and Bucket policies?
A. Bucket Policies are Written in JSON and ACLs are written in XML
B. ACLs can be attached to S3 objects or S3 Buckets
C. Bucket Policies and ACLs are written in JSON
D. Bucket policies are only attached to s3 buckets, ACLs are only attached to s3 objects
Answer: A. and B.
Only Bucket Policies are written in JSON, ACLs are written in XML.
While Bucket policies are indeed only attached to S3 buckets, ACLs can be attached to S3 Buckets OR S3 Objects.
Q6: What are good options to improve S3 performance when you have significantly high numbers of GET requests?
A. Introduce random prefixes to S3 objects
B. Introduce random suffixes to S3 objects
C. Setup CloudFront for S3 objects
D. Migrate commonly used objects to Amazon Glacier
CloudFront caching is an excellent way to avoid putting extra strain on the S3 service and to improve the response times of reqeusts by caching data closer to users at CloudFront locations.
S3 Transfer Acceleration optimizes the TCP protocol and adds additional intelligence between the client and the S3 bucket, making S3 Transfer Acceleration a better choice if a higher throughput is desired. If you have objects that are smaller than 1GB or if the data set is less than 1GB in size, you should consider using Amazon CloudFront's PUT/POST commands for optimal performance.
Reference: Amazon S3 Transfer Acceleration
Q7: If an application is storing hourly log files from thousands of instances from a high traffic
web site, which naming scheme would give optimal performance on S3?
Answer: A. B. C. D. and E.
Amazon S3 now provides increased performance to support at least 3,500 requests per second to add data and 5,500 requests per second to retrieve data, which can save significant processing time for no additional charge. Each S3 prefix can support these request rates, making it simple to increase performance significantly.
This S3 request rate performance increase removes any previous guidance to randomize object prefixes to achieve faster performance. That means you can now use logical or sequential naming patterns in S3 object naming without any performance implications.
Q9: You created three S3 buckets – “mywebsite.com”, “downloads.mywebsite.com”, and “www.mywebsite.com”. You uploaded your files and enabled static website hosting. You specified both of the default documents under the “enable static website hosting” header. You also set the “Make Public” permission for the objects in each of the three buckets. You create the Route 53 Aliases for the three buckets. You are going to have your end users test your websites by browsing to http://mydomain.com/error.html, http://downloads.mydomain.com/index.html, and http://www.mydomain.com. What problems will your testers encounter?
A. http://mydomain.com/error.html will not work because you did not set a value for the error.html file
B. There will be no problems, all three sites should work.
C. http://www.mywebsite.com will not work because the URL does not include a file name at the end of it.
D. http://downloads.mywebsite.com/index.html will not work because the “downloads” prefix is not a supported prefix for S3 websites using Route 53 aliases
It used to be that the only allowed domain prefix when creating Route 53 Aliases for S3 static websites was the “www” prefix. However, this is no longer the case. You can now use other subdomain.
What is the AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner Exam?
The AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner Exam (CLF-C01) is an introduction to AWS services and the intention is to examine the candidates ability to define what the AWS cloud is and its global infrastructure. It provides an overview of AWS core services security aspects, pricing and support services. The main objective is to provide an overall understanding about the Amazon Web Services Cloud platform. The course helps you get the conceptual understanding of the AWS and can help you know about the basics of AWS and cloud computing, including the services, cases and benefits.
To succeed with the real exam, do not memorize the answers below. It is very important that you understand why a question is right or wrong and the concepts behind it by carefully reading the reference documents in the answers.
Ensure one CloudTrail is enabled for all regions. Turn on CloudTrail for all regions in your environment and CloudTrail will deliver log files from all regions to one S3 bucket. AWS CloudTrail is a service that enables governance, compliance, operational auditing, and risk auditing of your AWS account. With CloudTrail, you can log, continuously monitor, and retain account activity related to actions across your AWS infrastructure. CloudTrail provides event history of your AWS account activity, including actions taken through the AWS Management Console, AWS SDKs, command line tools, and other AWS services. This event history simplifies security analysis, resource change tracking, and troubleshooting.
Use a VPC Endpoint to access S3. A VPC endpoint enables you to privately connect your VPC to supported AWS services and VPC endpoint services powered by PrivateLink without requiring an internet gateway, NAT device, VPN connection, or AWS Direct Connect connection. Instances in your VPC do not require public IP addresses to communicate with resources in the service. Traffic between your VPC and the other service does not leave the Amazon network.
AWS PrivateLink simplifies the security of data shared with cloud-based applications by eliminating the exposure of data to the public Internet.
Answer: iOS – Android (A and D) It is AWS responsibility to secure Edge locations and decommission the data. AWS responsibility “Security of the Cloud” – AWS is responsible for protecting the infrastructure that runs all of the services offered in the AWS Cloud. This infrastructure is composed of the hardware, software, networking, and facilities that run AWS Cloud services.
Q4:You have EC2 instances running at 90% utilization and you expect this to continue for at least a year. What type of EC2 instance would you choose to ensure your cost stay at a minimum?
A. Dedicated host instances
B. On-demand instances
C. Spot instances
D. Reserved instances
Answer: iOS – Android Reserved instances are the best choice for instances with continuous usage and offer a reduced cost because you purchase the instance for the entire year. Amazon EC2 Reserved Instances (RI) provide a significant discount (up to 75%) compared to On-Demand pricing and provide a capacity reservation when used in a specific Availability Zone.
Q5:What tool would you use to get an estimated monthly cost for your environment?
A. TCO Calculator
B. Simply Monthly Calculator
C. Cost Explorer
D. Consolidated Billing
Answer: iOS – Android (B) The AWS Simple Monthly Calculator helps customers and prospects estimate their monthly AWS bill more efficiently. Using this tool, they can add, modify and remove services from their 'bill' and it will recalculate their estimated monthly charges automatically.
Q6: How do you make sure your organization does not exceed its monthly budget?
A. Sign up for the free alert under filing preferences in the AWS Management Console.
B. Set a schedule to regularly review the Billing an Cost Management dashboard each month.
C. Create an email alert in AWS Budget
D. In CloudWatch, create an alarm that triggers each time the limit is exceeded.
Answer: iOS – Android (C) AWS Budgets gives you the ability to set custom budgets that alert you when your costs or usage exceed (or are forecasted to exceed) your budgeted amount. You can also use AWS Budgets to set reservation utilization or coverage targets and receive alerts when your utilization drops below the threshold you define. Reservation alerts are supported for Amazon EC2, Amazon RDS, Amazon Redshift, Amazon ElastiCache, and Amazon Elasticsearch reservations.
