Top 60 AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Tips

aws certified solution architect exam prep

Top 60 AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Tips

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1

Know what instance types can be launched from which types of AMIs, and which instance types require an HVM AMI
AWS HVM AMI

2

Understand bastion hosts, and which subnet one might live on. Bastion hosts are instances that sit within your public subnet and are typically accessed using SSH or RDP. Once remote connectivity has been established with the bastion host, it then acts as a ‘jump’ server, allowing you to use SSH or RDP to login to other instances (within private subnets) deeper within your network. When properly configured through the use of security groups and Network ACLs, the bastion essentially acts as a bridge to your private instances via the Internet.”
Bastion Hosts

3

Know the difference between Directory Service’s AD Connector and Simple AD. Use Simple AD if you need an inexpensive Active Directory–compatible service with the common directory features. AD Connector lets you simply connect your existing on-premises Active Directory to AWS.
AD Connector and Simple AD

4

Know how to enable cross-account access with IAM: To delegate permission to access a resource, you create an IAM role that has two policies attached. The permissions policy grants the user of the role the needed permissions to carry out the desired tasks on the resource. The trust policy specifies which trusted accounts are allowed to grant its users permissions to assume the role. The trust policy on the role in the trusting account is one-half of the permissions. The other half is a permissions policy attached to the user in the trusted account that allows that user to switch to, or assume the role.
Enable cross-account access with IAM

5

Have a good understanding of how Route53 supports all of the different DNS record types, and when you would use certain ones over others.
Route 53 supports all of the different DNS record types

6

Know which services have native encryption at rest within the region, and which do not.
AWS Services with native Encryption at rest

7

Know which services allow you to retain full admin privileges of the underlying EC2 instances
EC2 Full admin privilege

8

Know When Elastic IPs are free or not: If you associate additional EIPs with that instance, you will be charged for each additional EIP associated with that instance per hour on a pro rata basis. Additional EIPs are only available in Amazon VPC. To ensure efficient use of Elastic IP addresses, we impose a small hourly charge when these IP addresses are not associated with a running instance or when they are associated with a stopped instance or unattached network interface.
When are AWS Elastic IPs Free or not?

9

Know what are the four high level categories of information Trusted Advisor supplies.
#AWS Trusted advisor

10

Know how to troubleshoot a connection time out error when trying to connect to an instance in your VPC. You need a security group rule that allows inbound traffic from your public IP address on the proper port, you need a route that sends all traffic destined outside the VPC (0.0.0.0/0) to the Internet gateway for the VPC, the network ACLs must allow inbound and outbound traffic from your public IP address on the proper port, etc.
#AWS Connection time out error

11

Be able to identify multiple possible use cases and eliminate non-use cases for SWF.
#AWS

12

Understand how you might set up consolidated billing and cross-account access such that individual divisions resources are isolated from each other, but corporate IT can oversee all of it.
#AWS Set up consolidated billing

13

Know how you would go about making changes to an Auto Scaling group, fully understanding what you can and can’t change. “You can only specify one launch configuration for an Auto Scaling group at a time, and you can’t modify a launch configuration after you’ve created it. Therefore, if you want to change the launch configuration for your Auto Scaling group, you must create a launch configuration and then update your Auto Scaling group with the new launch configuration. When you change the launch configuration for your Auto Scaling group, any new instances are launched using the new configuration parameters, but existing instances are not affected.
#AWS Make Change to Auto Scaling group

14

Know how you would go about making changes to an Auto Scaling group, fully understanding what you can and can’t change. “You can only specify one launch configuration for an Auto Scaling group at a time, and you can’t modify a launch configuration after you’ve created it. Therefore, if you want to change the launch configuration for your Auto Scaling group, you must create a launch configuration and then update your Auto Scaling group with the new launch configuration. When you change the launch configuration for your Auto Scaling group, any new instances are launched using the new configuration parameters, but existing instances are not affected.
#AWS Make Change to Auto Scaling group

15

Know which field you use to run a script upon launching your instance.
#AWS User data script

16

Know how DynamoDB (durable, and you can pay for strong consistency), Elasticache (great for speed, not so durable), and S3 (eventual consistency results in lower latency) compare to each other in terms of durability and low latency.
#AWS DynamoDB consistency

17

Know the difference between bucket policies, IAM policies, and ACLs for use with S3, and examples of when you would use each. “With IAM policies, companies can grant IAM users fine-grained control to their Amazon S3 bucket or objects while also retaining full control over everything the users do. With bucket policies, companies can define rules which apply broadly across all requests to their Amazon S3 resources, such as granting write privileges to a subset of Amazon S3 resources. Customers can also restrict access based on an aspect of the request, such as HTTP referrer and IP address. With ACLs, customers can grant specific permissions (i.e. READ, WRITE, FULL_CONTROL) to specific users for an individual bucket or object.
#AWS Difference between bucket policies

18

Know when and how you can encrypt snapshots.
#AWS EBS Encryption

19

Understand how you can use ELB cross-zone load balancing to ensure even distribution of traffic to EC2 instances in multiple AZs registered with a load balancer.
#AWS ELB cross-zone load balancing

20

How would you allow users to log into the AWS console using active directory integration. Here is a link to some good reference material.
#AWS og into the AWS console using active directory integration

21

Spot instances are good for cost optimization, even if it seems you might need to fall back to On-Demand instances if you wind up getting kicked off them and the timeline grows tighter. The primary (but still not only) factor seems to be whether you can gracefully handle instances that die on you–which is pretty much how you should always design everything, anyway!
#AWS Spot instances

22

The term “use case” is not the same as “function” or “capability”. A use case is something that your app/system will need to accomplish, not just behaviour that you will get from that service. In particular, a use case doesn’t require that the service be a 100% turnkey solution for that situation, just that the service plays a valuable role in enabling it.
#AWS use case

23

There might be extra, unnecessary information in some of the questions (red herrings), so try not to get thrown off by them. Understand what services can and can’t do, but don’t ignore “obvious”-but-still-correct answers in favour of super-tricky ones.
#AWS Exam Answers: Distractors

24

If you don’t know what they’re trying to ask, in a question, just move on and come back to it later (by using the helpful “mark this question” feature in the exam tool). You could easily spend way more time than you should on a single confusing question if you don’t triage and move on.
#AWS Exa: Skip Questions that are vague and come back to them later

25

Some exam questions required you to understand features and use cases of: VPC peering, cross-account access, DirectConnect, snapshotting EBS RAID arrays, DynamoDB, spot instances, Glacier, AWS/user security responsibilities, etc.
#AWS

26

The 30 Day constraint in the S3 Lifecycle Policy before transitioning to S3-IA and S3-One Zone IA storage classes
#AWS S3 lifecycle policy

27

Enabling Cross-region snapshot copy for an AWS KMS-encrypted cluster
Redis Auth / Amazon MQ / IAM DB Authentication

#AWS Cross-region snapshot copy for an AWS KMS-encrypted cluster

28

Know that FTP is using TCP and not UDP (Helpful for questions where you are asked to troubleshoot the network flow)
TCP and UDP

