In this blog, we will help you prepare for the AWS Solution Architect Associate Certification Exam, give you some facts and summaries, provide AWS Solution Architect Associate Top Questions and Answers Dump
The popular AWS Certified Solutions Architect Associate exam will have its new version this coming August. 2022.
AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate (SAA-C03) Exam Guide
The AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate (SAA-C03) exam is intended for individuals who perform in a solutions architect role.
The exam validates a candidate’s ability to use AWS technologies to design solutions based on the AWS Well-Architected Framework.
The exam also validates a candidate’s ability to complete the following tasks:
• Design solutions that incorporate AWS services to meet current business requirements and future projected needs
• Design architectures that are secure, resilient, high-performing, and cost-optimized
• Review existing solutions and determine improvements
The exam includes 15 unscored questions that do not affect your score.
AWS collects information about candidate performance on these unscored questions to evaluate these questions for future use as scored questions. These unscored questions are not identified on the exam.
Target candidate description
The target candidate should have at least 1 year of hands-on experience designing cloud solutions that use AWS services
Your results for the exam are reported as a scaled score of 100–1,000. The minimum passing score is 720.
Your score shows how you performed on the exam as a whole and whether or not you passed. Scaled scoring models help equate scores across multiple exam forms that might have slightly different difficulty levels.
Domain 1: Design Secure Architectures 30%
Domain 2: Design Resilient Architectures 26%
Domain 3: Design High-Performing Architectures 24%
Domain 4: Design Cost-Optimized Architectures 20%
Domain 1: Design Secure Architectures
This exam domain is focused on securing your architectures on AWS and comprises 30% of the exam. Task statements include:
Task Statement 1: Design secure access to AWS resources.
• Access controls and management across multiple accounts
• AWS federated access and identity services (for example, AWS Identity and Access Management [IAM], AWS Single Sign-On [AWS SSO])
• AWS global infrastructure (for example, Availability Zones, AWS Regions)
• AWS security best practices (for example, the principle of least privilege)
• The AWS shared responsibility model
• Applying AWS security best practices to IAM users and root users (for example, multi-factor authentication [MFA])
• Designing a flexible authorization model that includes IAM users, groups, roles, and policies
• Designing a role-based access control strategy (for example, AWS Security Token Service [AWS STS], role switching, cross-account access)
• Designing a security strategy for multiple AWS accounts (for example, AWS Control Tower, service control policies [SCPs])
• Determining the appropriate use of resource policies for AWS services
• Determining when to federate a directory service with IAM roles
Task Statement 2: Design secure workloads and applications.
• Application configuration and credentials security
• AWS service endpoints
• Control ports, protocols, and network traffic on AWS
• Secure application access
• Security services with appropriate use cases (for example, Amazon Cognito, Amazon GuardDuty, Amazon Macie)
• Threat vectors external to AWS (for example, DDoS, SQL injection)
• Designing VPC architectures with security components (for example, security groups, route tables, network ACLs, NAT gateways)
• Determining network segmentation strategies (for example, using public subnets and private subnets)
• Integrating AWS services to secure applications (for example, AWS Shield, AWS WAF, AWS SSO, AWS Secrets Manager)
• Securing external network connections to and from the AWS Cloud (for example, VPN, AWS Direct Connect)
Task Statement 3: Determine appropriate data security controls.
• Data access and governance
• Data recovery
• Data retention and classification
• Encryption and appropriate key management
• Aligning AWS technologies to meet compliance requirements
• Encrypting data at rest (for example, AWS Key Management Service [AWS KMS])
• Encrypting data in transit (for example, AWS Certificate Manager [ACM] using TLS)
• Implementing access policies for encryption keys
• Implementing data backups and replications
• Implementing policies for data access, lifecycle, and protection
• Rotating encryption keys and renewing certificates
Domain 2: Design Resilient Architectures
This exam domain is focused on designing resilient architectures on AWS and comprises 26% of the exam. Task statements include:
Task Statement 1: Design scalable and loosely coupled architectures.
• API creation and management (for example, Amazon API Gateway, REST API)
• AWS managed services with appropriate use cases (for example, AWS Transfer Family, Amazon
Simple Queue Service [Amazon SQS], Secrets Manager)
• Caching strategies
• Design principles for microservices (for example, stateless workloads compared with stateful workloads)
• Event-driven architectures
• Horizontal scaling and vertical scaling
• How to appropriately use edge accelerators (for example, content delivery network [CDN])
• How to migrate applications into containers
• Load balancing concepts (for example, Application Load Balancer)
• Multi-tier architectures
• Queuing and messaging concepts (for example, publish/subscribe)
• Serverless technologies and patterns (for example, AWS Fargate, AWS Lambda)
• Storage types with associated characteristics (for example, object, file, block)
• The orchestration of containers (for example, Amazon Elastic Container Service [Amazon ECS],Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service [Amazon EKS])
• When to use read replicas
• Workflow orchestration (for example, AWS Step Functions)
• Designing event-driven, microservice, and/or multi-tier architectures based on requirements
• Determining scaling strategies for components used in an architecture design
• Determining the AWS services required to achieve loose coupling based on requirements
• Determining when to use containers
• Determining when to use serverless technologies and patterns
• Recommending appropriate compute, storage, networking, and database technologies based on requirements
• Using purpose-built AWS services for workloads
Task Statement 2: Design highly available and/or fault-tolerant architectures.
• AWS global infrastructure (for example, Availability Zones, AWS Regions, Amazon Route 53)
• AWS managed services with appropriate use cases (for example, Amazon Comprehend, Amazon Polly)
• Basic networking concepts (for example, route tables)
• Disaster recovery (DR) strategies (for example, backup and restore, pilot light, warm standby,
active-active failover, recovery point objective [RPO], recovery time objective [RTO])
• Distributed design patterns
• Failover strategies
• Immutable infrastructure
• Load balancing concepts (for example, Application Load Balancer)
• Proxy concepts (for example, Amazon RDS Proxy)
• Service quotas and throttling (for example, how to configure the service quotas for a workload in a standby environment)
• Storage options and characteristics (for example, durability, replication)
• Workload visibility (for example, AWS X-Ray)
• Determining automation strategies to ensure infrastructure integrity
• Determining the AWS services required to provide a highly available and/or fault-tolerant architecture across AWS Regions or Availability Zones
• Identifying metrics based on business requirements to deliver a highly available solution
• Implementing designs to mitigate single points of failure
• Implementing strategies to ensure the durability and availability of data (for example, backups)
• Selecting an appropriate DR strategy to meet business requirements
• Using AWS services that improve the reliability of legacy applications and applications not built for the cloud (for example, when application changes are not possible)
• Using purpose-built AWS services for workloads
Domain 3: Design High-Performing Architectures
This exam domain is focused on designing high-performing architectures on AWS and comprises 24% of the exam. Task statements include:
Task Statement 1: Determine high-performing and/or scalable storage solutions.
• Hybrid storage solutions to meet business requirements
• Storage services with appropriate use cases (for example, Amazon S3, Amazon Elastic File System [Amazon EFS], Amazon Elastic Block Store [Amazon EBS])
• Storage types with associated characteristics (for example, object, file, block)
• Determining storage services and configurations that meet performance demands
• Determining storage services that can scale to accommodate future needs
Task Statement 2: Design high-performing and elastic compute solutions.
• AWS compute services with appropriate use cases (for example, AWS Batch, Amazon EMR, Fargate)
• Distributed computing concepts supported by AWS global infrastructure and edge services
• Queuing and messaging concepts (for example, publish/subscribe)
• Scalability capabilities with appropriate use cases (for example, Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling, AWS Auto Scaling)
• Serverless technologies and patterns (for example, Lambda, Fargate)
• The orchestration of containers (for example, Amazon ECS, Amazon EKS)
• Decoupling workloads so that components can scale independently
• Identifying metrics and conditions to perform scaling actions
• Selecting the appropriate compute options and features (for example, EC2 instance types) to meet business requirements
• Selecting the appropriate resource type and size (for example, the amount of Lambda memory) to meet business requirements
Task Statement 3: Determine high-performing database solutions.
• AWS global infrastructure (for example, Availability Zones, AWS Regions)
• Caching strategies and services (for example, Amazon ElastiCache)
• Data access patterns (for example, read-intensive compared with write-intensive)
• Database capacity planning (for example, capacity units, instance types, Provisioned IOPS)
• Database connections and proxies
• Database engines with appropriate use cases (for example, heterogeneous migrations, homogeneous migrations)
• Database replication (for example, read replicas)
• Database types and services (for example, serverless, relational compared with non-relational, in-memory)
• Configuring read replicas to meet business requirements
• Designing database architectures
• Determining an appropriate database engine (for example, MySQL compared with
• Determining an appropriate database type (for example, Amazon Aurora, Amazon DynamoDB)
• Integrating caching to meet business requirements
Task Statement 4: Determine high-performing and/or scalable network architectures.
• Edge networking services with appropriate use cases (for example, Amazon CloudFront, AWS Global Accelerator)
• How to design network architecture (for example, subnet tiers, routing, IP addressing)
• Load balancing concepts (for example, Application Load Balancer)
• Network connection options (for example, AWS VPN, Direct Connect, AWS PrivateLink)
• Creating a network topology for various architectures (for example, global, hybrid, multi-tier)
• Determining network configurations that can scale to accommodate future needs
• Determining the appropriate placement of resources to meet business requirements
• Selecting the appropriate load balancing strategy
Task Statement 5: Determine high-performing data ingestion and transformation solutions.