Q7:An Edge Location is a specialization AWS data centre that works with which services?
D. Route 53
Answer: iOS – Android Lambda@Edge lets you run Lambda functions to customize the content that CloudFront delivers, executing the functions in AWS locations closer to the viewer. Amazon CloudFront is a web service that speeds up distribution of your static and dynamic web content, such as .html, .css, .js, and image files, to your users. CloudFront delivers your content through a worldwide network of data centers called edge locations. When a user requests content that you're serving with CloudFront, the user is routed to the edge location that provides the lowest latency (time delay), so that content is delivered with the best possible performance.
CloudFront speeds up the distribution of your content by routing each user request through the AWS backbone network to the edge location that can best serve your content. Typically, this is a CloudFront edge server that provides the fastest delivery to the viewer. Using the AWS network dramatically reduces the number of networks that your users' requests must pass through, which improves performance. Users get lower latency—the time it takes to load the first byte of the file—and higher data transfer rates.
You also get increased reliability and availability because copies of your files (also known as objects) are now held (or cached) in multiple edge locations around the world.
Q8:What is the preferred method of linking 2 AWS accounts?
A. AWS Organizations
B. Cost Explorer
C. VPC Peering
D. Consolidated billing
Answer: iOS – Android (A) AWS Organizations is an account management service that enables you to consolidate multiple AWS accounts into an organization that you create and centrally manage. AWSOrganizations includes account management and consolidated billing capabilities that enable you to better meet the budgetary, security, and compliance needs of your business.
Route 53 is a domain name system service by AWS. When a Disaster does occur , it can be easy to switch to secondary sites using the Route53 service.
Amazon Route 53 is a highly available and scalable cloud Domain Name System (DNS) web service. It is designed to give developers and businesses an extremely reliable and cost effective way to route end users to Internet applications by translating names like www.example.com into the numeric IP addresses like 192.0.2.1 that
computers use to connect to each other. Amazon Route 53 is fully compliant with IPv6 as well.
The below snapshot from the AWS Documentation shows the spectrum of the Disaster recovery methods. If you go to the further end of the spectrum you have the least time for downtime for the users.
Q11:Your company is planning to host resources in the AWS Cloud. They want to use services which can be used to decouple resources hosted on the cloud. Which of the following services can help fulfil this requirement?
A. AWS EBS Volumes
B. AWS EBS Snapshots
C. AWS Glacier
D. AWS SQS
D. AWS SQS: Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) offers a reliable, highly-scalable hosted queue for storing messages as they travel between applications or microservices. It moves data between distributed application components and helps you decouple these components.
You can use Amazon CloudWatch Logs to monitor, store, and access your log files from Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances, AWS CloudTrail, and other sources. You can then retrieve the associated log data from CloudWatch Log.
Q22:A company is deploying a new two-tier web application in AWS. The company wants to store their most frequently used data so that the response time for the application is improved. Which AWS service provides the solution for the company’s requirements?
A. MySQL Installed on two Amazon EC2 Instances in a single Availability Zone
Amazon ElastiCache is a web service that makes it easy to deploy, operate, and scale an in-memory data store or cache in the cloud. The service improves the performance of web applications by allowing you to retrieve information from fast, managed, in-memory data stores, instead of relying entirely on slower disk-based databases.
Q23:You have a distributed application that periodically processes large volumes of data across multiple Amazon EC2 Instances. The application is designed to recover gracefully from Amazon EC2 instance failures. You are required to accomplish this task in the most cost-effective way. Which of the following will meetyour requirements?
When you think of cost effectiveness, you can either have to choose Spot or Reserved instances. Now when you have a regular processing job, the best is to use spot instances and since your application is designed recover gracefully from Amazon EC2 instance failures, then even if you lose the Spot instance , there is no issue because your application can recover.
A network access control list (ACL) is an optional layer of security for your VPC that acts as a firewall for controlling traffic in and out of one or more subnets. You might set up network ACLs with rules similar to your security groups in order to add an additional layer of security to your VPC.
Always build components which are loosely coupled. This is so that even if one component does fail, the entire system does not fail. Also if you build with the assumption that everything will fail, then you will ensure that the right measures are taken to build a highly available and fault tolerant system.
Q29: You have 2 accounts in your AWS account. One for the Dev and the other for QA. All are part ofconsolidated billing. The master account has purchase 3 reserved instances. The Dev department is currently using 2 reserved instances. The QA team is planning on using 3 instances which of the same instance type. What is the pricing tier of the instances that can be used by the QA Team?
Since all are a part of consolidating billing, the pricing of reserved instances can be shared by All. And since 2 are already used by the Dev team , another one can be used by the QA team. The rest of the instances can be on-demand instances.
Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) offers a reliable, highly-scalable hosted queue for storing messages as they travel between applications or microservices. It moves data between distributed application components and helps you decouple these components.
Q32:You are exploring what services AWS has off-hand. You have a large number of data sets that need to be processed. Which of the following services can help fulfil this requirement.
D. Storage Gateway
A. Amazon EMR helps you analyze and process vast amounts of data by distributing the computational work across a cluster of virtual servers running in the AWS Cloud. The cluster is managed using an open-source framework called Hadoop. Amazon EMR lets you focus on crunching or analyzing your data without having to worry about time-consuming setup, management, and tuning of Hadoop clusters or the compute capacity they rely on.
Amazon Inspector enables you to analyze the behaviour of your AWS resources and helps you to identify potential security issues. Using Amazon Inspector, you can define a collection of AWS resources that you want to include in an assessment target. You can then create an assessment template and launch a security assessment run of this target.
Q34:Your company is planning to offload some of the batch processing workloads on to AWS. These jobs can be interrupted and resumed at any time. Which of the following instance types would be the most cost effective to use for this purpose.
C. Full Upfront Reserved
D. Partial Upfront Reserved
B. Spot Instances are a cost-effective choice if you can be flexible about when your applications run and if your applications can be interrupted. For example, Spot Instances are well-suited for data analysis, batch jobs, background processing, and optional tasks
Snowball is a petabyte-scale data transport solution that uses secure appliances to transfer large amounts of data& into and out of the AWS cloud. Using Snowball addresses common challenges with large-scale data transfers including high network costs, long transfer times, and security concerns. Transferring data with Snowball is simple, fast, secure, and can be as little as one-fifth the cost of high-speed Internet.