29

Know the Difference between S3, EBS and EFS
#AWS Difference between S3, EBS and EFS

30

Kinesis Sharding:
#AWS Kinesis Sharding

31

Handling SSL Certificates in ELB ( Wildcard certificate vs SNI )
#AWS Handling SSL Certificates in ELB ( Wildcard certificate vs SNI )

32

Difference between OAI, Signed URL (CloudFront) and Pre-signed URL (S3)
#AWS Difference between OAI, Signed URL (CloudFront) and Pre-signed URL (S3)

33

Different types of Aurora Endpoints
#AWS Different types of Aurora Endpoints

34

The Default Termination Policy for Auto Scaling Group (Oldest launch configuration vs Instance Protection)
#AWS Default Termination Policy for Auto Scaling Group

35

Watch Acloud Guru Videos Lectures while commuting / lunch break – Reschedule the exam if you are not yet ready
#AWS ACloud Guru

36

Watch Linux Academy Videos Lectures while commuting / lunch break – Reschedule the exam if you are not yet ready
#AWS Linux Academy

37

Watch Udemy Videos Lectures while commuting / lunch break – Reschedule the exam if you are not yet ready
#AWS Linux Academy

38

The Udemy practice test interface is good that it pinpoints your weak areas, so what I did was to re-watch all the videos that I got the wrong answers. Since I was able to gauge my exam readiness, I decided to reschedule my exam for 2 more weeks, to help me focus on completing the practice tests.
#AWS Udemy

39

Use AWS Cheatsheets – I also found the cheatsheets provided by Tutorials Dojo very helpful. In my opinion, it is better than Jayendrapatil Patil’s blog since it contains more updated information that complements your review notes.
#AWS Cheat Sheet

40

Watch this exam readiness 3hr video, it very recent webinar this provides what is expected in the exam.
#AWS Exam Prep Video

41

Start off watching Ryan’s videos. Try and completely focus on the hands on. Take your time to understand what you are trying to learn and achieve in those LAB Sessions.
#AWS Exam Prep Video

42

Do not rush into completing the videos. Take your time and hone the basics. Focus and spend a lot of time for the back bone of AWS infrastructure – Compute/EC2 section, Storage (S3/EBS/EFS), Networking (Route 53/Load Balancers), RDS, VPC, Route 3. These sections are vast, with lot of concepts to go over and have loads to learn. Trust me you will need to thoroughly understand each one of them to ensure you pass the certification comfortably.
#AWS Exam Prep Video

43

Make sure you go through resources section and also AWS documentation for each components. Go over FAQs. If you have a question, please post it in the community. Trust me, each answer here helps you understand more about AWS.
#AWS Faqs

44

Like any other product/service, each AWS offering has a different flavor. I will take an example of EC2 (Spot/Reserved/Dedicated/On Demand etc.). Make sure you understand what they are, what are the pros/cons of each of these flavors. Applies for all other offerings too.
#AWS Services

45

Ensure to attend all quizzes after each section. Please do not treat these quizzes as your practice exams. These quizzes are designed to mostly test your knowledge on the section you just finished. The exam itself is designed to test you with scenarios and questions, where in you will need to recall and apply your knowledge of different AWS technologies/services you learn over multiple lectures.
#AWS Services

46

I, personally, do not recommend to attempt a practice exam or simulator exam until you have done all of the above. It was a little overwhelming for me. I had thoroughly gone over the videos. And understood the concepts pretty well, but once I opened exam simulator I felt the questions were pretty difficult. I also had a feeling that videos do not cover lot of topics. But later I realized, given the vastness of AWS Services and offerings it is really difficult to encompass all these services and their details in the course content. The fact that these services keep changing so often, does not help
#AWS Services

47

Go back and make a note of all topics, that you felt were unfamiliar for you. Go through the resources section and fiund links to AWS documentation. After going over them, you shoud gain at least 5-10% more knowledge on AWS. Have expectations from the online courses as a way to get thorough understanding of basics and strong foundations for your AWS knowledge. But once you are done with videos. Make sure you spend a lot of time on AWS documentation and FAQs. There are many many topics/sub topics which may not be covered in the course and you would need to know, atleast their basic functionalities, to do well in the exam.
#AWS Services

48

Once you start taking practice exams, it may seem really difficult at the beginning. So, please do not panic if you find the questions complicated or difficult. IMO they are designed or put in a way to sound complicated but they are not. Be calm and read questions very carefully. In my observation, many questions have lot of information which sometimes is not relevant to the solution you are expected to provide. Read the question slowly and read it again until you understand what is expected out of it.
#AWS Services

49

With each practice exam you will come across topics that you may need to scale your knowledge on or learn them from scratch.
#AWS Services

50

With each test and the subsequent revision, you will surely feel more confident.
There are 130 mins for questions. 2 mins for each question which is plenty of time.
At least take 8-10 practice tests. The ones on udemy/tutorialdojo are really good. If you are a acloudguru member. The exam simulator is really good.
Manage your time well. Keep patience. I saw someone mention in one of the discussions that do not under estimate the mental focus/strength needed to sit through 130 mins solving these questions. And it is really true.
Do not give away or waste any of those precious 130 mins. While answering flag/mark questions you think you are not completely sure. My advice is, even if you finish early, spend your time reviewing the answers. I could review 40 of my answers at the end of test. And I at least rectified 3 of them (which is 4-5% of total score, I think)
So in short – Put a lot of focus on making your foundations strong. Make sure you go through AWS Documentation and FAQs. Try and envision how all of the AWS components can fit together and provide an optimal solution. Keep calm.
This video gives outline about exam, must watch before or after Ryan’s course. #AWS Services

51

Walking you through how to best prepare for the AWS Certified Solutions Architect Associate SAA-C02 exam in 5 steps:
1. Understand the exam blueprint
2. Learn about the new topics included in the SAA-C02 version of the exam
3. Use the many FREE resources available to gain and deepen your knowledge
4. Enroll in our hands-on video course to learn AWS in depth
5. Use practice tests to fully prepare yourself for the exam and assess your exam readiness
AWS CERTIFIED SOLUTIONS ARCHITECT SAA-C02 : HOW TO BEST PREPARE IN 5 STEPS

52

Storage:
1. Know your different Amazon S3 storage tiers! You need to know the use cases, features and limitations, and relative costs; e.g. retrieval costs.
2. Amazon S3 lifecycle policies is also required knowledge — there are minimum storage times in certain tiers that you need to know.
3. For Glacier, you need to understand what it is, what it’s used for, and what the options are for retrieval times and fees.
4. For the Amazon Elastic File System (EFS), make sure you’re clear which operating systems you can use with it (just Linux).
5. For the Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS), make sure you know when to use the different tiers including instance stores; e.g. what would you use for a datastore that requires the highest IO and the data is distributed across multiple instances? (Good instance store use case)
6. Learn about Amazon FSx. You’ll need to know about FSx for Windows and Lustre.
7. Know how to improve Amazon S3 performance including using CloudFront, and byte-range fetches — check out this whitepaper.
8. Make sure you understand about Amazon S3 object deletion protection options including versioning and MFA delete.
AWS CERTIFIED SOLUTIONS ARCHITECT SAA-C02 : HOW TO BEST PREPARE IN 5 STEPS