• Data analytics and visualization services with appropriate use cases (for example, Amazon Athena, AWS Lake Formation, Amazon QuickSight)
• Data ingestion patterns (for example, frequency)
• Data transfer services with appropriate use cases (for example, AWS DataSync, AWS Storage Gateway)
• Data transformation services with appropriate use cases (for example, AWS Glue)
• Secure access to ingestion access points
• Sizes and speeds needed to meet business requirements
• Streaming data services with appropriate use cases (for example, Amazon Kinesis)
• Building and securing data lakes
• Designing data streaming architectures
• Designing data transfer solutions
• Implementing visualization strategies
• Selecting appropriate compute options for data processing (for example, Amazon EMR)
• Selecting appropriate configurations for ingestion
• Transforming data between formats (for example, .csv to .parquet)
Domain 4: Design Cost-Optimized Architectures
This exam domain is focused optimizing solutions for cost-effectiveness on AWS and comprises 20% of the exam. Task statements include:
Task Statement 1: Design cost-optimized storage solutions.
• Access options (for example, an S3 bucket with Requester Pays object storage)
• AWS cost management service features (for example, cost allocation tags, multi-account billing)
• AWS cost management tools with appropriate use cases (for example, AWS Cost Explorer, AWS Budgets, AWS Cost and Usage Report)
• AWS storage services with appropriate use cases (for example, Amazon FSx, Amazon EFS, Amazon S3, Amazon EBS)
• Backup strategies
• Block storage options (for example, hard disk drive [HDD] volume types, solid state drive [SSD] volume types)
• Data lifecycles
• Hybrid storage options (for example, DataSync, Transfer Family, Storage Gateway)
• Storage access patterns
• Storage tiering (for example, cold tiering for object storage)
• Storage types with associated characteristics (for example, object, file, block)
• Designing appropriate storage strategies (for example, batch uploads to Amazon S3 compared with individual uploads)
• Determining the correct storage size for a workload
• Determining the lowest cost method of transferring data for a workload to AWS storage
• Determining when storage auto scaling is required
• Managing S3 object lifecycles
• Selecting the appropriate backup and/or archival solution
• Selecting the appropriate service for data migration to storage services
• Selecting the appropriate storage tier
• Selecting the correct data lifecycle for storage
• Selecting the most cost-effective storage service for a workload
Task Statement 2: Design cost-optimized compute solutions.
• AWS cost management service features (for example, cost allocation tags, multi-account billing)
• AWS cost management tools with appropriate use cases (for example, Cost Explorer, AWS Budgets, AWS Cost and Usage Report)
• AWS global infrastructure (for example, Availability Zones, AWS Regions)
• AWS purchasing options (for example, Spot Instances, Reserved Instances, Savings Plans)
• Distributed compute strategies (for example, edge processing)
• Hybrid compute options (for example, AWS Outposts, AWS Snowball Edge)
• Instance types, families, and sizes (for example, memory optimized, compute optimized, virtualization)
• Optimization of compute utilization (for example, containers, serverless computing, microservices)
• Scaling strategies (for example, auto scaling, hibernation)
• Determining an appropriate load balancing strategy (for example, Application Load Balancer [Layer 7] compared with Network Load Balancer [Layer 4] compared with Gateway Load Balancer)
• Determining appropriate scaling methods and strategies for elastic workloads (for example, horizontal compared with vertical, EC2 hibernation)
• Determining cost-effective AWS compute services with appropriate use cases (for example, Lambda, Amazon EC2, Fargate)
• Determining the required availability for different classes of workloads (for example, production workloads, non-production workloads)
• Selecting the appropriate instance family for a workload
• Selecting the appropriate instance size for a workload
Task Statement 3: Design cost-optimized database solutions.
• AWS cost management service features (for example, cost allocation tags, multi-account billing)
• AWS cost management tools with appropriate use cases (for example, Cost Explorer, AWS Budgets, AWS Cost and Usage Report)
• Caching strategies
• Data retention policies
• Database capacity planning (for example, capacity units)
• Database connections and proxies
• Database engines with appropriate use cases (for example, heterogeneous migrations, homogeneous migrations)
• Database replication (for example, read replicas)
• Database types and services (for example, relational compared with non-relational, Aurora, DynamoDB)
• Designing appropriate backup and retention policies (for example, snapshot frequency)
• Determining an appropriate database engine (for example, MySQL compared with PostgreSQL)
• Determining cost-effective AWS database services with appropriate use cases (for example, DynamoDB compared with Amazon RDS, serverless)
• Determining cost-effective AWS database types (for example, time series format, columnar format)
• Migrating database schemas and data to different locations and/or different database engines
Task Statement 4: Design cost-optimized network architectures.
• AWS cost management service features (for example, cost allocation tags, multi-account billing)
• AWS cost management tools with appropriate use cases (for example, Cost Explorer, AWS Budgets, AWS Cost and Usage Report)
• Load balancing concepts (for example, Application Load Balancer)
• NAT gateways (for example, NAT instance costs compared with NAT gateway costs)
• Network connectivity (for example, private lines, dedicated lines, VPNs)
• Network routing, topology, and peering (for example, AWS Transit Gateway, VPC peering)
• Network services with appropriate use cases (for example, DNS)
• Configuring appropriate NAT gateway types for a network (for example, a single shared NAT
gateway compared with NAT gateways for each Availability Zone)
• Configuring appropriate network connections (for example, Direct Connect compared with VPN compared with internet)
• Configuring appropriate network routes to minimize network transfer costs (for example, Region to Region, Availability Zone to Availability Zone, private to public, Global Accelerator, VPC endpoints)
• Determining strategic needs for content delivery networks (CDNs) and edge caching
• Reviewing existing workloads for network optimizations
• Selecting an appropriate throttling strategy
• Selecting the appropriate bandwidth allocation for a network device (for example, a single VPN compared with multiple VPNs, Direct Connect speed)
Which key tools, technologies, and concepts might be covered on the exam?
The following is a non-exhaustive list of the tools and technologies that could appear on the exam.
This list is subject to change and is provided to help you understand the general scope of services, features, or technologies on the exam.
The general tools and technologies in this list appear in no particular order.
AWS services are grouped according to their primary functions. While some of these technologies will likely be covered more than others on the exam, the order and placement of them in this list is no indication of relative weight or importance:
• Cost management
• Disaster recovery
• High performance
• Management and governance
• Microservices and component decoupling
• Migration and data transfer
• Networking, connectivity, and content delivery
• Serverless and event-driven design principles
AWS Services and Features
There are lots of new services and feature updates in scope for the new AWS Certified Solutions Architect Associate certification! Here’s a list of some of the new services that will be in scope for the new version of the exam:
• Amazon Athena
• AWS Data Exchange
• AWS Data Pipeline
• Amazon EMR
• AWS Glue
• Amazon Kinesis
• AWS Lake Formation
• Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (Amazon MSK)
• Amazon OpenSearch Service (Amazon Elasticsearch Service)
• Amazon QuickSight
• Amazon Redshift
• Amazon AppFlow
• AWS AppSync
• Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events)
• Amazon MQ
• Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS)
• Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS)
• AWS Step Functions
AWS Cost Management:
• AWS Budgets
• AWS Cost and Usage Report
• AWS Cost Explorer
• Savings Plans
• AWS Batch
• Amazon EC2
• Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling
• AWS Elastic Beanstalk
• AWS Outposts
• AWS Serverless Application Repository
• VMware Cloud on AWS
• AWS Wavelength
• Amazon Elastic Container Registry (Amazon ECR)
• Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS)
• Amazon ECS Anywhere
• Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (Amazon EKS)
• Amazon EKS Anywhere
• Amazon EKS Distro
• Amazon Aurora
• Amazon Aurora Serverless
• Amazon DocumentDB (with MongoDB compatibility)
• Amazon DynamoDB
• Amazon ElastiCache
• Amazon Keyspaces (for Apache Cassandra)
• Amazon Neptune
• Amazon Quantum Ledger Database (Amazon QLDB)
• Amazon RDS
• Amazon Redshift
• Amazon Timestream
• AWS X-Ray
Front-End Web and Mobile:
• AWS Amplify
• Amazon API Gateway
• AWS Device Farm
• Amazon Pinpoint
• Amazon Comprehend
• Amazon Forecast
• Amazon Fraud Detector
• Amazon Kendra
• Amazon Lex
• Amazon Polly
• Amazon Rekognition
• Amazon SageMaker
• Amazon Textract
• Amazon Transcribe
• Amazon Translate
Management and Governance:
• AWS Auto Scaling
• AWS CloudFormation
• AWS CloudTrail
• Amazon CloudWatch
• AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI)
• AWS Compute Optimizer
• AWS Config
• AWS Control Tower
• AWS License Manager
• Amazon Managed Grafana
• Amazon Managed Service for Prometheus
• AWS Management Console
• AWS Organizations
• AWS Personal Health Dashboard
• AWS Proton
• AWS Service Catalog
• AWS Systems Manager
• AWS Trusted Advisor
• AWS Well-Architected Tool
• Amazon Elastic Transcoder
• Amazon Kinesis Video Streams
Migration and Transfer:
• AWS Application Discovery Service
• AWS Application Migration Service (CloudEndure Migration)
• AWS Database Migration Service (AWS DMS)
• AWS DataSync
• AWS Migration Hub
• AWS Server Migration Service (AWS SMS)
• AWS Snow Family
• AWS Transfer Family
Networking and Content Delivery:
• Amazon CloudFront
• AWS Direct Connect
• Elastic Load Balancing (ELB)
• AWS Global Accelerator
• AWS PrivateLink
• Amazon Route 53
• AWS Transit Gateway
• Amazon VPC
• AWS VPN
Security, Identity, and Compliance:
• AWS Artifact
• AWS Audit Manager
• AWS Certificate Manager (ACM)
• AWS CloudHSM
• Amazon Cognito
• Amazon Detective
• AWS Directory Service
• AWS Firewall Manager
• Amazon GuardDuty
• AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM)
• Amazon Inspector
• AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS)
• Amazon Macie
• AWS Network Firewall
• AWS Resource Access Manager (AWS RAM)
• AWS Secrets Manager
• AWS Security Hub
• AWS Shield
• AWS Single Sign-On
• AWS WAF
• AWS AppSync
• AWS Fargate
• AWS Lambda
• AWS Backup
• Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS)
• Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS)
• Amazon FSx (for all types)
• Amazon S3
• Amazon S3 Glacier
• AWS Storage Gateway
Out-of-scope AWS services and features
The following is a non-exhaustive list of AWS services and features that are not covered on the exam.