Amazon Inspector enables you to analyze the behavior of your AWS resources and helps you to identify potential security issues. Using Amazon Inspector, you can define a collection of AWS resources that you want to include in an assessment target. You can then create an assessment template and launch a security assessment run of this target.
AWS Database Migration Service helps you migrate databases to AWS quickly and securely. The source database remains fully operational during the migration, minimizing downtime to applications that rely on the database. The AWS Database Migration Service can migrate your data to and from most widely used commercial and open source databases.
You can reduce the load on your source DB Instance by routing read queries from your applications to the read replica. Read replicas allow you to elastically scale out beyond the capacity constraints of a single DB instance for read-heavy database workloads.
One of the first techniques to mitigate DDoS attacks is to minimize the surface area that can be attacked thereby limiting the options for attackers and allowing you to build protections in a single place. We want to ensure that we do not expose our application or resources to ports, protocols or applications from where they do not expect any communication. Thus, minimizing the possible points of attack and letting us concentrate our mitigation efforts. In some cases, you can do this by placing your computation resources behind Content Distribution Networks (CDNs), Load Balancers and restricting direct Internet traffic to certain parts of your infrastructure like your database servers. In other cases, you can use firewalls or Access Control Lists (ACLs) to control what traffic reaches your applications.
You can use the consolidated billing feature in AWS Organizations to consolidate payment for multiple AWS accounts or multiple AISPL accounts. With consolidated billing, you can see a combined view of AWS charges incurred by all of your accounts. You also can get a cost report for each member account that is associated with your master account. Consolidated billing is offered at no additional charge.
One of the first techniques to mitigate DDoS attacks is to minimize the surface area that can be attacked thereby limiting the options for attackers and allowing you to build protections in a single place. We want to ensure that we do not expose our application or resources to ports, protocols or applications from where they do not expect any communication. Thus, minimizing the possible points of attack and letting us concentrate our mitigation efforts. In some cases, you can do this by placing your computation resources behind; Content Distribution Networks (CDNs), Load Balancers and restricting direct Internet traffic to certain parts of your infrastructure like your database servers. In other cases, you can use firewalls or Access Control Lists (ACLs) to control what traffic reaches your applications.
If the database is going to be used for a minimum of one year at least , then it is better to get Reserved Instances. You can save on costs , and if you use a partial upfront options , you can get a better discount
Security groups acts as a virtual firewall for your instance to control inbound and outbound traffic. Network access control list (ACL) is an optional layer of security for your VPC that acts as a firewall for controlling traffic in and out of one or more subnets.
C: AWS is defined as a cloud services provider. They provide hundreds of services of which compute and storage are included (not not limited to).
Q60: Which AWS service can be used as a global content delivery network (CDN) service?
A. Amazon SES
B. Amazon CouldTrail
C. Amazon CloudFront
D. Amazon S3
C: Amazon CloudFront is a web service that gives businesses and web application developers an easy
and cost effective way to distribute content with low latency and high data transfer speeds. Like other AWS services, Amazon CloudFront is a self-service, pay-per-use offering, requiring no long term commitments or minimum fees. With CloudFront, your files are delivered to end-users using a global network of edge locations.Reference: AWS cloudfront
Q61:What best describes the concept of fault tolerance?
Choose the correct answer:
A. The ability for a system to withstand a certain amount of failure and still remain functional.
B. The ability for a system to grow in size, capacity, and/or scope.
C. The ability for a system to be accessible when you attempt to access it.
D. The ability for a system to grow and shrink based on demand.
A: Fault tolerance describes the concept of a system (in our case a web application) to have failure in some of its components and still remain accessible (highly available). Fault tolerant web applications will have at least two web servers (in case one fails).
Q62: The firm you work for is considering migrating to AWS. They are concerned about cost and the initial investment needed. Which of the following features of AWS pricing helps lower the initial investment amount needed?
Choose 2 answers from the options given below:
A. The ability to choose the lowest cost vendor.
B. The ability to pay as you go
C. No upfront costs
D. Discounts for upfront payments
B and C: The best features of moving to the AWS Cloud is: No upfront cost and The ability to pay as you go where the customer only pays for the resources needed. Reference: AWS pricing
Q64: Your company has started using AWS. Your IT Security team is concerned with the security of hosting resources in the Cloud. Which AWS service provides security optimization recommendations that could help the IT Security team secure resources using AWS?
An online resource to help you reduce cost, increase performance, and improve security by optimizing your AWS environment, Trusted Advisor provides real time guidance to help you provision your resources following AWS best practices. Reference: AWS trusted advisor
Q65:What is the relationship between AWS global infrastructure and the concept of high availability?
Choose the correct answer:
A. AWS is centrally located in one location and is subject to widespread outages if something happens at that one location.
B. AWS regions and Availability Zones allow for redundant architecture to be placed in isolated parts of the world.
C. Each AWS region handles a different AWS services, and you must use all regions to fully use AWS.
As an AWS user, you can create your applications infrastructure and duplicate it. By placing duplicate infrastructure in multiple regions, high availability is created because if one region fails you have a backup (in a another region) to use.
Q66: You are hosting a number of EC2 Instances on AWS. You are looking to monitor CPU Utilization on the Instance. Which service would you use to collect and track performance metrics for AWS services?
Amazon CloudWatch is a monitoring service for AWS cloud resources and the applications you run on AWS. You can use Amazon CloudWatch to collect and track metrics, collect and monitor log files, set alarms, and automatically react to changes in your AWS resources. Reference: AWS cloudwatch/
Q67: Which of the following support plans give access to all the checks in the Trusted Advisor service.
Q68: Which of the following in AWS maps to a separate geographic location?
A. AWS Region
B. AWS Data Centers
C. AWS Availability Zone
Answer: iOS – Android A: Amazon cloud computing resources are hosted in multiple locations world-wide. These locations are composed of AWS Regions and Availability Zones. Each AWS Region is a separate geographic area. Reference: AWS Regions And Availability Zone
Q69:What best describes the concept of scalability?
Choose the correct answer:
A. The ability for a system to grow and shrink based on demand.
B. The ability for a system to grow in size, capacity, and/or scope.
C. The ability for a system be be accessible when you attempt to access it.
D. The ability for a system to withstand a certain amount of failure and still remain functional.
Answer: iOS – Android B: Scalability refers to the concept of a system being able to easily (and cost-effectively) scale UP. For web applications, this means the ability to easily add server capacity when demand requires.
Q70: If you wanted to monitor all events in your AWS account, which of the below services would you use?