53

Compute:
1. You need to have a good understanding of the options for how to scale an Auto Scaling Group using metrics such as SQS queue depth, or numbers of SNS messages.
2. Know your different Auto Scaling policies including Target Tracking Policies.
3. Read up on High Performance Computing (HPC) with AWS. You’ll need to know about Amazon FSx with HPC use cases.
4. Know your placement groups. Make sure you can differentiate between spread, cluster and partition; e.g. what would you use for lowest latency? What about if you need to support an app that’s tightly coupled? Within an AZ or cross AZ?
5. Make sure you know the difference between Elastic Network Adapters (ENAs), Elastic Network Interfaces (ENIs) and Elastic Fabric Adapters (EFAs).
6. For the Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS), make sure you understand how to assign IAM policies to ECS for providing S3 access. How can you decouple an ECS data processing process — Kinesis Firehose or SQS?
7. Make sure you’re clear on the different EC2 pricing models including Reserved Instances (RI) and the different RI options such as scheduled RIs.
8. Make sure you know the maximum execution time for AWS Lambda (it’s currently 900 seconds or 15 minutes).
AWS CERTIFIED SOLUTIONS ARCHITECT SAA-C02 : HOW TO BEST PREPARE IN 5 STEPS

54

Network
1. Understand what AWS Global Accelerator is and its use cases.
2. Understand when to use CloudFront and when to use AWS Global Accelerator.
3. Make sure you understand the different types of VPC endpoint and which require an Elastic Network Interface (ENI) and which require a route table entry.
4. You need to know how to connect multiple accounts; e.g. should you use VPC peering or a VPC endpoint?
5. Know the difference between PrivateLink and ClassicLink.
6. Know the patterns for extending a secure on-premises environment into AWS.
7. Know how to encrypt AWS Direct Connect (you can use a Virtual Private Gateway / AWS VPN).
8. Understand when to use Direct Connect vs Snowball to migrate data — lead time can be an issue with Direct Connect if you’re in a hurry.
9. Know how to prevent circumvention of Amazon CloudFront; e.g. Origin Access Identity (OAI) or signed URLs / signed cookies.
AWS CERTIFIED SOLUTIONS ARCHITECT SAA-C02 : HOW TO BEST PREPARE IN 5 STEPS

55

Databases
1. Make sure you understand Amazon Aurora and Amazon Aurora Serverless.
2. Know which RDS databases can have Read Replicas and whether you can read from a Multi-AZ standby.
3. Know the options for encrypting an existing RDS database; e.g. only at creation time otherwise you must encrypt a snapshot and create a new instance from the snapshot.
4. Know which databases are key-value stores; e.g. Amazon DynamoDB.
AWS CERTIFIED SOLUTIONS ARCHITECT SAA-C02 : HOW TO BEST PREPARE IN 5 STEPS

56

Application Integration
1. Make sure you know the use cases for the Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS), and Simple Notification Service (SNS).
2. Understand the differences between Amazon Kinesis Firehose and SQS and when you would use each service.
3. Know how to use Amazon S3 event notifications to publish events to SQS — here’s a good “How To” article.
AWS CERTIFIED SOLUTIONS ARCHITECT SAA-C02 : HOW TO BEST PREPARE IN 5 STEPS

57

Management and Governance
1. You’ll need to know about AWS Organizations; e.g. how to migrate an account between organizations.
2. For AWS Organizations, you also need to know how to restrict actions using service control policies attached to OUs.
3. Understand what AWS Resource Access Manager is.
AWS CERTIFIED SOLUTIONS ARCHITECT SAA-C02 : HOW TO BEST PREPARE IN 5 STEPS

About this App

The AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Examination reparation and Readiness Quiz App (SAA-C01, SAA-C01, SAA) Prep App helps you prepare and train for the AWS Certification Solution Architect Associate Exam with various questions and answers dumps.

This App provide updated Questions and Answers, an Intuitive Responsive Interface allowing to browse questions horizontally and browse tips and resources vertically after completing a quiz.

Features:

  • 100+ Questions and Answers updated frequently to get you AWS certified.
  • Quiz with score tracker, countdown timer, highest score saving. Vie Answers after completing the quiz for each category.
  • Can only see answers after completing the quiz.
  • Show/Hide button option for answers. Link to PRO Version to see all answers for each category
  • Ability to navigate through questions for each category using next and previous button.
  • Resource info page about the answer for each category and Top 60 Tips to succeed in the exam.
  • Prominent Cloud Evangelist latest tweets and Technology Latest News Feed
  • The app helps you study and practice from your mobile device with an intuitive interface.
  • SAA-C01 and SAA-C02 compatible
  • Resource info page about the answer for each category.
  • Helps you study and practice from your mobile device with an intuitive interface.

The questions and Answers are divided in 4 categories:

  • Design High Performing Architectures,
  • Design Cost Optimized Architectures,
  • Design Secure Applications And Architectures,
  • Design Resilient Architecture,

The questions and answers cover the following topics: AWS VPC, S3, DynamoDB, EC2, ECS, Lambda, API Gateway, CloudWatch, CloudTrail, Code Pipeline, Code Deploy, TCO Calculator, AWS S3, AWS DynamoDB, CloudWatch , AWS SES, Amazon Lex, AWS EBS, AWS ELB, AWS Autoscaling , RDS, Aurora, Route 53, Amazon CodeGuru, Amazon Bracket, AWS Billing and Pricing, AWS Simply Monthly Calculator, AWS cost calculator, Ec2 pricing on-demand, AWS Pricing, AWS Pay As You Go, AWS No Upfront Cost, Cost Explorer, AWS Organizations, Consolidated billing, Instance Scheduler, on-demand instances, Reserved instances, Spot Instances, CloudFront, Web hosting on S3, S3 storage classes, AWS Regions, AWS Availability Zones, Trusted Advisor, Various architectural Questions and Answers about AWS, AWS SDK, AWS EBS Volumes, EC2, S3, Containers, KMS, AWS read replicas, Cloudfront, API Gateway, AWS Snapshots, Auto shutdown Ec2 instances, High Availability, RDS, DynamoDB, Elasticity, AWS Virtual Machines, AWS Caching, AWS Containers, AWS Architecture, AWS Ec2, AWS S3, AWS Security, AWS Lambda, Bastion Hosts, S3 lifecycle policy, kinesis sharing, AWS KMS, Design High Performing Architectures, Design Cost Optimized Architectures, Design Secure Applications And Architectures, Design Resilient Architecture, AWS vs Azure vs Google Cloud, Resources, Questions, AWS, AWS SDK, AWS EBS Volumes, AWS read replicas, Cloudfront, API Gateway, AWS Snapshots, Auto shutdown Ec2 instances, High Availability, RDS, DynamoDB, Elasticity, AWS Virtual Machines, AWS Caching, AWS Containers, AWS Architecture, AWS Ec2, AWS S3, AWS Security, AWS Lambda, Load Balancing, DynamoDB, EBS, Multi-AZ RDS, Aurora, EFS, DynamoDB, NLB, ALB, Aurora, Auto Scaling, DynamoDB(latency), Aurora(performance), Multi-AZ RDS(high availability), Throughput Optimized EBS (highly sequential), SAA-CO1, SAA-CO2, Cloudwatch, CloudTrail, KMS, ElasticBeanstalk, OpsWorks, RPO vs RTO, HA vs FT, Undifferentiated Heavy Lifting, Access Management Basics, Shared Responsibility Model, Cloud Service Models, etc…