These services and features do not represent every AWS offering that is excluded from the exam content.
• Amazon CloudSearch
• Amazon Managed Workflows for Apache Airflow (Amazon MWAA)
AR and VR:
• Amazon Sumerian
• Amazon Managed Blockchain
• Amazon Lightsail
• Amazon RDS on VMware
• AWS Cloud9
• AWS Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK)
• AWS CloudShell
• AWS CodeArtifact
• AWS CodeBuild
• AWS CodeCommit
• AWS CodeDeploy
• Amazon CodeGuru
• AWS CodeStar
• Amazon Corretto
• AWS Fault Injection Simulator (AWS FIS)
• AWS Tools and SDKs
Front-End Web and Mobile:
• Amazon Location Service
• Amazon GameLift
• Amazon Lumberyard
Internet of Things:
• All services
Which new AWS services will be covered in the SAA-C03?
AWS Data Exchange,
AWS Data Pipeline,
AWS Lake Formation,
Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka,
VMware Cloud on AWS,
Amazon Quantum Ledger Database,
Amazon Fraud Detector,
AWS License Manager,
Amazon Managed Grafana,
Amazon Managed Service for Prometheus,
Amazon Elastic Transcoder,
Amazon Kinesis Video Streams,
AWS Application Discovery Service,
AWS WAF Serverless,
Solution Architecture Definition 1:
Solution architecture is a practice of defining and describing an architecture of a system delivered in context of a specific solution and as such it may encompass description of an entire system or only its specific parts. Definition of a solution architecture is typically led by a solution architect.
Solution Architecture Definition 2:
The AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate examination is intended for individuals who perform a solutions architect role and have one or more years of hands-on experience designing available, cost-efficient, fault-tolerant, and scalable distributed systems on AWS.
- Take an AWS Training Class
- Study AWS Whitepapers and FAQs: AWS Well-Architected webpage (various whitepapers linked)
- If you are running an application in a production environment and must add a new EBS volume with data from a snapshot, what could you do to avoid degraded performance during the volume’s first use?
Initialize the data by reading each storage block on the volume.
Volumes created from an EBS snapshot must be initialized. Initializing occurs the first time a storage block on the volume is read, and the performance impact can be impacted by up to 50%. You can avoid this impact in production environments by pre-warming the volume by reading all of the blocks.
- If you are running a legacy application that has hard-coded static IP addresses and it is running on an EC2 instance; what is the best failover solution that allows you to keep the same IP address on a new instance?
Elastic IP addresses (EIPs) are designed to be attached/detached and moved from one EC2 instance to another. They are a great solution for keeping a static IP address and moving it to a new instance if the current instance fails. This will reduce or eliminate any downtime uses may experience.
- Which feature of Intel processors help to encrypt data without significant impact on performance?
- You can mount to EFS from which two of the following?
- On-prem servers running Linux
- EC2 instances running Linux
EFS is not compatible with Windows operating systems.
When a file(s) is encrypted and the stored data is not in transit it’s known as encryption at rest. What is an example of encryption at rest?
When would vertical scaling be necessary? When an application is built entirely into one source code, otherwise known as a monolithic application.
Fault-Tolerance allows for continuous operation throughout a failure, which can lead to a low Recovery Time Objective. RPO vs RTO
- High-Availability means automating tasks so that an instance will quickly recover, which can lead to a low Recovery Time Objective. RPO vs. RTO
- Frequent backups reduce the time between the last backup and recovery point, otherwise known as the Recovery Point Objective. RPO vs. RTO
- Which represents the difference between Fault-Tolerance and High-Availability? High-Availability means the system will quickly recover from a failure event, and Fault-Tolerance means the system will maintain operations during a failure.
- From a security perspective, what is a principal? An anonymous user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an anonymous user acting on a system.
An authenticated user falls under the definition of a principal. A principal can be an authenticated user acting on a system.
- What are two types of session data saving for an Application Session State? Stateless and Stateful
23. It is the customer’s responsibility to patch the operating system on an EC2 instance.
24. In designing an environment, what four main points should a Solutions Architect keep in mind? Cost-efficient, secure, application session state, undifferentiated heavy lifting: These four main points should be the framework when designing an environment.
25. In the context of disaster recovery, what does RPO stand for? RPO is the abbreviation for Recovery Point Objective.
26. What are the benefits of horizontal scaling?
Vertical scaling can be costly while horizontal scaling is cheaper.
Horizontal scaling suffers from none of the size limitations of vertical scaling.
Having horizontal scaling means you can easily route traffic to another instance of a server.
Top 100 AWS Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep Questions and Answers Dump – SAA-C02 and SAA-C03
A company is developing a highly available web application using stateless web servers. Which services are suitable for storing session state data? (Select TWO.)
- A. CloudWatch
- B. DynamoDB
- C. Elastic Load Balancing
- D. ElastiCache
- E. Storage Gateway
Q1: A Solutions Architect is designing a critical business application with a relational database that runs on an EC2 instance. It requires a single EBS volume that can support up to 16,000 IOPS.
Which Amazon EBS volume type can meet the performance requirements of this application?
- A. EBS Provisioned IOPS SSD
- B. EBS Throughput Optimized HDD
- C. EBS General Purpose SSD
- D. EBS Cold HDD
Q2: An application running on EC2 instances processes sensitive information stored on Amazon S3. The information is accessed over the Internet. The security team is concerned that the Internet connectivity to Amazon S3 is a security risk.
Which solution will resolve the security concern?
- A. Access the data through an Internet Gateway.
- B. Access the data through a VPN connection.
- C. Access the data through a NAT Gateway.
- D.Access the data through a VPC endpoint for Amazon S3
Q3: An organization is building an Amazon Redshift cluster in their shared services VPC. The cluster will host sensitive data.
How can the organization control which networks can access the cluster?
- A. Run the cluster in a different VPC and connect through VPC peering.
- B. Create a database user inside the Amazon Redshift cluster only for users on the network.
- C. Define a cluster security group for the cluster that allows access from the allowed networks.
- D. Only allow access to networks that connect with the shared services network via VPN.
Q4: A web application allows customers to upload orders to an S3 bucket. The resulting Amazon S3 events trigger a Lambda function that inserts a message to an SQS queue. A single EC2 instance reads messages from the queue, processes them, and stores them in an DynamoDB table partitioned by unique order ID. Next month traffic is expected to increase by a factor of 10 and a Solutions Architect is reviewing the architecture for possible scaling problems.
Which component is MOST likely to need re-architecting to be able to scale to accommodate the new traffic?
- A. Lambda function
- B. SQS queue
- C. EC2 instance
- D. DynamoDB table
Q5: An application requires a highly available relational database with an initial storage capacity of 8 TB. The database will grow by 8 GB every day. To support expected traffic, at least eight read replicas will be required to handle database reads.
Which option will meet these requirements?
- A. DynamoDB
- B. Amazon S3
- C. Amazon Aurora
- D. Amazon Redshift
Q6: How can you improve the performance of EFS?
- A. Use an instance-store backed EC2 instance.
- B. Provision more throughput than is required.
- C. Divide your files system into multiple smaller file systems.
- D. Provision higher IOPs for your EFS.
If you are designing an application that requires fast (10 – 25Gbps), low-latency connections between EC2 instances, what EC2 feature should you use?
- A. Snapshots
- B. Instance store volumes
- C. Placement groups
- D. IOPS provisioned instances.
Q8: A Solution Architect is designing an online shopping application running in a VPC on EC2 instances behind an ELB Application Load Balancer. The instances run in an Auto Scaling group across multiple Availability Zones. The application tier must read and write data to a customer managed database cluster. There should be no access to the database from the Internet, but the cluster must be able to obtain software patches from the Internet.
Which VPC design meets these requirements?
- A. Public subnets for both the application tier and the database cluster
- B. Public subnets for the application tier, and private subnets for the database cluster
- C. Public subnets for the application tier and NAT Gateway, and private subnets for the database cluster
- D. Public subnets for the application tier, and private subnets for the database cluster and NAT Gateway
Q9: What command should you run on a running instance if you want to view its user data (that is used at launch)?
- A. curl http://254.169.254.169/latest/user-data
- B. curl http://localhost/latest/meta-data/bootstrap
- C. curl http://localhost/latest/user-data
- D. curl http://169.254.169.254/latest/user-data
Q10: A company is developing a highly available web application using stateless web servers. Which services are suitable for storing session state data? (Select TWO.)
- A. CloudWatch
- B. DynamoDB
- C. Elastic Load Balancing
- D. ElastiCache
- E. Storage Gateway
Q11: From a security perspective, what is a principal?
- A. An identity
- B. An anonymous user
- C. An authenticated user
- D. A resource
Q12: What are the characteristics of a tiered application?
- A. All three application layers are on the same instance
- B. The presentation tier is on an isolated instance than the logic layer
- C. None of the tiers can be cloned
- D. The logic layer is on an isolated instance than the data layer
- E. Additional machines can be added to help the application by implementing horizontal scaling
- F. Incapable of horizontal scaling
Q13: When using horizontal scaling, how can a server’s capacity closely match it’s rising demand?
A. By frequently purchasing additional instances and smaller resources
B. By purchasing more resources very far in advance
C. By purchasing more resources after demand has risen
D. It is not possible to predict demand
Q14: What is the concept behind AWS’ Well-Architected Framework?
A. It’s a set of best practice areas, principles, and concepts that can help you implement effective AWS solutions.
B. It’s a set of best practice areas, principles, and concepts that can help you implement effective solutions tailored to your specific business.
C. It’s a set of best practice areas, principles, and concepts that can help you implement effective solutions from another web host.
D. It’s a set of best practice areas, principles, and concepts that can help you implement effective E-Commerce solutions.
Q15: Select the true statements regarding AWS Regions.