A. AWS CloudWatch
B. AWS CloudWatch logs
C. AWS Config
D. AWS CloudTrail
D: AWS CloudTrail is a service that enables governance, compliance, operational auditing, and risk
auditing of your AWS account. With CloudTrail, you can log, continuously monitor, and retain account activity related to actions across your AWS infrastructure. CloudTrail provides event history of your AWS account activity, including actions taken through the AWS Management Console, AWS SDKs, command line tools, and other AWS services. This event history simplifies security analysis, resource change tracking, and troubleshooting. Reference: Cloudtrail
Fault tolerance, scalability, elasticity, and high availability are the four primary benefits of AWS/the cloud.
Q72:What best describes a simplified definition of the “cloud”?
Choose the correct answer:
A. All the computers in your local home network.
B. Your internet service provider
C. A computer located somewhere else that you are utilizing in some capacity.
D. An on-premise data center that your company owns.
Answer: iOS – Android (D) The simplest definition of the cloud is a computer that is located somewhere else that you are utilizing in some capacity. AWS is a cloud services provider, as the provide access to computers they own (located at AWS data centers), that you use for various purposes.
Q73: Your development team is planning to host a development environment on the cloud. This consists of EC2 and RDS instances. This environment will probably only be required for 2 months.
Which types of instances would you use for this purpose?
Answer: iOS – Android (A) The best and cost effective option would be to use On-Demand Instances. The AWS documentation gives the following additional information on On-Demand EC2 Instances. With On-Demand instances you only pay for EC2 instances you use. The use of On-Demand instances frees you from the costs and complexities of planning, purchasing, and maintaining hardware and transforms what are commonly large fixed costs into much smaller variable costs. Reference: AWS ec2 pricing on-demand
Q74: Which of the following can be used to secure EC2 Instances?
security groups acts as a virtual firewall for your instance to control inbound and outbound traffic. When you launch an instance in a VPC, you can assign up to five security groups to the instance. Security groups act at the instance level, not the subnet level. Therefore, each instance in a subnet in your VPC could be assigned to a different set of security groups. If you don't specify a particular group at launch time, the instance is automatically assigned to the default security group for the VPC. Reference: VPC Security Groups
Q75: What is the purpose of a DNS server?
Choose the correct answer:
A. To act as an internet search engine.
B. To protect you from hacking attacks.
C. To convert common language domain names to IP addresses.
Domain name system servers act as a “third party” that provides the service of converting common language domain names to IP addresses (which are required for a web browser to properly make a request for web content).
High availability refers to the concept that something will be accessible when you try to access it. An object or web application is “highly available” when it is accessible a vast majority of the time.
Amazon WorkSpaces is a managed, secure Desktop-as-a-Service (DaaS) solution. You can use Amazon WorkSpaces to provision either Windows or Linux desktops in just a few minutes and quickly scale to provide thousands of desktops to workers across the globe
Q87: Your company has recently migrated large amounts of data to the AWS cloud in S3 buckets. But it is necessary to discover and protect the sensitive data in these buckets. Which AWS service can do that?
Notes:Amazon Macie is a fully managed data security and data privacy service that uses machine learning and pattern matching to discover and protect your sensitive data in AWS.
Q88:Your Finance Department has instructed you to save costs wherever possible when using the AWS Cloud. You notice that using reserved EC2 instances on a 1year contract will save money. What payment method will save the most money?
B: Partial Upfront
C: All Upfront
D: No Upfront
Notes: With the All Upfront option, you pay for the entire Reserved Instance term with one upfront payment. This option provides you with the largest discount compared to On Demand Instance pricing.
Q89:A fantasy sports company needs to run an application for the length of a football season (5 months). They will run the application on an EC2 instance and there can be no interruption. Which purchasing option best suits this use case?
Notes: This is not a long enough term to make reserved instances the better option. Plus, the application can't be interrupted, which rules out spot instances. Dedicated instances provide the option to bring along existing software licenses.
The scenario does not indicate a need to do this.
Q90:Your company is considering migrating its data center to the cloud. What are the advantages of the AWS cloud over an on-premises data center?
A. Replace upfront operational expenses with low variable operational expenses.
B. Maintain physical access to the new data center, but share responsibility with AWS.
C. Replace low variable costs with upfront capital expenses.
D. Replace upfront capital expenses with low variable costs.
Q91:You are leading a pilot program to try the AWS Cloud for one of your applications. You have been instructed to provide an estimate of your AWS bill. Which service will allow you to do this by manually entering your planned resources by service?
Notes: With the AWS Pricing Calculator, you can input the services you will use, and the configuration of those services, and get an estimate of the costs these services will accrue. AWS Pricing Calculator lets you explore AWS services, and create an estimate for the cost of your use cases on AWS.
Q92:Which AWS service would enable you to view the spending distribution in one of your AWS accounts?
Notes: AWS Cost Explorer is a free tool that you can use to view your costs and usage. You can view data up to the last 13 months, forecast how much you are likely to spend for the next three months, and get recommendations for what Reserved Instances to purchase. You can use AWS Cost Explorer to see patterns in how much you spend on AWS resources over time, identify areas that need further inquiry, and see trends that you can use to understand your costs. You can also specify time ranges for the data, and view time data by day or by month.
Q93:You are managing the company’s AWS account. The current support plan is Basic, but you would like to begin using Infrastructure Event Management. What support plan (that already includes Infrastructure Event Management without an additional fee) should you upgrade to?
A. Upgrade to Enterprise plan.
B. Do nothing. It is included in the Basic plan.
C. Upgrade to Developer plan.
D. Upgrade to the Business plan. No other steps are necessary.
Notes:AWS Infrastructure Event Management is a structured program available to Enterprise support customers (and Business Support customers for an additional fee) that helps you plan for large-scale events, such as product or application launches, infrastructure migrations, and marketing events.
With Infrastructure Event Management, you get strategic planning assistance before your event, as well as real-time support during these moments that matter most for your business.
Q94:You have decided to use the AWS Cost and Usage Report to track your EC2 Reserved Instance costs. To where can these reports be published?
A. Trusted Advisor
B. An S3 Bucket that you own.
D. An AWS owned S3 Bucket.
Notes: The AWS Cost and Usage Reports (AWS CUR) contains the most comprehensive set of cost and usage data available. You can use Cost and Usage Reports to publish your AWS billing reports to an Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket that you own. You can receive reports that break down your costs by the hour or day, by product or product resource, or by tags that you define yourself. AWS updates the report in your bucket once a day in comma-separated value (CSV) format. You can view the reports using spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel or Apache OpenOffice Calc, or access them from an application using the Amazon S3 API.