The resources sections cover the following areas: Certification, AWS training, Mock Exam Preparation Tips, Cloud Architect Training, Cloud Architect Knowledge, Cloud Technology, cloud certification, cloud exam preparation tips, cloud solution architect associate exam, certification practice exam, learn aws free, amazon cloud solution architect, question dumps, acloud guru links, tutorial dojo links, linuxacademy links, latest aws certification tweets, and post from reddit, quota, linkedin, medium, cloud exam preparation tips, aws cloud solution architect associate exam, aws certification practice exam, cloud exam questions, learn aws free, amazon cloud solution architect, amazon cloud certified solution architect associate exam questions, as certification dumps, google cloud, azure cloud, acloud, learn google cloud, learn azure cloud, cloud comparison, etc.

Abilities Validated by the Certification:

  • Effectively demonstrate knowledge of how to architect and deploy secure and robust applications on AWS technologies
  • Define a solution using architectural design principles based on customer requirements
  • Provide implementation guidance based on best practices to the organization throughout the life cycle of the project

Recommended Knowledge for the Certification:

  • One year of hands-on experience designing available, cost-effective, fault-tolerant, and scalable distributed systems on AWS.
  • Hands-on experience using compute, networking, storage, and database AWS services.
  • Hands-on experience with AWS deployment and management services.
  • Ability to identify and define technical requirements for an AWS-based application.
  • bility to identify which AWS services meet a given technical requirement.
  • Knowledge of recommended best practices for building secure and reliable applications on the AWS platform.
  • An understanding of the basic architectural principles of building in the AWS Cloud.
  • An understanding of the AWS global infrastructure.
  • An understanding of network technologies as they relate to AWS.
  • An understanding of security features and tools that AWS provides and how they relate to traditional services.

Note and disclaimer: We are not affiliated with AWS or Amazon or Microsoft or Google. The questions are put together based on the certification study guide and materials available online. We also receive questions and answers from anonymous users and we vet to make sure they are legitimate. The questions in this app should help you pass the exam but it is not guaranteed. We are not responsible for any exam you did not pass.

Important: To succeed with the real exam, do not memorize the answers in this app. It is very important that you understand why a question is right or wrong and the concepts behind it by carefully reading the reference documents in the answers.

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What is the AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam?

This exam validates an examinee’s ability to effectively demonstrate knowledge of how to architect and deploy secure and robust applications on AWS technologies. It validates an examinee’s ability to:

  • Define a solution using architectural design principles based on customer requirements.
  • Multiple-response: Has two correct responses out of five options.

There are two types of questions on the examination:

  • Multiple-choice: Has one correct response and three incorrect responses (distractors).
  • Provide implementation guidance based on best practices to the organization throughout the lifecycle of the project.

Select one or more responses that best complete the statement or answer the question. Distractors, or incorrect answers, are response options that an examinee with incomplete knowledge or skill would likely choose. However, they are generally plausible responses that fit in the content area defined by the test objective. Unanswered questions are scored as incorrect; there is no penalty for guessing.

To succeed with the real exam, do not memorize the answers below. It is very important that you understand why a question is right or wrong and the concepts behind it by carefully reading the reference documents in the answers.

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AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate info and details

The AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam is a multiple choice, multiple answer exam. Here is the Exam Overview:

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Other AWS Facts and Summaries and Questions/Answers Dump

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Additional Information for reference

Below are some useful reference links that would help you to learn about AWS Practitioner Exam.

Other Relevant and Recommended AWS Certifications

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AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Whitepapers:

AWS has provided whitepapers to help you understand the technical concepts. Below are the recommended whitepapers.

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Online Training and Labs for AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam

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AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Jobs

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AWS Solution Architect Associate Certification Exam Prep: Facts and Summaries, Questions and Answers Dump

AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Questions and Answers Dump
aws certified solution architect exam prep
aws certified solution architect exam prep

In this blog, we will help you prepare for the AWS Solution Architect Associate Certification Exam, give you some  facts and summaries, provide AWS Solution Architect Associate Top 65 Questions and Answers Dump

 

Definition 1: Solution architecture is a practice of defining and describing an architecture of a system delivered in context of a specific solution and as such it may encompass description of an entire system or only its specific parts. Definition of a solution architecture is typically led by a solution architect.

Definition 2: The AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate examination is intended for individuals who perform a solutions architect role and have one or more years of hands-on experience designing available, cost-efficient, fault-tolerant, and scalable distributed systems on AWS.

AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Facts and Summaries

  1. This exam validates an examinee’s ability to effectively demonstrate knowledge of how to architect and deploy secure and robust applications on AWS technologies. It validates an examinee’s ability to:
    • Define a solution using architectural design principles based on customer requirements.
    • Provide implementation guidance based on best practices to the organization throughout the lifecycle of the project.
  2. There are two types of questions on the examination:
    • Multiple-choice: Has one correct response and three incorrect responses (distractors).
    • Multiple-response: Has two correct responses out of five options.

    Select one or more responses that best complete the statement or answer the question. Distractors, or incorrect answers, are response options that an examinee with incomplete knowledge or skill would likely choose. However, they are generally plausible responses that fit in the content area defined by the test objective. Unanswered questions are scored as incorrect; there is no penalty for guessing.  