A. Availability Zones are isolated locations within regions
B. Region codes identify specific regions (example: US-EAST-2)
C. All AWS Regions contain the full set of AWS services.
D. An AWS Region is assigned based on the user’s location when creating an AWS account.
Q16: Which is not one of the five pillars of a well-architected framework?
B. Performance Efficiency
C. Structural Simplicity
E. Operational Excellence
Q17: You lead a team to develop a new online game application in AWS EC2. The application will have a large number of users globally. For a great user experience, this application requires very low network latency and jitter. If the network speed is not fast enough, you will lose customers. Which tool would you choose to improve the application performance? (Select TWO.)
A. AWS VPN
B. AWS Global Accelerator
C. Direct Connect
D. API Gateway
Q18: A company has a media processing application deployed in a local data center. Its file storage is built on a Microsoft Windows file server. The application and file server need to be migrated to AWS. You want to quickly set up the file server in AWS and the application code should continue working to access the file systems. Which method should you choose to create the file server?
A. Create a Windows File Server from Amazon WorkSpaces.
B. Configure a high performance Windows File System in Amazon EFS.
C. Create a Windows File Server in Amazon FSx.
D. Configure a secure enterprise storage through Amazon WorkDocs.
Q19: You are developing an application using AWS SDK to get objects from AWS S3. The objects have big sizes and sometimes there are failures when getting objects especially when the network connectivity is poor. You want to get a specific range of bytes in a single GET request and retrieve the whole object in parts. Which method can achieve this?
A. Enable multipart upload in the AWS SDK.
B. Use the “Range” HTTP header in a GET request to download the specified range bytes of an object.
C. Reduce the retry requests and enlarge the retry timeouts through AWS SDK when fetching S3 objects.
D. Retrieve the whole S3 object through a single GET operation.
Q20: You have an application hosted in an Auto Scaling group and an application load balancer distributes traffic to the ASG. You want to add a scaling policy that keeps the average aggregate CPU utilization of the Auto Scaling group to be 60 percent. The capacity of the Auto Scaling group should increase or decrease based on this target value. Which scaling policy does it belong to?
A. Target tracking scaling policy.
B. Step scaling policy.
C. Simple scaling policy.
D. Scheduled scaling policy.
Q21: You need to launch a number of EC2 instances to run Cassandra. There are large distributed and replicated workloads in Cassandra and you plan to launch instances using EC2 placement groups. The traffic should be distributed evenly across several partitions and each partition should contain multiple instances. Which strategy would you use when launching the placement groups?
A. Cluster placement strategy
B. Spread placement strategy.
C. Partition placement strategy.
D. Network placement strategy.
Q22: To improve the network performance, you launch a C5 EC2 Amazon Linux instance and enable enhanced networking by modifying the instance attribute with “aws ec2 modify-instance-attribute –instance-id instance_id –ena-support”. Which mechanism does the EC2 instance use to enhance the networking capabilities?
A. Intel 82599 Virtual Function (VF) interface.
B. Elastic Fabric Adapter (EFA).
C. Elastic Network Adapter (ENA).
D. Elastic Network Interface (ENI).
Q23: You work for an online retailer where any downtime at all can cause a significant loss of revenue. You have architected your application to be deployed on an Auto Scaling Group of EC2 instances behind a load balancer. You have configured and deployed these resources using a CloudFormation template. The Auto Scaling Group is configured with default settings, and a simple CPU utilization scaling policy. You have also set up multiple Availability Zones for high availability. The Load Balancer does health checks against an html file generated by script. When you begin performing load testing on your application and notice in CloudWatch that the load balancer is not sending traffic to one of your EC2 instances. What could be the problem?
A. The EC2 instance has failed the load balancer health check.
B. The instance has not been registered with CloudWatch.
C. The EC2 instance has failed EC2 status checks.
D. You are load testing at a moderate traffic level and not all instances are needed.
Q24: Your company is using a hybrid configuration because there are some legacy applications which are not easily converted and migrated to AWS. And with this configuration comes a typical scenario where the legacy apps must maintain the same private IP address and MAC address. You are attempting to convert the application to the cloud and have configured an EC2 instance to house the application. What you are currently testing is removing the ENI from the legacy instance and attaching it to the EC2 instance. You want to attempt a cold attach. What does this mean?
A. Attach ENI when it’s stopped.
B. Attach ENI before the public IP address is assigned.
C. Attach ENI to an instance when it’s running.
D. Attach ENI when the instance is being launched.
Q25: Your company has recently converted to a hybrid cloud environment and will slowly be migrating to a fully AWS cloud environment. The AWS side is in need of some steps to prepare for disaster recovery. A disaster recovery plan needs drawn up and disaster recovery drills need to be performed for compliance reasons. The company wants to establish Recovery Time and Recovery Point Objectives. The RTO and RPO can be pretty relaxed. The main point is to have a plan in place, with as much cost savings as possible. Which AWS disaster recovery pattern will best meet these requirements?
A. Warm Standby
B. Backup and restore
C. Multi Site
D. Pilot Light
Q26: An international travel company has an application which provides travel information and alerts to users all over the world. The application is hosted on groups of EC2 instances in Auto Scaling Groups in multiple AWS Regions. There are also load balancers routing traffic to these instances. In two countries, Ireland and Australia, there are compliance rules in place that dictate users connect to the application in eu-west-1 and ap-southeast-1. Which service can you use to meet this requirement?
A. Use Route 53 weighted routing.
B. Use Route 53 geolocation routing.
C. Configure CloudFront and the users will be routed to the nearest edge location.
D. Configure the load balancers to route users to the proper region.
Q26: You have taken over management of several instances in the company AWS environment. You want to quickly review scripts used to bootstrap the instances at runtime. A URL command can be used to do this. What can you append to the URL http://169.254.169.254/latest/ to retrieve this data?
Q27: A software company has created an application to capture service requests from users and also enhancement requests. The application is deployed on an Auto Scaling group of EC2 instances fronted by an Application Load Balancer. The Auto Scaling group has scaled to maximum capacity, but there are still requests being lost. The cost of these instances is becoming an issue. What step can the company take to ensure requests aren’t lost?
A. Use larger instances in the Auto Scaling group.
B. Use spot instances to save money.
C. Use an SQS queue with the Auto Scaling group to capture all requests.
D. Use a Network Load Balancer instead for faster throughput.
Q28: A company has an auto scaling group of EC2 instances hosting their retail sales application. Any significant downtime for this application can result in large losses of profit. Therefore the architecture also includes an Application Load Balancer and an RDS database in a Multi-AZ deployment. The company has a very aggressive Recovery Time Objective (RTO) in case of disaster. How long will a failover typically complete?
A. Under 10 minutes
B. Within an hour
C. Almost instantly
D. one to two minutes
Q29: You have two EC2 instances running in the same VPC, but in different subnets. You are removing the secondary ENI from an EC2 instance and attaching it to another EC2 instance. You want this to be fast and with limited disruption. So you want to attach the ENI to the EC2 instance when it’s running. What is this called?
A. hot attach
B. warm attach
C. cold attach
D. synchronous attach
Q30: You suspect that one of the AWS services your company is using has gone down. How can you check on the status of this service?
A. AWS Trusted Advisor
B. Amazon Inspector
C. AWS Personal Health Dashboard
D. AWS Organizations
Q31: You have configured an Auto Scaling Group of EC2 instances fronted by an Application Load Balancer and backed by an RDS database. You want to begin monitoring the EC2 instances using CloudWatch metrics. Which metric is not readily available out of the box?
A. CPU utilization
D. Memory utilization
Q32: Several instances you are creating have a specific data requirement. The requirement states that the data on the root device needs to persist independently from the lifetime of the instance. After considering AWS storage options, which is the simplest way to meet these requirements?
A. Store your root device data on Amazon EBS.
B. Store the data on the local instance store.
C. Create a cron job to migrate the data to S3.
D. Send the data to S3 using S3 lifecycle rules.
Q33: A company has an Auto Scaling Group of EC2 instances hosting their retail sales application. Any significant downtime for this application can result in large losses of profit. Therefore the architecture also includes an Application Load Balancer and an RDS database in a Multi-AZ deployment. What will happen to preserve high availability if the primary database fails?
A. A Lambda function kicks off a CloudFormation template to deploy a backup database.
B. The CNAME is switched from the primary db instance to the secondary.
C. Route 53 points the CNAME to the secondary database instance.
D. The Elastic IP address for the primary database is moved to the secondary database.
Q34: After several issues with your application and unplanned downtime, your recommendation to migrate your application to AWS is approved. You have set up high availability on the front end with a load balancer and an Auto Scaling Group. What step can you take with your database to configure high-availability and ensure minimal downtime (under five minutes)?
A. Create a read replica.
B. Enable Multi-AZ failover on the database.
C. Take frequent snapshots of your database.
D. Create your database using CloudFormation and save the template for reuse.
Q35: A new startup is considering the advantages of using DynamoDB versus a traditional relational database in AWS RDS. The NoSQL nature of DynamoDB presents a small learning curve to the team members who all have experience with traditional databases. The company will have multiple databases, and the decision will be made on a case-by-case basis. Which of the following use cases would favour DynamoDB? Select two.
A. Strong referential integrity between tables
B. Storing BLOB data
C. Storing infrequently accessed data
D. Managing web session data
E. Storing metadata for S3 objects
Q36: You have been tasked with designing a strategy for backing up EBS volumes attached to an instance-store-backed EC2 instance. You have been asked for an executive summary on your design, and the executive summary should include an answer to the question, “What can an EBS volume do when snapshotting the volume is in progress”?
A. The volume can be used normally while the snapshot is in progress.
B. The volume can only accommodate writes while a snapshot is in progress.
C. The volume can not be used while a snapshot is in progress.
D. The volume can only accommodate reads while a snapshot is in progress.
Q37: You are working as a Solutions Architect in a large healthcare organization. You have many Auto Scaling Groups that you need to create. One requirement is that you need to reuse some software licenses and therefore need to use dedicated hosts on EC2 instances in your Auto Scaling Groups. What step must you take to meet this requirement?