Q95:What can we do in AWS to receive the benefits of volume pricing for your multiple AWS accounts?
A. Use consolidated billing in AWS Organizations.
B. Purchase services in bulk from AWS Marketplace.
Notes: You can use the consolidated billing feature in AWS Organizations to consolidate billing and payment for multiple AWS accounts or multiple Amazon Internet Services Pvt. Ltd (AISPL) accounts. You can combine the usage across all accounts in the organization to share the volume pricing discounts, Reserved Instance discounts, and Savings Plans. This can result in a lower charge for your project, department, or company than with individual standalone accounts.
Q96:A gaming company is using the AWS Developer Tool Suite to develop, build, and deploy their applications. Which AWS service can be used to trace user requests from end-to-end through the application?
Notes:AWS X-Ray helps developers analyze and debug production, distributed applications, such as those built using a microservices architecture. With X-Ray, you can understand how your application and its underlying services are performing to identify and troubleshoot the root cause of performance issues and errors. X-Ray provides an end-to-end view of requests as they travel through your application, and shows a map of your application’s underlying components.
Q97:A company needs to use a Load Balancer which can serve traffic at the TCP, and UDP layers. Additionally, it needs to handle millions of requests per second at very low latencies. Which Load Balancer should they use?
Notes:Network Load Balancer is best suited for load balancing of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) traffic where extreme performance is required. Operating at the connection level (Layer 4), Network Load Balancer routes traffic to targets within Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) and is capable of handling millions of requests per second while maintaining ultra-low latencies.
Q98:Your company is migrating its services to the AWS cloud. The DevOps team has heard about infrastructure as code, and wants to investigate this concept. Which AWS service would they investigate?
Notes:AWS CloudFormation is a service that helps you model and set up your Amazon Web Services resources so that you can spend less time managing those resources and more time focusing on your applications that run in AWS.
Q99:You have a MySQL database that you want to migrate to the cloud, and you need it to be significantly faster there. You are looking for a speed increase up to 5 times the current performance. Which AWS offering could you use?
Notes:Amazon Aurora is a MySQL and PostgreSQL-compatible relational database built for the cloud, that combines the performance and availability of traditional enterprise databases with the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of open source databases. Amazon Aurora is up to five times faster than standard MySQL databases and three times faster than standard PostgreSQL databases.
Q100:A developer is trying to programmatically retrieve information from an EC2 instance such as public keys, ip address, and instance id. From where can this information be retrieved?
I assume it is your subscription where the VPCs are located, otherwise you can’t really discover the information you are looking for. On the EC2 server you could use AWS CLI or Powershell based scripts that query the IP information. Based on IP you can find out what instance uses the network interface, what security groups are tied to it and in which VPC the instance is hosted. Read more here…
When a Lambda “is in a VPC”, it really means that its attached Elastic Network Interface is the customer’s VPC and not the hidden VPC that AWS manages for Lambda.
The ENI is not related to the AWS Lambda management system that does the invocation (the data plane mentioned here). The AWS Step Function system can go ahead and invoke the Lambda through the API, and the network request for that can pass through the underlying VPC and host infrastructure.
Those Lambdas in turn can invoke other Lambda directly through the API, or more commonly by decoupling them, such as through Amazon SQS used as a trigger. Read more ….
5.How do I invoke an AWS Lambda function programmatically?
Invokes a Lambda function. You can invoke a function synchronously (and wait for the response), or asynchronously. To invoke a function asynchronously, set InvocationType to Event.
For synchronous invocation, details about the function response, including errors, are included in the response body and headers. For either invocation type, you can find more information in the execution log and trace.
When an error occurs, your function may be invoked multiple times. Retry behavior varies by error type, client, event source, and invocation type. For example, if you invoke a function asynchronously and it returns an error, Lambda executes the function up to two more times. For more information, see Retry Behavior.
For asynchronous invocation, Lambda adds events to a queue before sending them to your function. If your function does not have enough capacity to keep up with the queue, events may be lost. Occasionally, your function may receive the same event multiple times, even if no error occurs. To retain events that were not processed, configure your function with a dead-letter queue.
The status code in the API response doesn’t reflect function errors. Error codes are reserved for errors that prevent your function from executing, such as permissions errors, limit errors, or issues with your function’s code and configuration. For example, Lambda returns TooManyRequestsException if executing the function would cause you to exceed a concurrency limit at either the account level ( ConcurrentInvocationLimitExceeded) or function level ( ReservedFunctionConcurrentInvocationLimitExceeded).
For functions with a long timeout, your client might be disconnected during synchronous invocation while it waits for a response. Configure your HTTP client, SDK, firewall, proxy, or operating system to allow for long connections with timeout or keep-alive settings.
The subnet mask determines how many bits of the network address are relevant (and thus indirectly the size of the network block in terms of how many host addresses are available) –
192.0.2.0, subnet mask 255.255.255.0 means that 192.0.2 is the significant portion of the network number, and that there 8 bits left for host addresses (i.e. 192.0.2.0 thru 192.0.2.255)
192.0.2.0, subnet mask 255.255.255.128 means that 192.0.2.0 is the significant portion of the network number (first three octets and the most significant bit of the last octet), and that there 7 bits left for host addresses (i.e. 192.0.2.0 thru 192.0.2.127)
When in doubt, envision the network number and subnet mask in base 2 (i.e. binary) and it will become much clearer. Read more here…
The NAT EC2 instance (server), or AWS-provided NAT gateway is necessary only if the private subnet internal addresses need to make outbound connections. The NAT will translate the private subnet internal addresses to the public subnet internal addresses, and the AWS VPC Internet Gateway will translate these to external IP addresses, which can then go out to the Internet. Read more here ….
12. What are the applications (or workloads) that cannot be migrated on to cloud (AWS or Azure or GCP)?
A good example of workloads that currently are not in public clouds are mobile and fixed core telecom networks for tier 1 service providers. This is despite the fact that these core networks are increasingly software based and have largely been decoupled from the hardware. There are a number of reasons for this such as the public cloud providers such as Azure and AWS do not offer the guaranteed availability required by telecom networks. These networks require 99.999% availability and is typically referred to as telecom grade.
The regulatory environment frequently restricts hosting of subscriber data outside the of the operators data centers or in another country and key network functions such as lawful interception cannot contractually be hosted off-prem. Read more here….