  3. The table below lists the main content domains and their weightings:
  4. Domain 1: Design Resilient Architectures
    • Choose reliable/resilient storage.
    • Determine how to design decoupling mechanisms using AWS services.
    • Determine how to design a multi-tier architecture solution.
    • Determine how to design high availability and/or fault tolerant architectures
  5. Domain 2: Define Performant Architectures
    • Choose performant storage and databases.
    • Apply caching to improve performance.
    • Design solutions for elasticity and scalability.
  6. Domain 3: Specify Secure Applications and Architectures.
    • Determine how to secure application tiers.
    • Determine how to secure data.
    • Define the networking infrastructure for a single VPC application.
  7.  Domain 4: Design Cost-Optimized Architectures
    • Determine how to design cost-optimized storage.
    • Determine how to design cost-optimized compute.
  8. Domain 5: Define Operationally-Excellent Architectures
    • Choose design features in solutions that enable operational excellence.
  9. Take an AWS Training Class
  10. Study AWS Whitepapers and FAQs: AWS Well-Architected webpage (various whitepapers linked)
  11. If you are running an application in a production environment and must add a new EBS volume with data from a snapshot, what could you do to avoid degraded performance during the volume’s first use?
    Initialize the data by reading each storage block on the volume.
    Volumes created from an EBS snapshot must be initialized. Initializing occurs the first time a storage block on the volume is read, and the performance impact can be impacted by up to 50%. You can avoid this impact in production environments by pre-warming the volume by reading all of the blocks.
  12. If you are running a legacy application that has hard-coded static IP addresses and it is running on an EC2 instance; what is the best failover solution that allows you to keep the same IP address on a new instance?
    Elastic IP addresses (EIPs) are designed to be attached/detached and moved from one EC2 instance to another. They are a great solution for keeping a static IP address and moving it to a new instance if the current instance fails. This will reduce or eliminate any downtime uses may experience.
  13. Which feature of Intel processors help to encrypt data without significant impact on performance?
    AES-NI
  14. You can mount to EFS from which two of the following?
    • On-prem servers running Linux
    • EC2 instances running Linux

    EFS is not compatible with Windows operating systems.

  15. When a file(s) is encrypted and the stored data is not in transit it’s known as encryption at rest. What is an example of encryption at rest? 

  16. When would vertical scaling be necessary? When an application is built entirely into one source code, otherwise known as a monolithic application.

  17. Fault-Tolerance allows for continuous operation throughout a failure, which can lead to a low Recovery Time Objective.  RPO vs. RTO

  18. High-Availability means automating tasks so that an instance will quickly recover, which can lead to a low Recovery Time Objective.  RPO vs. RTO
  19. Frequent backups reduce the time between the last backup and recovery point, otherwise known as the Recovery Point Objective.  RPO vs. RTO
  20. Which represents the difference between Fault-Tolerance and High-Availability? High-Availability means the system will quickly recover from a failure event, and Fault-Tolerance means the system will maintain operations during a failure.
  21. From a security perspective, what is a principal? An anonymous user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an anonymous user acting on a system.

    An authenticated user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an authenticated user acting on a system.

  22. What are two types of session data saving for an Application Session State? Stateless and Stateful

 

23. It is the customer’s responsibility to patch the operating system on an EC2 instance.

24. In designing an environment, what four main points should a Solutions Architect keep in mind? Cost-efficient, secure, application session state, undifferentiated heavy lifting: These four main points should be the framework when designing an environment.

25. In the context of disaster recovery, what does RPO stand for? RPO is the abbreviation for Recovery Point Objective.

26. What are the benefits of horizontal scaling?

Vertical scaling can be costly while horizontal scaling is cheaper.

Horizontal scaling suffers from none of the size limitations of vertical scaling.

Having horizontal scaling means you can easily route traffic to another instance of a server.

Top
Reference: AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep

AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep Questions and Answers Dump

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aws certified solution architect exam prep
aws certified solution architect exam prep

Q0: A company is developing a highly available web application using stateless web servers. Which services are suitable for storing session state data? (Select TWO.)

  • A. CloudWatch
  • B. DynamoDB
  • C. Elastic Load Balancing
  • D. ElastiCache
  • E. Storage Gateway

B. and D.

Reference: AWS Session management

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Q1: A Solutions Architect is designing a critical business application with a relational database that runs on an EC2 instance. It requires a single EBS volume that can support up to 16,000 IOPS.
Which Amazon EBS volume type can meet the performance requirements of this application?

  • A. EBS Provisioned IOPS SSD
  • B. EBS Throughput Optimized HDD
  • C. EBS General Purpose SSD
  • D. EBS Cold HDD

A.
EBS Provisioned IOPS SSD provides sustained performance for mission-critical low-latency workloads. EBS General Purpose SSD can provide bursts of performance up to 3,000 IOPS and have a maximum baseline performance of 10,000 IOPS for volume sizes greater than 3.3 TB. The 2 HDD options are lower cost, high throughput volumes.

Reference: Amazon EBS Performance Tips

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Q2: An application running on EC2 instances processes sensitive information stored on Amazon S3. The information is accessed over the Internet. The security team is concerned that the Internet connectivity to Amazon S3 is a security risk.
Which solution will resolve the security concern?

  • A. Access the data through an Internet Gateway.
  • B. Access the data through a VPN connection.
  • C. Access the data through a NAT Gateway.
  • D.Access the data through a VPC endpoint for Amazon S3

D.
VPC endpoints for Amazon S3 provide secure connections to S3 buckets that do not require a gateway or NAT instances. NAT Gateways and Internet Gateways still route traffic over the Internet to the public endpoint for Amazon S3. There is no way to connect to Amazon S3 via VPN.

Reference: S3 VPC Endpoints

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Q3: An organization is building an Amazon Redshift cluster in their shared services VPC. The cluster will host sensitive data.
How can the organization control which networks can access the cluster?

  • A. Run the cluster in a different VPC and connect through VPC peering.
  • B. Create a database user inside the Amazon Redshift cluster only for users on the network.
  • C. Define a cluster security group for the cluster that allows access from the allowed networks.
  • D. Only allow access to networks that connect with the shared services network via VPN.

C
A security group can grant access to traffic from the allowed networks via the CIDR range for each network. VPC peering and VPN are connectivity services and cannot control traffic for security. Amazon Redshift user accounts address authentication and authorization at the user level and have no control over network traffic.

Reference: AWS Security best practice

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Q4: A web application allows customers to upload orders to an S3 bucket. The resulting Amazon S3 events trigger a Lambda function that inserts a message to an SQS queue. A single EC2 instance reads messages from the queue, processes them, and stores them in an DynamoDB table partitioned by unique order ID. Next month traffic is expected to increase by a factor of 10 and a Solutions Architect is reviewing the architecture for possible scaling problems.
Which component is MOST likely to need re-architecting to be able to scale to accommodate the new traffic?

  • A. Lambda function
  • B. SQS queue
  • C. EC2 instance
  • D. DynamoDB table

C.
A single EC2 instance will not scale and is a single point of failure in the architecture. A much better solution would be to have EC2 instances in an Auto Scaling group across 2 availability zones read messages from the queue. The other responses are all managed services that can be configured to scale or will scale automatically.

Reference: Eliminating Single Points of Failures on AWS Cloud

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Q5: An application requires a highly available relational database with an initial storage capacity of 8 TB. The database will grow by 8 GB every day. To support expected traffic, at least eight read replicas will be required to handle database reads.
Which option will meet these requirements?

  • A. DynamoDB
  • B. Amazon S3
  • C. Amazon Aurora
  • D. Amazon Redshift

C.
Amazon Aurora is a relational database that will automatically scale to accommodate data growth. Amazon Redshift does not support read replicas and will not automatically scale. DynamoDB is a NoSQL service, not a relational database. Amazon S3 is object storage, not a relational database.

Reference: Replication with Amazon Aurora

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Q6: How can you improve the performance of EFS?

  • A. Use an instance-store backed EC2 instance.
  • B. Provision more throughput than is required.
  • C. Divide your files system into multiple smaller file systems.
  • D. Provision higher IOPs for your EFS.