A. Create your launch configuration, but manually change the instances to Dedicated Hosts in the EC2 console.
B. Use a launch template with your Auto Scaling Group.
C. Create the Dedicated Host EC2 instances, then add them to an existing Auto Scaling Group.
D. Make sure your launch configurations are using Dedicated Hosts.
Q38: Your organization uses AWS CodeDeploy for deployments. Now you are starting a project on the AWS Lambda platform. For your deployments, you’ve been given a requirement of performing blue-green deployments. When you perform deployments, you want to split traffic, sending a small percentage of the traffic to the new version of your application. Which deployment configuration will allow this splitting of traffic?
B. All at Once
D. Weighted routing
Q39: A financial institution has an application that produces huge amounts of actuary data, which is ultimately expected to be in the terabyte range. There is a need to run complex analytic queries against terabytes of structured data, using sophisticated query optimization, columnar storage on high-performance storage, and massively parallel query execution. Which storage service will best meet this requirement?
Q40: A company has an application for sharing static content, such as photos. The popularity of the application has grown, and the company is now sharing content worldwide. This worldwide service has caused some issues with latency. What AWS services can be used to host a static website, serve content to globally dispersed users, and address latency issues, while keeping cost under control? Choose two.
A. EC2 placement group
D. AWS Global Accelerator
E. AWS CloudFormation
Q41: You have just been hired by a large organization which uses many different AWS services in their environment. Some of the services which handle data include: RDS, Redshift, ElastiCache, DynamoDB, S3, and Glacier. You have been instructed to configure a web application using stateless web servers. Which services can you use to handle session state data? Choose two.
Q42: After an IT Steering Committee meeting you have been put in charge of configuring a hybrid environment for the company’s compute resources. You weigh the pros and cons of various technologies based on the requirements you are given. Your primary requirement is the necessity for a private, dedicated connection, which bypasses the Internet and can provide throughput of 10 Gbps. Which option will you select?
A. AWS Direct Connect
B. VPC Peering
C. AWS VPN
D. AWS Direct Gateway
Q43: An application is hosted on an EC2 instance in a VPC. The instance is in a subnet in the VPC, and the instance has a public IP address. There is also an internet gateway and a security group with the proper ingress configured. But your testers are unable to access the instance from the Internet. What could be the problem?
A. Make sure the instance has a private IP address.
B. Add a route to the route table, from the subnet containing the instance, to the Internet Gateway.
C. A NAT gateway needs to be configured.
D. A Virtual private gateway needs to be configured.
Q44: A data company has implemented a subscription service for storing video files. There are two levels of subscription: personal and professional use. The personal users can upload a total of 5 GB of data, and professional users can upload as much as 5 TB of data. The application can upload files of size up to 1 TB to an S3 Bucket. What is the best way to upload files of this size?
A. Multipart upload
B. Single-part Upload
C. AWS Snowball
D. AWS SnowMobile
Q45: You have multiple EC2 instances housing applications in a VPC in a single Availability Zone. The applications need to communicate at extremely high throughputs to avoid latency for end users. The average throughput needs to be 6 Gbps. What’s the best measure you can do to ensure this throughput?
A. Put the instances in a placement group
B. Use Elastic Network Interfaces
C. Use Auto Scaling Groups
D. Increase the size of the instances
Q46: A team member has been tasked to configure four EC2 instances for four separate applications. These are not high-traffic apps, so there is no need for an Auto Scaling Group. The instances are all in the same public subnet and each instance has an EIP address, and all of the instances have the same Security Group. But none of the instances can send or receive internet traffic. You verify that all the instances have a public IP address. You also verify that an internet gateway has been configured. What is the most likely issue?
A. There is no route in the route table to the internet gateway (or it has been deleted).
B. Each instance needs its own security group.
C. The route table is corrupt.
D. You are using the default nacl.
Q47: You have been assigned to create an architecture which uses load balancers to direct traffic to an Auto Scaling Group of EC2 instances across multiple Availability Zones. The application to be deployed on these instances is a life insurance application which requires path-based and host-based routing. Which type of load balancer will you need to use?
A. Any type of load balancer will meet these requirements.
B. Classic Load Balancer
C. Network Load Balancer
D. Application Load Balancer
Q48: You have been assigned to create an architecture which uses load balancers to direct traffic to an Auto Scaling Group of EC2 instances across multiple Availability Zones. You were considering using an Application Load Balancer, but some of the requirements you have been given seem to point to a Classic Load Balancer. Which requirement would be better served by an Application Load Balancer?
A. Support for EC2-Classic
B. Path-based routing
C. Support for sticky sessions using application-generated cookies
D. Support for TCP and SSL listeners
Q49: You have been tasked to review your company disaster recovery plan due to some new requirements. The driving factor is that the Recovery Time Objective has become very aggressive. Because of this, it has been decided to configure Multi-AZ deployments for the RDS MySQL databases. Unrelated to DR, it has been determined that some read traffic needs to be offloaded from the master database. What step can be taken to meet this requirement?
A. Convert to Aurora to allow the standby to serve read traffic.
B. Redirect some of the read traffic to the standby database.
C. Add DAX to the solution to alleviate excess read traffic.
D. Add read replicas to offload some read traffic.
Q50: A gaming company is designing several new games which focus heavily on player-game interaction. The player makes a certain move and the game has to react very quickly to change the environment based on that move and to present the next decision for the player in real-time. A tool is needed to continuously collect data about player-game interactions and feed the data into the gaming platform in real-time. Which AWS service can best meet this need?
A. AWS Lambda
B. Kinesis Data Streams
C. Kinesis Data Analytics
D. AWS IoT
Q51: You are designing an architecture for a financial company which provides a day trading application to customers. After viewing the traffic patterns for the existing application you notice that traffic is fairly steady throughout the day, with the exception of large spikes at the opening of the market in the morning and at closing around 3 pm. Your architecture will include an Auto Scaling Group of EC2 instances. How can you configure the Auto Scaling Group to ensure that system performance meets the increased demands at opening and closing of the market?
A. Configure a Dynamic Scaling Policy to scale based on CPU Utilization.
B. Use a load balancer to ensure that the load is distributed evenly during high-traffic periods.
C. Configure your Auto Scaling Group to have a desired size which will be able to meet the demands of the high-traffic periods.
D. Use a predictive scaling policy on the Auto Scaling Group to meet opening and closing spikes.
Q52: A software gaming company has produced an online racing game which uses CloudFront for fast delivery to worldwide users. The game also uses DynamoDB for storing in-game and historical user data. The DynamoDB table has a preconfigured read and write capacity. Users have been reporting slow down issues, and an analysis has revealed that the DynamoDB table has begun throttling during peak traffic times. Which step can you take to improve game performance?
A. Add a load balancer in front of the web servers.
B. Add ElastiCache to cache frequently accessed data in memory.
C. Add an SQS Queue to queue requests which could be lost.
D. Make sure DynamoDB Auto Scaling is turned on.
Q53: You have configured an Auto Scaling Group of EC2 instances. You have begun testing the scaling of the Auto Scaling Group using a stress tool to force the CPU utilization metric being used to force scale out actions. The stress tool is also being manipulated by removing stress to force a scale in. But you notice that these actions are only taking place in five-minute intervals. What is happening?
A. Auto Scaling Groups can only scale in intervals of five minutes or greater.
B. The Auto Scaling Group is following the default cooldown procedure.
C. A load balancer is managing the load and limiting the effectiveness of stressing the servers.
D. The stress tool is configured to run for five minutes.
Q54: A team of architects is designing a new AWS environment for a company which wants to migrate to the Cloud. The architects are considering the use of EC2 instances with instance store volumes. The architects realize that the data on the instance store volumes are ephemeral. Which action will not cause the data to be deleted on an instance store volume?
B. The underlying disk drive fails.
C. Hardware disk failure.
D. Instance is stopped
Q55: You work for an advertising company that has a real-time bidding application. You are also using CloudFront on the front end to accommodate a worldwide user base. Your users begin complaining about response times and pauses in real-time bidding. Which service can be used to reduce DynamoDB response times by an order of magnitude (milliseconds to microseconds)?
B. DynamoDB Auto Scaling
D. CloudFront Edge Caches
Q56: A travel company has deployed a website which serves travel updates to users all over the world. The traffic this database serves is very read heavy and can have some latency issues at certain times of the year. What can you do to alleviate these latency issues?
A. Place CloudFront in front of the Database.
B. Add read replicas
C. Configure RDS Multi-AZ
D. Configure multi-Region RDS
Q57: A large financial institution is gradually moving their infrastructure and applications to AWS. The company has data needs that will utilize all of RDS, DynamoDB, Redshift, and ElastiCache. Which description best describes Amazon Redshift?
A. Key-value and document database that delivers single-digit millisecond performance at any scale.
B. Cloud-based relational database.
C. Can be used to significantly improve latency and throughput for many read-heavy application workloads.
D. Near real-time complex querying on massive data sets.
Q58: You are designing an architecture which will house an Auto Scaling Group of EC2 instances. The application hosted on the instances is expected to be an extremely popular social networking site. Forecasts for traffic to this site expect very high traffic and you will need a load balancer to handle tens of millions of requests per second while maintaining high throughput at ultra low latency. You need to select the type of load balancer to front your Auto Scaling Group to meet this high traffic requirement. Which load balancer will you select?
A. You will need an Application Load Balancer to meet this requirement.
B. All the AWS load balancers meet the requirement and perform the same.
C. You will select a Network Load Balancer to meet this requirement.
D. You will need a Classic Load Balancer to meet this requirement.
Q59: An organization of about 100 employees has performed the initial setup of users in IAM. All users except administrators have the same basic privileges. But now it has been determined that 50 employees will have extra restrictions on EC2. They will be unable to launch new instances or alter the state of existing instances. What will be the quickest way to implement these restrictions?