13.How many CIDRs can we add to my own created VPC?
You can add up to 5 IPv4 CIDR blocks, or 1 IPv6 block per VPC. You can further segment the network by utilizing up to 200 subnets per VPC. Amazon VPC Limits. Read more …
14. Why can’t a subnet’s CIDR be changed once it has been assigned?
Sure it can, but you’ll need to coordinate with the neigbours. You can merge two /25’s into a single /24 quite effortlessly if you control the entire range it covers. In practice you’ll see many tiny allocations in public IPv4 space, like /29’s and even smaller. Those are all assigned to different people. If you want to do a big shuffle there, you have a lot of coordinating to do.. or accept the fallout from the breakage you cause. Read more…
15. Can one VPC talk to another VPC?
Yes, but a Virtual Private Cloud is usually built for the express purpose of being isolated from unwanted external traffic. I can think of several good reasons to encourage that sort of communication, so the idea is not without merit. Read more..
Good knowledge about the AWS services, and how to leverage them to solve simple to complex problems.
As your question is related to the deployment Pod, you will probably be asked about deployment methods (A/B testing like blue-green deployment) as well as pipelining strategies. You might be asked during this interview to reason about a simple task and to code it (like parsing a log file). Also review the TCP/IP stack in-depth as well as the tools to troubleshoot it for the networking round. You will eventually have some Linux questions, the range of questions can vary from common CLI tools to Linux internals like signals / syscalls / file descriptors and so on.
Last but not least the Leadership principles, I can only suggest you to prepare a story for each of them. You will quickly find what LP they are looking for and would be able to give the right signal to your interviewer.
Finally, remember that theres a debrief after the (usually 5) stages of your on site interview, and more senior and convincing interviewers tend to defend their vote so don’t screw up with them.
Be natural, focus on the question details and ask for confirmation, be cool but not too much. At the end of the day, remember that your job will be to understand customer issues and provide a solution, so treat your interviewers as if they were customers and they will see a successful CSE in you, be reassured and give you the job.
Expect questions on cloudformations, Teraform, Aws ec2/rds and stack related questions.
It also depends on the support team you are being hired for. Networking or compute teams (Ec2) have different interview patterns vs database or big data support.
In any case, basics of OS, networking are critical to the interview. If you have a phone screen, we will be looking for basic/semi advance skills of these and your speciality. For example if you mention Oracle in your resume and you are interviewing for the database team, expect a flurry of those questions.
Other important aspect is the Amazon leadership principles. Half of your interview is based on LPs. If you fail to have scenarios where you do not demonstrate our LPs, you cannot expect to work here even though your technical skills are above average (Having extraordinary skills is a different thing).
The overall interview itself will have 1 phone screen if you are interviewing in the US and 1–2 if outside US. The onsite loop will be 4 rounds , 2 of which are technical (again divided into OS and networking and the specific speciality of the team you are interviewing for ) and 2 of them are leadership principles where we test your soft skills and management skills as they are very important in this job. You need to have a strong view point, disagree if it seems valid to do so, empathy and be a team player while showing the ability to pull off things individually as well. These skills will be critical for cracking LP interviews.
You will NOT be asked to code or write queries as its not part of the job, so you can concentrate on the theoretical part of the subject and also your resume. We will grill you on topics mentioned on your resume to start with.
Monolithic architecture is something that build from single piece of material, historically from rock. Monolith term normally use for object made from single large piece of material.” – Non-Technical Definition. “Monolithic application has single code base with multiple modules.
Large Monolithic code-base (often spaghetti code) puts immense cognitive complexity on the developer’s head. As a result, the development velocity is poor. Granular scaling (i.e., scaling part of the application) is not possible. Polyglot programming or polyglot database is challenging.
Drawbacks of Monolithic Architecture
This simple approach has a limitation in size and complexity. Application is too large and complex to fully understand and made changes fast and correctly. The size of the application can slow down the start-up time. You must redeploy the entire application on each update.
Sticky sessions, also known as session affinity, allow you to route a site user to the particular web server that is managing that individual user’s session. The session’s validity can be determined by a number of methods, including a client-side cookies or via configurable duration parameters that can be set at the load balancer which routes requests to the web servers.
Some advantages with utilizing sticky sessions are that it’s cost effective due to the fact you are storing sessions on the same web servers running your applications and that retrieval of those sessions is generally fast because it eliminates network latency. A drawback for using storing sessions on an individual node is that in the event of a failure, you are likely to lose the sessions that were resident on the failed node. In addition, in the event the number of your web servers change, for example a scale-up scenario, it’s possible that the traffic may be unequally spread across the web servers as active sessions may exist on particular servers. If not mitigated properly, this can hinder the scalability of your applications. Read more here …
After you terminate an instance, it remains visible in the console for a short while, and then the entry is automatically deleted. You cannot delete the terminated instance entry yourself. After an instance is terminated, resources such as tags and volumes are gradually disassociated from the instance, therefore may no longer be visible on the terminated instance after a short while.
When an instance terminates, the data on any instance store volumes associated with that instance is deleted.
By default, Amazon EBS root device volumes are automatically deleted when the instance terminates. However, by default, any additional EBS volumes that you attach at launch, or any EBS volumes that you attach to an existing instance persist even after the instance terminates. This behavior is controlled by the volume’s DeleteOnTermination attribute, which you can modify
When you first launch an instance with gp2 volumes attached, you get an initial burst credit allowing for up to 30 minutes of 3,000 iops/sec.
After the first 30 minutes, your volume will accrue credits as follows (taken directly from AWS documentation):
Within the General Purpose (SSD) implementation is a Token Bucket model that works as follows
Each token represents an “I/O credit” that pays for one read or one write.
A bucket is associated with each General Purpose (SSD) volume, and can hold up to 5.4 million tokens.
Tokens accumulate at a rate of 3 per configured GB per second, up to the capacity of the bucket.
Tokens can be spent at up to 3000 per second per volume.
The baseline performance of the volume is equal to the rate at which tokens are accumulated — 3 IOPS per GB per second.
In addition to this, gp2 volumes provide baseline performance of 3 iops per Gb, up to 1Tb (3000 iops). Volumes larger than 1Tb no longer work on the credit system, as they already provide a baseline of 3000 iops. Gp2 volumes have a cap of 10,000 iops regardless of the volume size (so the iops max out for volumes larger than 3.3Tb)
Elastic IP addresses are free when you have them assigned to an instance, feel free to use one! Elastic IPs get disassociated when you stop an instance, so you will get charged in the mean time. The benefit is that you get to keep that IP allocated to your account though, instead of losing it like any other. Once you start the instance you just re-associate it back and you have your old IP again.