B.
Amazon EFS now allows you to instantly provision the throughput required for your applications independent of the amount of data stored in your file system. This allows you to optimize throughput for your application’s performance needs.

Reference: Amazon EFS Performance

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Q7:
If you are designing an application that requires fast (10 – 25Gbps), low-latency connections between EC2 instances, what EC2 feature should you use?

  • A. Snapshots
  • B. Instance store volumes
  • C. Placement groups
  • D. IOPS provisioned instances.

C.
Placement groups are a clustering of EC2 instances in one Availability Zone with fast (up to 25Gbps) connections between them. This feature is used for applications that need extremely low-latency connections between instances.

Reference: Placement Groups

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Q8: A Solution Architect is designing an online shopping application running in a VPC on EC2 instances behind an ELB Application Load Balancer. The instances run in an Auto Scaling group across multiple Availability Zones. The application tier must read and write data to a customer managed database cluster. There should be no access to the database from the Internet, but the cluster must be able to obtain software patches from the Internet.

 

Which VPC design meets these requirements?

  • A. Public subnets for both the application tier and the database cluster
  • B. Public subnets for the application tier, and private subnets for the database cluster
  • C. Public subnets for the application tier and NAT Gateway, and private subnets for the database cluster
  • D. Public subnets for the application tier, and private subnets for the database cluster and NAT Gateway

Answer: C.
The online application must be in public subnets to allow access from clients' browsers. The database cluster must be in private subnets to meet the requirement that there be no access from the Internet.
A NAT Gateway is required to give the database cluster the ability to download patches from the Internet. NAT Gateways must be deployed in public subnets.

Reference: Public and Private Subnets

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Q9: What command should you run on a running instance if you want to view its user data (that is used at launch)?

  • A. curl http://254.169.254.169/latest/user-data
  • B. curl http://localhost/latest/meta-data/bootstrap
  • C. curl http://localhost/latest/user-data
  • D. curl http://169.254.169.254/latest/user-data

Answer: D.
Retrieve Instance User Data
To retrieve user data from within a running instance, use the following URI:
http://169.254.169.254/latest/user-data

Reference: Instance Metadata and User Data

Get user data from AWS Ec2 running instance
Get user data from AWS Ec2 running instance

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Q10: A company is developing a highly available web application using stateless web servers. Which
services are suitable for storing session state data? (Select TWO.)

  • A. CloudWatch
  • B. DynamoDB
  • C. Elastic Load Balancing
  • D. ElastiCache
  • E. Storage Gateway

Answer: B. and D.
Both DynamoDB and ElastiCache provide high performance storage of key-value pairs.
CloudWatch and ELB are not storage services. Storage Gateway is a storage service, but it is a hybrid
Storage service that enables on-premises applications to use cloud storage.

A stateful web service will keep track of the “state” of a client's connection and data over several requests. So for example, the client might login, select a users account data, update their address, attach a photo, and change the status flag, then disconnect.

In a stateless web service, the server doesn't keep any information from one request to the next. The client needs to do it's work in a series of simple transactions, and the client has to keep track of what happens between requests. So in the above example, the client needs to do each operation separately: connect and update the address, disconnect. Connect and attach the photo, disconnect. Connect and change the status flag, disconnect.

A stateless web service is much simpler to implement, and can handle greater volume of clients.

Reference: Stateful & Stateless web service

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Q11: From a security perspective, what is a principal?

  • A. An identity
  • B. An anonymous user 
  • C. An authenticated user
  • D. A resource
  • E. 

Answer: B. and C.

An anonymous user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an anonymous user acting on a system.  An authenticated user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an authenticated user acting on a system.

Reference: Access management

Q12: What are the characteristics of a tiered application?

  • A. All three application layers are on the same instance
  • B. The presentation tier is on an isolated instance than the logic layer
  • C. None of the tiers can be cloned
  • D. The logic layer is on an isolated instance than the data layer
  • E. Additional machines can be added to help the application by implementing horizontal scaling
  • F.  Incapable of horizontal scaling

Answer: B. D. and E.

In a tiered application, the presentation layer is separate from the logic layer; the logic layer is separate from the data layer. Since parts of the application are isolated, they can scale horizontally.

Reference: Tiered Application

Q13: When using horizontal scaling, how can a server’s capacity closely match it’s rising demand?

A. By frequently purchasing additional instances and smaller resources

 

 

 

 

B. By purchasing more resources very far in advance

C. By purchasing more resources after demand has risen

D. It is not possible to predict demand

Answer: A

Reference: AWS Horizontal Scaling

 

Q14: What is the concept behind AWS’ Well-Architected Framework?

A. It’s a set of best practice areas, principles, and concepts that can help you implement effective AWS solutions.

B. It’s a set of best practice areas, principles, and concepts that can help you implement effective solutions tailored to your specific business.

C. It’s a set of best practice areas, principles, and concepts that can help you implement effective solutions from another web host.

D. It’s a set of best practice areas, principles, and concepts that can help you implement effective E-Commerce solutions.

Answer: A.

 
Q15: Select the true statements regarding AWS Regions.

 

 

 

 

A. Availability Zones are isolated locations within regions

B. Region codes identify specific regions (example: US-EAST-2)

C. All AWS Regions contain the full set of AWS services.

D. An AWS Region is assigned based on the user’s location when creating an AWS account.

Answer: (A, B, D)
Reference: AWS Regions
Q16: Which is not one of the five pillars of a well-architected framework?

 

 

 

 

A. Reliability

B. Performance Efficiency

C. Structural Simplicity

D. Security

E. Operational Excellence

Answer: C

 

What are the 5 pillars of a well architected framework:
1. Operational Excellence
The operational excellence pillar includes the ability to run and monitor systems to deliver business value and to continually improve supporting processes and procedures. You can find prescriptive guidance on implementation in the Operational Excellence Pillar whitepaper.

2. Security
The security pillar includes the ability to protect information, systems, and assets while delivering business value through risk assessments and mitigation strategies. You can find prescriptive guidance on implementation in the Security Pillar whitepaper.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Reliability
The reliability pillar includes the ability of a system to recover from infrastructure or service disruptions, dynamically acquire computing resources to meet demand, and mitigate disruptions such as misconfigurations or transient network issues. You can find prescriptive guidance on implementation in the Reliability Pillar whitepaper.

4. Performance Efficiency
The performance efficiency pillar includes the ability to use computing resources efficiently to meet system requirements and to maintain that efficiency as demand changes and technologies evolve. You can find prescriptive guidance on implementation in the Performance Efficiency Pillar whitepaper.

5. Cost Optimization
The cost optimization pillar includes the ability to avoid or eliminate unneeded cost or suboptimal resources. You can find prescriptive guidance on implementation in the Cost Optimization Pillar whitepaper.