A. Create an IAM Role for the restrictions. Attach it to the EC2 instances.
B. Create the appropriate policy. Place the restricted users in the new policy.
C. Create the appropriate policy. With only 20 users, attach the policy to each user.
D. Create the appropriate policy. Create a new group for the restricted users. Place the restricted users in the new group and attach the policy to the group.
Q60: You are managing S3 buckets in your organization. This management of S3 extends to Amazon Glacier. For auditing purposes you would like to be informed if an object is restored to S3 from Glacier. What is the most efficient way you can do this?
A. Create a CloudWatch event for uploads to S3
B. Create an SNS notification for any upload to S3.
C. Configure S3 notifications for restore operations from Glacier.
D. Create a Lambda function which is triggered by restoration of object from Glacier to S3.
Q61: Your company has gotten back results from an audit. One of the mandates from the audit is that your application, which is hosted on EC2, must encrypt the data before writing this data to storage. Which service could you use to meet this requirement?
A. AWS Cloud HSM
B. Security Token Service
C. EBS encryption
D. AWS KMS
Q62: Recent worldwide events have dictated that you perform your duties as a Solutions Architect from home. You need to be able to manage several EC2 instances while working from home and have been testing the ability to ssh into these instances. One instance in particular has been a problem and you cannot ssh into this instance. What should you check first to troubleshoot this issue?
A. Make sure that the security group for the instance has ingress on port 80 from your home IP address.
B. Make sure that your VPC has a connected Virtual Private Gateway.
C. Make sure that the security group for the instance has ingress on port 22 from your home IP address.
D. Make sure that the Security Group for the instance has ingress on port 443 from your home IP address.
Q62: A consultant is hired by a small company to configure an AWS environment. The consultant begins working with the VPC and launching EC2 instances within the VPC. The initial instances will be placed in a public subnet. The consultant begins to create security groups. What is true of the default security group?
A. You can delete this group, however, you can’t change the group’s rules.
B. You can delete this group or you can change the group’s rules.
C. You can’t delete this group, nor can you change the group’s rules.
D. You can’t delete this group, however, you can change the group’s rules.
Q63: You are evaluating the security setting within the main company VPC. There are several NACLs and security groups to evaluate and possibly edit. What is true regarding NACLs and security groups?
A. Network ACLs and security groups are both stateful.
B. Network ACLs and security groups are both stateless.
C. Network ACLs are stateless, and security groups are stateful.
D. Network ACLs and stateful, and security groups are stateless.
Q64: Your company needs to deploy an application in the company AWS account. The application will reside on EC2 instances in an Auto Scaling Group fronted by an Application Load Balancer. The company has been using Elastic Beanstalk to deploy the application due to limited AWS experience within the organization. The application now needs upgrades and a small team of subcontractors have been hired to perform these upgrades. What can be used to provide the subcontractors with short-lived access tokens that act as temporary security credentials to the company AWS account?
A. IAM Roles
B. AWS STS
C. IAM user accounts
D. AWS SSO
Q65: The company you work for has reshuffled teams a bit and you’ve been moved from the AWS IAM team to the AWS Network team. One of your first assignments is to review the subnets in the main VPCs. What are two key concepts regarding subnets?
A. A subnet spans all the Availability Zones in a Region.
B. Private subnets can only hold database.
C. Each subnet maps to a single Availability Zone.
D. Every subnet you create is associated with the main route table for the VPC.
E. Each subnet is associated with one security group.
Q66: Amazon Web Services offers 4 different levels of support. Which of the following are valid support levels? Choose 3
E. Free Tier
Q67: You are reviewing Change Control requests, and you note that there is a change designed to reduce wasted CPU cycles by increasing the value of your Amazon SQS “VisibilityTimeout” attribute. What does this mean?
A. While processing a message, a consumer instance can amend the message visibility counter by a fixed amount.
B. When a consumer instance retrieves a message, that message will be hidden from other consumer instances for a fixed period.
C. When the consumer instance polls for new work the SQS service will allow it to wait a certain time for a message to be available before closing the connection.
D. While processing a message, a consumer instance can reset the message visibility by restarting the preset timeout counter.
E. When the consumer instance polls for new work, the consumer instance will wait a certain time until it has a full workload before closing the connection.
F. When a new message is added to the SQS queue, it will be hidden from consumer instances for a fixed period.
Q68: You are a security architect working for a large antivirus company. The production environment has recently been moved to AWS and is in a public subnet. You are able to view the production environment over HTTP. However, when your customers try to update their virus definition files over a custom port, that port is blocked. You log in to the console and you allow traffic in over the custom port. How long will this take to take effect?
A. After a few minutes.
C. Straight away, but to the new instances only.
D. Straight away to the new instances, but old instances must be stopped and restarted before the new rules apply.
Q69: Amazon SQS keeps track of all tasks and events in an application.
Q70: Your Security Manager has hired a security contractor to audit your network and firewall configurations. The consultant doesn’t have access to an AWS account. You need to provide the required access for the auditing tasks, and answer a question about login details for the official AWS firewall appliance. Which of the following might you do?
A. Create an IAM User with a policy that can Read Security Group and NACL settings.
B. Explain that AWS implements network security differently and that there is no such thing as an official AWS firewall appliance. Security Groups and NACLs are used instead.
C. Create an IAM Role with a policy that can Read Security Group and NACL settings.
D. Explain that AWS is a cloud service and that AWS manages the Network appliances.
E. Create an IAM Role with a policy that can Read Security Group and Route settings.
Q71: How many internet gateways can I attach to my custom VPC?
Q72: How long can a message be retained in an SQS Queue?
A. 14 days
B. 1 day
C. 7 days
D. 30 days
Q73: Although your application customarily runs at 30% usage, you have identified a recurring usage spike (>90%) between 8pm and midnight daily. What is the most cost-effective way to scale your application to meet this increased need?
A. Manually deploy Reactive Event-based Scaling each night at 7:45.
B. Deploy additional EC2 instances to meet the demand.
C. Use scheduled scaling to boost your capacity at a fixed interval.
D. Increase the size of the Resource Group to meet demand.
Q74: To save money, you quickly stored some data in one of the attached volumes of an EC2 instance and stopped it for the weekend. When you returned on Monday and restarted your instance, you discovered that your data was gone. Why might that be?
A. The EBS volume was not large enough to store your data.
B. The instance failed to connect to the root volume on Monday.
C. The elastic block-level storage service failed over the weekend.
D. The volume was ephemeral, block-level storage. Data on an instance store volume is lost if an instance is stopped.
Q75: Select all the true statements on S3 URL styles: Choose 2
A. Virtual hosted-style URLs will be eventually depreciated in favor of Path-Style URLs for S3 bucket access.
B. Virtual-host-style URLs (such as: https://bucket-name.s3.Region.amazonaws.com/key name) are supported by AWS.
C. Path-Style URLs (such as https://s3.Region.amazonaws.com/bucket-name/key name) are supported by AWS.
D. DNS compliant names are NOT recommended for the URLs to access S3.
Q76: With EBS, I can ____. Choose 2
A. Create an encrypted snapshot from an unencrypted snapshot by creating an encrypted copy of the unencrypted snapshot.
B. Create an unencrypted volume from an encrypted snapshot.
C. Create an encrypted volume from a snapshot of another encrypted volume.
D. Encrypt an existing volume.
Q77: You have been engaged by a company to design and lead a migration to an AWS environment. The team is concerned about the capabilities of the new environment, especially when it comes to high availability and cost-effectiveness. The design calls for about 20 instances (c3.2xlarge) pulling jobs/messages from SQS. Network traffic per instance is estimated to be around 500 Mbps at the beginning and end of each job. Which configuration should you plan on deploying?
A. Use a 2nd Network Interface to separate the SQS traffic for the storage traffic.
B. Choose a different instance type that better matched the traffic demand.
C.Spread the Instances over multiple AZs to minimize the traffic concentration and maximize fault-tolerance.
D. Deploy as a Cluster Placement Group as the aggregated burst traffic could be around 10 Gbps.
Q78: You are a solutions architect working for a cosmetics company. Your company has a busy Magento online store that consists of a two-tier architecture. The web servers are on EC2 instances deployed across multiple AZs, and the database is on a Multi-AZ RDS MySQL database instance. Your store is having a Black Friday sale in five days, and having reviewed the performance for the last sale you expect the site to start running very slowly during the peak load. You investigate and you determine that the database was struggling to keep up with the number of reads that the store was generating. Which solution would you implement to improve the application read performance the most?
A. Deploy an Amazon ElastiCache cluster with nodes running in each AZ.
B. Upgrade your RDS MySQL instance to use provisioned IOPS.
C. Add an RDS Read Replica in each AZ.
D. Upgrade the RDS MySQL instance to a larger type.
Q79: Which native AWS service will act as a file system mounted on an S3 bucket?
A. Amazon Elastic Block Store
B. File Gateway
C. Amazon S3
D. Amazon Elastic File System
Q80:You have been evaluating the NACLS in your company. Most of the NACLs are configured the same: 100 All Traffic Allow 200 All Traffic Deny ‘*’ All Traffic Deny If a request comes in, how will it be evaluated?
A. The default will deny traffic.
B. The request will be allowed.
C. The highest numbered rule will be used, a deny.
D. All rules will be evaluated and the end result will be Deny.
Q81: You have been given an assignment to configure Network ACLs in your VPC. Before configuring the NACLs, you need to understand how the NACLs are evaluated. How are NACL rules evaluated?
A. NACL rules are evaluated by rule number from lowest to highest and executed immediately when a matching rule is found.
B. NACL rules are evaluated by rule number from highest to lowest, and executed immediately when a matching rule is found.
C. All NACL rules that you configure are evaluated before traffic is passed through.
D. NACL rules are evaluated by rule number from highest to lowest, and all are evaluated before traffic is passed through.
Q82: Your company has gone through an audit with a focus on data storage. You are currently storing historical data in Amazon Glacier. One of the results of the audit is that a portion of the infrequently-accessed historical data must be able to be accessed immediately upon request. Where can you store this data to meet this requirement?