Here are the changes associated with the use of Elastic IP addresses
No cost for Elastic IP addresses while in use
* $0.01 per non-attached Elastic IP address per complete hour
* $0.00 per Elastic IP address remap – first 100 remaps / month
* $0.10 per Elastic IP address remap – additional remap / month over 100
If you require any additional information about pricing please reference the link below
The short answer to reducing your AWS EC2 costs – turn off your instances when you don’t need them.
Your AWS bill is just like any other utility bill, you get charged for however much you used that month. Don’t make the mistake of leaving your instances on 24/7 if you’re only using them during certain days and times (ex. Monday – Friday, 9 to 5).
To automatically start and stop your instances, AWS offers an “EC2 scheduler” solution. A better option would be a cloud cost management tool that not only stops and starts your instances automatically, but also tracks your usage and makes sizing recommendations to optimize your cloud costs and maximize your time and savings.
You could potentially save money using Reserved Instances. But, in non-production environments such as dev, test, QA, and training, Reserved Instances are not your best bet. Why is this the case? These environments are less predictable; you may not know how many instances you need and when you will need them, so it’s better to not waste spend on these usage charges. Instead, schedule such instances (preferably using ParkMyCloud). Scheduling instances to be only up 12 hours per day on weekdays will save you 65% – better than all but the most restrictive 3-year RIs!
They are definitely all chalk and cheese to one another.
A VPN (Virtual Private Network) is essentially an encrypted “channel” connecting two networks, or a machine to a network, generally over the public internet.
A VPS (Virtual Private Server) is a rented virtual machine running on someone else’s hardware. AWS EC2 can be thought of as a VPS, but the term is usually used to describe low-cost products offered by lots of other hosting companies.
A VPC (Virtual Private Cloud) is a virtual network in AWS (Amazon Web Services). It can be divided into private and public subnets, have custom routing rules, have internal connections to other VPCs, etc. EC2 instances and other resources are placed in VPCs similarly to how physical data centers have operated for a very long time.
Elastic IP address is basically the static IP (IPv4) address that you can allocate to your resources.
Now, in case that you allocate IP to the resource (and the resource is running), you are not charged anything. On the other hand, if you create Elastic IP, but you do not allocate it to the resource (or the resource is not running), then you are charged some amount (should be around $0.005 per hour if I remember correctly)
Additional info about these:
You are limited to 5 Elastic IP addresses per region. If you require more than that, you can contact AWS support with a request for additional addresses. You need to have a good reason in order to be approved because IPv4 addresses are becoming a scarce resource.
In general, you should be good without Elastic IPs for most of the use-cases (as every EC2 instance has its own public IP, and you can use load balancers, as well as map most of the resources via Route 53).
One of the use-cases that I’ve seen where my client is using Elastic IP is to make it easier for him to access specific EC2 instance via RDP, as well as do deployment through Visual Studio, as he targets the Elastic IP, and thus does not have to watch for any changes in public IP (in case of stopping or rebooting).
The EC2 instance is server instance whilst a Workspace is windows desktop instance
Both Windows Server and Windows workstation editions have desktops. Windows Server Core doesn’t not (and AWS doesn’t have an AMI for Windows Server Core that I could find).
It is possible to SSH into a Windows instance – this is done on port 22. You would not see a desktop when using SSH if you had enabled it. It is not enabled by default.
If you are seeing a desktop, I believe you’re “RDPing” to the Windows instance. This is done with the RDP protocol on port 3389.
Two different protocols and two different ports.
Workspaces doesn’t allow terminal or ssh services by default. You need to use Workspace client. You still can enable RDP or/and SSH but this is not recommended.
Workspaces is a managed desktop service. AWS is taking care of pre-build AMIs, software licenses, joining to domain, scaling etc.
What is Amazon EC2?Scalable, pay-as-you-go compute capacity in the cloud. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is a web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. It is designed to make web-scale computing easier for developers.
What is Amazon WorkSpaces?Easily provision cloud-based desktops that allow end-users to access applications and resources. With a few clicks in the AWS Management Console, customers can provision a high-quality desktop experience for any number of users at a cost that is highly competitive with traditional desktops and half the cost of most virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) solutions. End-users can access the documents, applications and resources they need with the device of their choice, including laptops, iPad, Kindle Fire, or Android tablets.
Elastic – Amazon EC2 enables you to increase or decrease capacity within minutes, not hours or days. You can commission one, hundreds or even thousands of server instances simultaneously.
Completely Controlled – You have complete control of your instances. You have root access to each one, and you can interact with them as you would any machine.
Flexible – You have the choice of multiple instance types, operating systems, and software packages. Amazon EC2 allows you to select a configuration of memory, CPU, instance storage, and the boot partition size that is optimal for your choice of operating system and application.
On the other hand, Amazon WorkSpaces provides the following key features:
Support Multiple Devices- Users can access their Amazon WorkSpaces using their choice of device, such as a laptop computer (Mac OS or Windows), iPad, Kindle Fire, or Android tablet.
Keep Your Data Secure and Available- Amazon WorkSpaces provides each user with access to persistent storage in the AWS cloud. When users access their desktops using Amazon WorkSpaces, you control whether your corporate data is stored on multiple client devices, helping you keep your data secure.
Choose the Hardware and Software you need- Amazon WorkSpaces offers a choice of bundles providing different amounts of CPU, memory, and storage so you can match your Amazon WorkSpaces to your requirements. Amazon WorkSpaces offers preinstalled applications (including Microsoft Office) or you can bring your own licensed software.