The AWS Well-Architected Framework provides architectural best practices across the five pillars for designing and operating reliable, secure, efficient, and cost-effective systems in the cloud.
The framework provides a set of questions that allows you to review an existing or proposed architecture. It also provides a set of AWS best practices for each pillar.
Using the Framework in your architecture helps you produce stable and efficient systems, which allows you to focus on functional requirements.

 

 

Other AWS Facts and Summaries and Questions/Answers Dump

What means undifferentiated heavy lifting?

The reality, of course, today is that if you come up with a great idea you don’t get to go quickly to a successful product. There’s a lot of undifferentiated heavy lifting that stands between your idea and that success. The kinds of things that I’m talking about when I say undifferentiated heavy lifting are things like these: figuring out which servers to buy, how many of them to buy, what time line to buy them.

 

Eventually you end up with heterogeneous hardware and you have to match that. You have to think about backup scenarios if you lose your data center or lose connectivity to a data center. Eventually you have to move facilities. There’s negotiations to be done. It’s a very complex set of activities that really is a big driver of ultimate success.

 

But they are undifferentiated from, it’s not the heart of, your idea. We call this muck. And it gets worse because what really happens is you don’t have to do this one time. You have to drive this loop. After you get your first version of your idea out into the marketplace, you’ve done all that undifferentiated heavy lifting, you find out that you have to cycle back. Change your idea. The winners are the ones that can cycle this loop the fastest.

 

On every cycle of this loop you have this undifferentiated heavy lifting, or muck, that you have to contend with. I believe that for most companies, and it’s certainly true at Amazon, that 70% of your time, energy, and dollars go into the undifferentiated heavy lifting and only 30% of your energy, time, and dollars gets to go into the core kernel of your idea.

 

I think what people are excited about is that they’re going to get a chance they see a future where they may be able to invert those two. Where they may be able to spend 70% of their time, energy and dollars on the differentiated part of what they’re doing.

— Jeff Bezos, 2006

AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep Quiz App

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AWS Certification Preparation: AWS Ec2 Facts, Faqs and Summaries, Top 10 Questions and Answers Dump

AWS Ec2 Facts and Summaries

AWS Ec2 Facts and summaries, AWS Ec2 Top 10 Questions and Answers Dump

Definition 1: Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is a web service that provides secure, resizable compute capacity in the cloud. It is designed to make web-scale cloud computing easier for developers.

Definition 2: Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) forms a central part of Amazon.com’s cloud-computing platform, Amazon Web Services (AWS), by allowing users to rent virtual computers on which to run their own computer applications.




AWS Ec2 Facts and summaries

  1. Can users SSH to EC2 instances using their AWS user name and password?
    No. User security credentials created with IAM are not supported for direct authentication to customer EC2 instances. Managing EC2 SSH credentials is the customer’s responsibility within the EC2 console.
  2. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is a web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. It is designed to make web-scale computing easier for developers.

  3. What is the difference between using the local instance store and Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) for the root device?
    When you launch your Amazon EC2 instances you have the ability to store your root device data on Amazon EBS or the local instance store. By using Amazon EBS, data on the root device will persist independently from the lifetime of the instance. This enables you to stop and restart the instance at a subsequent time, which is similar to shutting down your laptop and restarting it when you need it again.
    Alternatively, the local instance store only persists during the life of the instance. This is an inexpensive way to launch instances where data is not stored to the root device. For example, some customers use this option to run large web sites where each instance is a clone to handle web traffic.

  4. How many instances can I run in Amazon EC2?
    You are limited to running up to a total of 20 On-Demand instances across the instance family, purchasing 20 Reserved Instances, and requesting Spot Instances per your dynamic Spot limit per region.

  5. How quickly can I scale my capacity both up and down?
    Amazon EC2 provides a truly elastic computing environment. Amazon EC2 enables you to increase or decrease capacity within minutes, not hours or days. You can commission one, hundreds or even thousands of server instances simultaneously. When you need more instances, you simply call RunInstances, and Amazon EC2 will typically set up your new instances in a matter of minutes. Of course, because this is all controlled with web service APIs, your application can automatically scale itself up and down depending on its needs.
  6. When dealing with session state in EC2-based applications using Elastic load balancers which option is generally thought of as the best practice for managing user sessions?
    Having the ELB distribute traffic to all EC2 instances and then having the instance check a caching solution like ElastiCache running Redis or Memcached for session information
  7. What is one key difference between an Amazon EBS-backed and an instance-store backed instance?
    Amazon EBS-backed instances can be stopped and restarted without losing data
  8. How is the AWS Ec2 service different than a plain hosting service?
    Traditional hosting services generally provide a pre-configured resource for a fixed amount of time and at a predetermined cost. Amazon EC2 differs fundamentally in the flexibility, control and significant cost savings it offers developers, allowing them to treat Amazon EC2 as their own personal data center with the benefit of Amazon.com’s robust infrastructure.
    When computing requirements unexpectedly change (up or down), Amazon EC2 can instantly respond, meaning that developers have the ability to control how many resources are in use at any given point in time. In contrast, traditional hosting services generally provide a fixed number of resources for a fixed amount of time, meaning that users have a limited ability to easily respond when their usage is rapidly changing, unpredictable, or is known to experience large peaks at various intervals.
    Secondly, many hosting services don’t provide full control over the compute resources being provided. Using Amazon EC2, developers can choose not only to initiate or shut down instances at any time, they can completely customize the configuration of their instances to suit their needs – and change it at any time. Most hosting services cater more towards groups of users with similar system requirements, and so offer limited ability to change these.
    Finally, with Amazon EC2 developers enjoy the benefit of paying only for their actual resource consumption – and at very low rates. Most hosting services require users to pay a fixed, up-front fee irrespective of their actual computing power used, and so users risk overbuying resources to compensate for the inability to quickly scale up resources within a short time frame.

  9. What load balancing options does the Elastic Load Balancing service offer?
    Elastic Load Balancing offers two types of load balancers that both feature high availability, automatic scaling, and robust security. These include the Classic Load Balancer that routes traffic based on either application or network level information, and the Application Load Balancer that routes traffic based on advanced application level information that includes the content of the request.

  10. When should I use the Classic Load Balancer and when should I use the Application Load Balancer?
    The Classic Load Balancer is ideal for simple load balancing of traffic across multiple EC2 instances, while the Application Load Balancer is ideal for applications needing advanced routing capabilities, microservices, and container-based architectures. Please visit Elastic Load Balancing for more information.

  11. Can I get a history of all EC2 API calls made on my account for security analysis and operational troubleshooting purposes?
    Yes. To receive a history of all EC2 API calls (including VPC and EBS) made on your account, you simply turn on CloudTrail in the AWS Management Console. For more information, visit the CloudTrail home page.

  12. How to get information about Ec2 instance type?
    AWS EC2 Instance info
  13. Can I access the metrics data for a terminated Amazon EC2 instance or a deleted Elastic Load Balancer?
    Yes. Amazon CloudWatch stores metrics for terminated Amazon EC2 instances or deleted Elastic Load Balancers for 2 weeks.