A. S3 Standard
B. Leave infrequently-accessed data in Glacier.
C. S3 Standard-IA
D. Store the data in EBS
Q84: After an IT Steering Committee meeting, you have been put in charge of configuring a hybrid environment for the company’s compute resources. You weigh the pros and cons of various technologies, such as VPN and Direct Connect, and based on the requirements you have decided to configure a VPN connection. What features and advantages can a VPN connection provide?
Q86: Your company has decided to go to a hybrid cloud environment. Part of this effort will be to move a large data warehouse to the cloud. The warehouse is 50TB, and will take over a month to migrate given the current bandwidth available. What is the best option available to perform this migration considering both cost and performance aspects?
Q87: You have been assigned the review of the security in your company AWS cloud environment. Your final deliverable will be a report detailing potential security issues. One of the first things that you need to describe is the responsibilities of the company under the shared responsibility module. Which measure is the customer’s responsibility?
Q88: You work for a busy real estate company, and you need to protect your data stored on S3 from accidental deletion. Which of the following actions might you take to achieve this? Choose 2
A. Create a bucket policy that prohibits anyone from deleting things from the bucket.
B. Enable S3 – Infrequent Access Storage (S3 – IA).
C. Enable versioning on the bucket. If a file is accidentally deleted, delete the delete marker.
D. Configure MFA-protected API access.
E. Use pre-signed URL’s so that users will not be able to accidentally delete data.
Q89: AWS intends to shut down your spot instance; which of these scenarios is possible? Choose 3
A. AWS sends a notification of termination and you receive it 120 seconds before the intended forced shutdown.
B. AWS sends a notification of termination and you receive it 120 seconds before the forced shutdown, and you delay it by sending a ‘Delay300’ instruction before the forced shutdown takes effect.
C. AWS sends a notification of termination and you receive it 120 seconds before the intended forced shutdown, but AWS does not action the shutdown.
D. AWS sends a notification of termination and you receive it 120 seconds before the forced shutdown, but you block the shutdown because you used ‘Termination Protection’ when you initialized the instance.
E. AWS sends a notification of termination and you receive it 120 seconds before the forced shutdown, but the defined duration period (also known as Spot blocks) hasn’t ended yet.
F. AWS sends a notification of termination, but you do not receive it within the 120 seconds and the instance is shutdown.
Q90: What does the “EAR” in a policy document stand for?
A. Effects, APIs, Roles
B. Effect, Action, Resource
C. Ewoks, Always, Romanticize
D. Every, Action, Reasonable
Q92: You can use _ to build a schema for your data, and _ to query the data that’s stored in S3.
A. Glue, Athena
B. EC2, SQS
C. EC2, Glue
D. Athena, Lambda
Q93: What type of work does EMR perform?
A. Data processing information (DPI) jobs.
B. Big data (BD) jobs.
C. Extract, transform, and load (ETL) jobs.
D. Huge amounts of data (HAD) jobs
Q94: _____ allows you to transform data using SQL as it’s being passed through Kinesis.
B. Kinesis Data Analytics
Q95 [SAA-C03]: A company runs a public-facing three-tier web application in a VPC across multiple Availability Zones. Amazon EC2 instances for the application tier running in private subnets need to download software patches from the internet. However, the EC2 instances cannot be directly accessible from the internet. Which actions should be taken to allow the EC2 instances to download the needed patches? (Select TWO.)
A. Configure a NAT gateway in a public subnet.
B. Define a custom route table with a route to the NAT gateway for internet traffic and associate it with the private subnets for the application tier.
C. Assign Elastic IP addresses to the EC2 instances.
D. Define a custom route table with a route to the internet gateway for internet traffic and associate it with the private subnets for the application tier.
E. Configure a NAT instance in a private subnet.
Q96 [SAA-C03]: A solutions architect wants to design a solution to save costs for Amazon EC2 instances that do not need to run during a 2-week company shutdown. The applications running on the EC2 instances store data in instance memory that must be present when the instances resume operation. Which approach should the solutions architect recommend to shut down and resume the EC2 instances?
A. Modify the application to store the data on instance store volumes. Reattach the volumes while restarting them.
B. Snapshot the EC2 instances before stopping them. Restore the snapshot after restarting the instances.
C. Run the applications on EC2 instances enabled for hibernation. Hibernate the instances before the 2- week company shutdown.
D. Note the Availability Zone for each EC2 instance before stopping it. Restart the instances in the same Availability Zones after the 2-week company shutdown.
Q97 [SAA-C03]: A company plans to run a monitoring application on an Amazon EC2 instance in a VPC. Connections are made to the EC2 instance using the instance’s private IPv4 address. A solutions architect needs to design a solution that will allow traffic to be quickly directed to a standby EC2 instance if the application fails and becomes unreachable. Which approach will meet these requirements?
A) Deploy an Application Load Balancer configured with a listener for the private IP address and register the primary EC2 instance with the load balancer. Upon failure, de-register the instance and register the standby EC2 instance.
B) Configure a custom DHCP option set. Configure DHCP to assign the same private IP address to the standby EC2 instance when the primary EC2 instance fails.
C) Attach a secondary elastic network interface to the EC2 instance configured with the private IP address. Move the network interface to the standby EC2 instance if the primary EC2 instance becomes unreachable.
D) Associate an Elastic IP address with the network interface of the primary EC2 instance. Disassociate the Elastic IP from the primary instance upon failure and associate it with a standby EC2 instance.
A. Enable cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) on the S3 bucket.
B. Enable S3 Versioning on the S3 bucket.
C. Provide the users with a signed URL for the script.
D. Configure an S3 bucket policy to allow public execute privileges.
Q99 [SAA-C03]: A company’s security team requires that all data stored in the cloud be encrypted at rest at all times using encryption keys stored on premises. Which encryption options meet these requirements? (Select TWO.)
A. Use server-side encryption with Amazon S3 managed encryption keys (SSE-S3).
B. Use server-side encryption with AWS KMS managed encryption keys (SSE-KMS).
C. Use server-side encryption with customer-provided encryption keys (SSE-C).
D. Use client-side encryption to provide at-rest encryption.
E. Use an AWS Lambda function invoked by Amazon S3 events to encrypt the data using the customer’s keys.
Q100 [SAA-C03]: A company uses Amazon EC2 Reserved Instances to run its data processing workload. The nightly job typically takes 7 hours to run and must finish within a 10-hour time window. The company anticipates temporary increases in demand at the end of each month that will cause the job to run over the time limit with the capacity of the current resources. Once started, the processing job cannot be interrupted before completion. The company wants to implement a solution that would provide increased resource capacity as cost-effectively as possible. What should a solutions architect do to accomplish this?
A) Deploy On-Demand Instances during periods of high demand.
B) Create a second EC2 reservation for additional instances.
C) Deploy Spot Instances during periods of high demand.
D) Increase the EC2 instance size in the EC2 reservation to support the increased workload.
Q101 [SAA-C03]: A company runs an online voting system for a weekly live television program. During broadcasts, users submit hundreds of thousands of votes within minutes to a front-end fleet of Amazon EC2 instances that run in an Auto Scaling group. The EC2 instances write the votes to an Amazon RDS database. However, the database is unable to keep up with the requests that come from the EC2 instances. A solutions architect must design a solution that processes the votes in the most efficient manner and without downtime. Which solution meets these requirements?
A. Migrate the front-end application to AWS Lambda. Use Amazon API Gateway to route user requests to the Lambda functions.
B. Scale the database horizontally by converting it to a Multi-AZ deployment. Configure the front-end application to write to both the primary and secondary DB instances.
C. Configure the front-end application to send votes to an Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) queue. Provision worker instances to read the SQS queue and write the vote information to the database.
D. Use Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events) to create a scheduled event to re-provision the database with larger, memory optimized instances during voting periods. When voting ends, re-provision the database to use smaller instances.
Q102 [SAA-C03]: A company has a two-tier application architecture that runs in public and private subnets. Amazon EC2 instances running the web application are in the public subnet and an EC2 instance for the database runs on the private subnet. The web application instances and the database are running in a single Availability Zone (AZ). Which combination of steps should a solutions architect take to provide high availability for this architecture? (Select TWO.)
A. Create new public and private subnets in the same AZ.
B. Create an Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group and Application Load Balancer spanning multiple AZs for the web application instances.
C. Add the existing web application instances to an Auto Scaling group behind an Application Load Balancer.
D. Create new public and private subnets in a new AZ. Create a database using an EC2 instance in the public subnet in the new AZ. Migrate the old database contents to the new database.
E. Create new public and private subnets in the same VPC, each in a new AZ. Create an Amazon RDS Multi-AZ DB instance in the private subnets. Migrate the old database contents to the new DB instance.
Q103 [SAA-C03]: A website runs a custom web application that receives a burst of traffic each day at noon. The users upload new pictures and content daily, but have been complaining of timeouts. The architecture uses Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling groups, and the application consistently takes 1 minute to initiate upon boot up before responding to user requests. How should a solutions architect redesign the architecture to better respond to changing traffic?
A. Configure a Network Load Balancer with a slow start configuration.
B. Configure Amazon ElastiCache for Redis to offload direct requests from the EC2 instances.
C. Configure an Auto Scaling step scaling policy with an EC2 instance warmup condition.
D. Configure Amazon CloudFront to use an Application Load Balancer as the origin.
Q104 [SAA-C03]: An application running on AWS uses an Amazon Aurora Multi-AZ DB cluster deployment for its database. When evaluating performance metrics, a solutions architect discovered that the database reads are causing high I/O and adding latency to the write requests against the database. What should the solutions architect do to separate the read requests from the write requests?
A. Enable read-through caching on the Aurora database.
B. Update the application to read from the Multi-AZ standby instance.
C. Create an Aurora replica and modify the application to use the appropriate endpoints.
D. Create a second Aurora database and link it to the primary database as a read replica.
Question 106: A company plans to migrate its on-premises workload to AWS. The current architecture is composed of a Microsoft SharePoint server that uses a Windows shared file storage. The Solutions Architect needs to use a cloud storage solution that is highly available and can be integrated with Active Directory for access control and authentication. Which of the following options can satisfy the given requirement?