S3 is the storehouse for the internet i.e. object storage built to store & retrieve any amount of data from anywhere S3
AWS Backup is an externally-accessible backup provider that makes it easier to align & optimize the backup of data across AWS services in the cloud. AWS_Backup
Amazon Elastic Block Store is a web service that provides block-level storage volumes. EBS
Amazon EFS Storage
EFS offers file storage for the user’s Amazon EC2 instances. It’s kind of blob Storage. EFS
FSx supply fully managed 3rd-party file systems with the native compatibility & characteristic sets for workloads. It’s available as FSx for Windows server (Fully managed file storage built on Windows Server) & Lustre (Fully managed high-performance file system integrated with S3). FSx_WindowsFSx_Lustre
AWS Storage Gateway
Storage Gateway is a service which connects an on-premises software appliance with cloud-based storage. Storage_Gateway
DataSync makes it simple & fast to move large amounts of data online between on-premises storage & S3, EFS, or FSx for Windows File Server. DataSync
AWS Transfer Family
The Transfer Family provides fully managed support for file transfers directly into & out of S3. Transfer_Family
AWS Snow Family
Highly-secure, portable devices to collect & process data at the edge, and migrate data into and out of AWS. Snow_Family
Classification: Object storage: S3 File storage services: Elastic File System, FSx for Windows Servers & FSx for Lustre Block storage: EBS Backup: AWS Backup Data transfer: Storage gateway –> 3 types: Tape, File, Volume. Transfer Family –> SFTP, FTPS, FTP. Edge computing and storage and Snow Family –> Snowcone, Snowball, Snowmobile
Traditional applications, ERP, CRM, e-commerce
Aurora, RDS, Redshift
RDS is a web service that makes it easier to set up, control, and scale a relational database in the cloud. AuroraRDSRedshift
High-traffic web apps, e-commerce systems, gaming applications
DynamoDB is a fully administered NoSQL database service that offers quick and reliable performance with integrated scalability. DynamoDB
ElastiCache helps in setting up, managing, and scaling in-memory cache conditions. MemcachedRedis
Content management, catalogs, user profiles
DocumentDB (with MongoDB compatibility) is a quick, dependable, and fully-managed database service that makes it easy for you to set up, operate, and scale MongoDB-compatible databases.DocumentDB
High scale industrial apps for equipment maintenance, fleet management, and route optimization
Keyspaces (for Apache Cassandra)
Keyspaces is a scalable, highly available, and managed Apache Cassandra–compatible database service. Keyspaces
Fraud detection, social networking, recommendation engines
Neptune is a fast, reliable, fully managed graph database service that makes it easy to build and run applications that work with highly connected datasets. Neptune
IoT applications, DevOps, industrial telemetry
Timestream is a fast, scalable, and serverless time series database service for IoT and operational applications that makes it easy to store and analyze trillions of events per day. Timestream
Systems of record, supply chain, registrations, banking transactions
Quantum Ledger Database (QLDB)
QLDB is a fully managed ledger database that provides a transparent, immutable, and cryptographically verifiable transaction log owned by a central trusted authority. QLDB
Cloud9 is a cloud-based IDE that enables the user to write, run, and debug code. Cloud9
CodeArtifact is a fully managed artifact repository service that makes it easy for organizations of any size to securely store, publish, & share software packages used in their software development process. CodeArtifact
CodeBuild is a fully managed service that assembles source code, runs unit tests, & also generates artefacts ready to deploy. CodeBuild
CodeGuru is a developer tool powered by machine learning that provides intelligent recommendations for improving code quality & identifying an application’s most expensive lines of code. CodeGuru
Cloud Development Kit
Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK) is an open source software development framework to define cloud application resources using familiar programming languages. CDK
CodeCommit is a version control service that enables the user to personally store & manage Git archives in the AWS cloud. CodeCommit
CodeDeploy is a fully managed deployment service that automates software deployments to a variety of compute services such as EC2, Fargate, Lambda, & on-premises servers. CodeDeploy
CodePipeline is a fully managed continuous delivery service that helps automate release pipelines for fast & reliable app & infra updates. CodePipeline
CodeStar enables to quickly develop, build, & deploy applications on AWS. CodeStar
AWS CLI is a unified tool to manage AWS services & control multiple services from the command line & automate them through scripts. CLI
X-Ray helps developers analyze & debug production, distributed applications, such as those built using a microservices architecture. X-Ray
Provides scalable, cost-effective business continuity for physical, virtual, & cloud servers. CloudEndure
No cost, self-service portal for on-demand access to AWS’ compliance reports
Artifact is a web service that enables the user to download AWS security & compliance records. Artifact
Data Lakes & Analytics
Athena is an interactive query service that makes it easy to analyze data in S3 using standard SQL. Athena
Big data processing
EMR is the industry-leading cloud big data platform for processing vast amounts of data using open source tools such as Apache Spark, Hive, HBase,Flink, Hudi, & Presto. EMR
The most popular & fastest cloud data warehouse. Redshift
Kinesis makes it easy to collect, process, & analyze real-time, streaming data so one can get timely insights. Kinesis
Elasticsearch Service is a fully managed service that makes it easy to deploy, secure, & run Elasticsearch cost effectively at scale. ES
Dashboards & visualizations
QuickSight is a fast, cloud-powered business intelligence service that makes it easy to deliver insights to everyone in organization. QuickSight
Real-time data movement
1) Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (MSK) 2) Kinesis Data Streams 3) Kinesis Data Firehose 4) Kinesis Data Analytics 5) Kinesis Video Streams 6) Glue
MSK is a fully managed service that makes it easy to build & run applications that use Apache Kafka to process streaming data. MSKKDSKDFKDAKVSGlue
1) S3 2) Lake Formation
Lake Formation is a service that makes it easy to set up a secure data lake in days. A data lake is a centralized, curated, & secured repository that stores all data, both in its original form & prepared for analysis. S3LakeFormation
Backup & archive
1) S3 Glacier 2) Backup
S3 Glacier & S3 Glacier Deep Archive are a secure, durable, & extremely low-cost S3 cloud storage classes for data archiving & long-term backup. S3Glacier
1) Glue 2)) Lake Formation
Refer as above.
Data Exchange makes it easy to find, subscribe to, & use third-party data in the cloud. DataExchange
Predictive analytics && machine learning
Frameworks & interfaces
Deep Learning AMIs
Deep Learning AMIs provide machine learning practitioners & researchers with the infrastructure & tools to accelerate deep learning in the cloud, at any scale. DeepLearningAMIs
SageMaker is a fully managed service that provides every developer & data scientist with the ability to build, train, & deploy machine learning (ML) models quickly. SageMaker
Store, encrypt, and manage container images
Refer compute section
Run containerized applications or build microservices
Refer compute section
Manage containers with Kubernetes
Refer compute section
Run containers without managing servers
Fargate is a serverless compute engine for containers that works with both ECS & EKS. Fargate
Run containers with server-level control
Refer compute section
Containerize and migrate existing applications
App2Container (A2C) is a command-line tool for modernizing .NET & Java applications into containerized applications. App2Container
Quickly launch and manage containerized applications
Copilot is a command line interface (CLI) that enables customers to quickly launch & easily manage containerized applications on AWS. Copilot