Top
Reference: AWS Ec2 Faqs




AWS Ec2 Top 10 Questions and Answers Dump

Q0:
When dealing with session state in EC2-based applications using Elastic load balancers which option is generally thought of as the best practice for managing user sessions?

  • A. Having the ELB distribute traffic to all EC2 instances and then having the instance check a caching solution like ElastiCache running Redis or Memcached for session information
  • B. Permanently assigning users to specific instances and always routing their traffic to those instances
  • C. Using Application-generated cookies to tie a user session to a particular instance for the cookie duration
  • D. Using Elastic Load Balancer generated cookies to tie a user session to a particular instance

A.
Amazon ElastiCache for Memcached is a Memcached-compatible in-memory key-value store service that can be used as a cache or a data store. It delivers the performance, ease-of-use, and simplicity of Memcached. ElastiCache for Memcached is fully managed, scalable, and secure – making it an ideal candidate for use cases where frequently accessed data must be in-memory. It is a popular choice for use cases such as Web, Mobile Apps, Gaming, Ad-Tech, and E-Commerce.

Reference: Memcached

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Q2: You are attempting to SSH into an EC2 instance that is located in a public subnet. However, you are currently receiving a timeout error trying to connect. What could be a possible cause of this connection issue?

  • A. The security group associated with the EC2 instance has an inbound rule that allows SSH traffic, but does not have an outbound rule that allows SSH traffic.
  • B. The security group associated with the EC2 instance has an inbound rule that allows SSH traffic AND has an outbound rule that explicitly denies SSH traffic.
  • C. The security group associated with the EC2 instance has an inbound rule that allows SSH traffic AND the associated NACL has both an inbound and outbound rule that allows SSH traffic.
  • D. The security group associated with the EC2 instance does not have an inbound rule that allows SSH traffic AND the associated NACL does not have an outbound rule that allows SSH traffic.

D. Security groups are stateful, so you do NOT have to have an explicit outbound rule for return requests. However, NACLs are stateless so you MUST have an explicit outbound rule configured for return request.

Reference: Comparison of Security Groups and Network ACLs

AWS Security Groups and NACL

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Q3: Which API call would best be used to describe an Amazon Machine Image?

  • A. ami-describe-image
  • B. ami-describe-images
  • C. DescribeImage
  • D. DescribeImages

D. In general, API actions stick to the PascalCase style with the first letter of every word capitalized.

Reference: API DescribeImages

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Q4: What is one key difference between an Amazon EBS-backed and an instance-store backed instance?

  • A. Autoscaling requires using Amazon EBS-backed instances
  • B. Virtual Private Cloud requires EBS backed instances
  • C. Amazon EBS-backed instances can be stopped and restarted without losing data
  • D. Instance-store backed instances can be stopped and restarted without losing data

C. Instance-store backed images use “ephemeral” storage (temporary). The storage is only available during the life of an instance. Rebooting an instance will allow ephemeral data stay persistent. However, stopping and starting an instance will remove all ephemeral storage.

Reference: What is the difference between EBS and Instance Store?

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Q15: After having created a new Linux instance on Amazon EC2, and downloaded the .pem file (called Toto.pem) you try and SSH into your IP address (54.1.132.33) using the following command.
ssh -i my_key.pem ec2-user@52.2.222.22
However you receive the following error.
@@@@@@@@ WARNING: UNPROTECTED PRIVATE KEY FILE! @ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
What is the most probable reason for this and how can you fix it?

  • A. You do not have root access on your terminal and need to use the sudo option for this to work.
  • B. You do not have enough permissions to perform the operation.
  • C. Your key file is encrypted. You need to use the -u option for unencrypted not the -i option.
  • D. Your key file must not be publicly viewable for SSH to work. You need to modify your .pem file to limit permissions.

D. You need to run something like: chmod 400 my_key.pem

Reference:

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Q5: You have an EBS root device on /dev/sda1 on one of your EC2 instances. You are having trouble with this particular instance and you need to either Stop/Start, Reboot or Terminate the instance but you do NOT want to lose any data that you have stored on /dev/sda1. However, you are unsure if changing the instance state in any of the aforementioned ways will cause you to lose data stored on the EBS volume. Which of the below statements best describes the effect each change of instance state would have on the data you have stored on /dev/sda1?

  • A. Whether you stop/start, reboot or terminate the instance it does not matter because data on an EBS volume is not ephemeral and the data will not be lost regardless of what method is used.
  • B. If you stop/start the instance the data will not be lost. However if you either terminate or reboot the instance the data will be lost.
  • C. Whether you stop/start, reboot or terminate the instance it does not matter because data on an EBS volume is ephemeral and it will be lost no matter what method is used.
  • D. The data will be lost if you terminate the instance, however the data will remain on /dev/sda1 if you reboot or stop/start the instance because data on an EBS volume is not ephemeral.

D. The question states that an EBS-backed root device is mounted at /dev/sda1, and EBS volumes maintain information regardless of the instance state. If it was instance store, this would be a different answer.

Reference: AWS Root Device Storage

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Q6: EC2 instances are launched from Amazon Machine Images (AMIs). A given public AMI:

  • A. Can only be used to launch EC2 instances in the same AWS availability zone as the AMI is stored
  • B. Can only be used to launch EC2 instances in the same country as the AMI is stored
  • C. Can only be used to launch EC2 instances in the same AWS region as the AMI is stored
  • D. Can be used to launch EC2 instances in any AWS region

C. AMIs are only available in the region they are created. Even in the case of the AWS-provided AMIs, AWS has actually copied the AMIs for you to different regions. You cannot access an AMI from one region in another region. However, you can copy an AMI from one region to another

Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/amazon-linux-ami/

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Q7: Which of the following statements is true about the Elastic File System (EFS)?

  • A. EFS can scale out to meet capacity requirements and scale back down when no longer needed
  • B. EFS can be used by multiple EC2 instances simultaneously
  • C. EFS cannot be used by an instance using EBS
  • D. EFS can be configured on an instance before launch just like an IAM role or EBS volumes

A. and B.

Reference: https://aws.amazon.com/efs/

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Q8: You are in charge of deploying an application that will be hosted on an EC2 Instance and sit behind an Elastic Load balancer. You have been requested to monitor the incoming connections to the Elastic Load Balancer. Which of the below options can suffice this requirement?

  • A. Use AWS CloudTrail with your load balancer
  • B. Enable access logs on the load balancer
  • C. Use a CloudWatch Logs Agent
  • D. Create a custom metric CloudWatch lter on your load balancer

Answer – B
Elastic Load Balancing provides access logs that capture detailed information about requests sent to your load balancer. Each log contains information such as the time the request was received, the client's IP address, latencies, request paths, and server responses. You can use these access logs to analyze traffic patterns and troubleshoot issues.
Reference: Access Logs for Your Application Load Balancer

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Q9: When deploying application code to EC2, the AppSpec file can be written in which language?

  • A. JSON
  • B. JSON or YAML
  • C. XML
  • D. YAML

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Q9:

  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.

Reference:

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Q10:

  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • D.

Reference:

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Other AWS Facts and Summaries and Questions/Answers Dump