A. Create a file system using Amazon EFS and join it to an Active Directory domain.
B. Create a file system using Amazon FSx for Windows File Server and join it to an Active Directory domain in AWS.
C. Create a Network File System (NFS) file share using AWS Storage Gateway.
D. Launch an Amazon EC2 Windows Server to mount a new S3 bucket as a file volume.
Question 107: A company plans to migrate its on-premises workload to AWS. The current architecture is composed of a Microsoft SharePoint server that uses a Windows shared file storage. The Solutions Architect needs to use a cloud storage solution that is highly available and can be integrated with Active Directory for access control and authentication. Which of the following options can satisfy the given requirement?
A. Create a file system using Amazon EFS and join it to an Active Directory domain.
B. Create a file system using Amazon FSx for Windows File Server and join it to an Active Directory domain in AWS.
C. Create a Network File System (NFS) file share using AWS Storage Gateway.
D. Launch an Amazon EC2 Windows Server to mount a new S3 bucket as a file volume.
Question 108: A Forex trading platform, which frequently processes and stores global financial data every minute, is hosted in your on-premises data center and uses an Oracle database. Due to a recent cooling problem in their data center, the company urgently needs to migrate their infrastructure to AWS to improve the performance of their applications. As the Solutions Architect, you are responsible in ensuring that the database is properly migrated and should remain available in case of database server failure in the future. Which of the following is the most suitable solution to meet the requirement?
A. Create an Oracle database in RDS with Multi-AZ deployments.
B. Launch an Oracle database instance in RDS with Recovery Manager (RMAN) enabled.
C. Launch an Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) in RDS.
D. Convert the database schema using the AWS Schema Conversion Tool and AWS Database Migration Service. Migrate the Oracle database to a non-cluster Amazon Aurora with a single instance.
Question 109: A data analytics company, which uses machine learning to collect and analyze consumer data, is using Redshift cluster as their data warehouse. You are instructed to implement a disaster recovery plan for their systems to ensure business continuity even in the event of an AWS region outage. Which of the following is the best approach to meet this requirement?
A. Do nothing because Amazon Redshift is a highly available, fully-managed data warehouse which can withstand an outage of an entire AWS region.
B. Enable Cross-Region Snapshots Copy in your Amazon Redshift Cluster.
C. Create a scheduled job that will automatically take the snapshot of your Redshift Cluster and store it to an S3 bucket. Restore the snapshot in case of an AWS region outage.
D. Use Automated snapshots of your Redshift Cluster.
Question 109: A start-up company has an EC2 instance that is hosting a web application. The volume of users is expected to grow in the coming months and hence, you need to add more elasticity and scalability in your AWS architecture to cope with the demand. Which of the following options can satisfy the above requirement for the given scenario? (Select TWO.)
A. Set up two EC2 instances and then put them behind an Elastic Load balancer (ELB).
B. Set up two EC2 instances deployed using Launch Templates and integrated with AWS Glue.
C. Set up an S3 Cache in front of the EC2 instance.
D. Set up two EC2 instances and use Route 53 to route traffic based on a Weighted Routing Policy.
E. Set up an AWS WAF behind your EC2 Instance.
Question 110: A company plans to deploy a Docker-based batch application in AWS. The application will be used to process both mission-critical data as well as non-essential batch jobs. Which of the following is the most cost-effective option to use in implementing this architecture?
A. Use ECS as the container management service then set up Reserved EC2 Instances for processing both mission-critical and non-essential batch jobs.
B. Use ECS as the container management service then set up a combination of Reserved and Spot EC2 Instances for processing mission-critical and non-essential batch jobs respectively.
C. Use ECS as the container management service then set up On-Demand EC2 Instances for processing both mission-critical and non-essential batch jobs.
D. Use ECS as the container management service then set up Spot EC2 Instances for processing both mission-critical and non-essential batch jobs.
Question 112: An online stocks trading application that stores financial data in an S3 bucket has a lifecycle policy that moves older data to Glacier every month. There is a strict compliance requirement where a surprise audit can happen at anytime and you should be able to retrieve the required data in under 15 minutes under all circumstances. Your manager instructed you to ensure that retrieval capacity is available when you need it and should handle up to 150 MB/s of retrieval throughput. Which of the following should you do to meet the above requirement? (Select TWO.)
A. Retrieve the data using Amazon Glacier Select.
B. Use Bulk Retrieval to access the financial data.
C. Purchase provisioned retrieval capacity.
D. Use Expedited Retrieval to access the financial data.
E. Specify a range, or portion, of the financial data archive to retrieve.
Question 113: An organization stores and manages financial records of various companies in its on-premises data center, which is almost out of space. The management decided to move all of their existing records to a cloud storage service. All future financial records will also be stored in the cloud. For additional security, all records must be prevented from being deleted or overwritten. Which of the following should you do to meet the above requirement?
A. Use AWS Storage Gateway to establish hybrid cloud storage. Store all of your data in Amazon S3 and enable object lock.
B. Use AWS DataSync to move the data. Store all of your data in Amazon EFS and enable object lock.
C. Use AWS Storage Gateway to establish hybrid cloud storage. Store all of your data in Amazon EBS and enable object lock.
D. Use AWS DataSync to move the data. Store all of your data in Amazon S3 and enable object lock.
Question 114: A solutions architect is designing a solution to run a containerized web application by using Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS). The solutions architect wants to minimize cost by running multiple copies of a task on each container instance. The number of task copies must scale as the load increases and decreases. Which routing solution distributes the load to the multiple tasks?
A. Configure an Application Load Balancer to distribute the requests by using path-based routing.
B. Configure an Application Load Balancer to distribute the requests by using dynamic host port mapping.
C. Configure an Amazon Route 53 alias record set to distribute the requests with a failover routing policy.
D. Configure an Amazon Route 53 alias record set to distribute the requests with a weighted routing policy.
Question 115: Question: A Solutions Architect needs to deploy a mobile application that can collect votes for a popular singing competition. Millions of users from around the world will submit votes using their mobile phones. These votes must be collected and stored in a highly scalable and highly available data store which will be queried for real-time ranking. Which of the following combination of services should the architect use to meet this requirement?
A. Amazon Redshift and AWS Mobile Hub
B. Amazon DynamoDB and AWS AppSync
C. Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS) and Amazon MQ
D. Amazon Aurora and Amazon Cognito
Question 116: The usage of a company’s image-processing application is increasing suddenly with no set pattern. The application’s processing time grows linearly with the size of the image. The processing can take up to 20 minutes for large image files. The architecture consists of a web tier, an Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) standard queue, and message consumers that process the images on Amazon EC2 instances. When a high volume of requests occurs, the message backlog in Amazon SQS increases. Users are reporting the delays in processing. A solutions architect must improve the performance of the application in compliance with cloud best practices. Which solution will meet these requirements?
A. Purchase enough Dedicated Instances to meet the peak demand. Deploy the instances for the consumers.
B. Convert the existing SQS standard queue to an SQS FIFO queue. Increase the visibility timeout.
C. Configure a scalable AWS Lambda function as the consumer of the SQS messages.
D. Create a message consumer that is an Auto Scaling group of instances. Configure the Auto Scaling group to scale based upon the ApproximateNumberOfMessages Amazon CloudWatch metric.
Question 117: An application is hosted on an EC2 instance with multiple EBS Volumes attached and uses Amazon Neptune as its database. To improve data security, you encrypted all of the EBS volumes attached to the instance to protect the confidential data stored in the volumes. Which of the following statements are true about encrypted Amazon Elastic Block Store volumes? (Select TWO.)
Question 118: A reporting application runs on Amazon EC2 instances behind an Application Load Balancer. The instances run in an Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group across multiple Availability Zones. For complex reports, the application can take up to 15 minutes to respond to a request. A solutions architect is concerned that users will receive HTTP 5xx errors if a report request is in process during a scale-in event. What should the solutions architect do to ensure that user requests will be completed before instances are terminated?
A. Enable sticky sessions (session affinity) for the target group of the instances.
B. Increase the instance size in the Application Load Balancer target group.
C. Increase the cooldown period for the Auto Scaling group to a greater amount of time than the time required for the longest running responses.
D. Increase the deregistration delay timeout for the target group of the instances to greater than 900 seconds.
Question 119: Question: A company used Amazon EC2 Spot Instances for a demonstration that is now complete. A solutions architect must remove the Spot Instances to stop them from incurring cost. What should the solutions architect do to meet this requirement?
A. Cancel the Spot request only.
B. Terminate the Spot Instances only.
C. Cancel the Spot request. Terminate the Spot Instances.
D. Terminate the Spot Instances. Cancel the Spot request.
Question 120: Question: Which components are required to build a site-to-site VPN connection on AWS? (Select TWO.)
A. An Internet Gateway
B. A NAT gateway
C. A customer Gateway
D. A Virtual Private Gateway
E. Amazon API Gateway
Question 121: A company runs its website on Amazon EC2 instances behind an Application Load Balancer that is configured as the origin for an Amazon CloudFront distribution. The company wants to protect against cross-site scripting and SQL injection attacks. Which approach should a solutions architect recommend to meet these requirements?
A. Enable AWS Shield Advanced. List the CloudFront distribution as a protected resource.
B. Define an AWS Shield Advanced policy in AWS Firewall Manager to block cross-site scripting and SQL injection attacks.
C. Set up AWS WAF on the CloudFront distribution. Use conditions and rules that block cross-site scripting and SQL injection attacks.
D. Deploy AWS Firewall Manager on the EC2 instances. Create conditions and rules that block cross-site scripting and SQL injection attacks.
Question 122: A media company is designing a new solution for graphic rendering. The application requires up to 400 GB of storage for temporary data that is discarded after the frames are rendered. The application requires approximately 40,000 random IOPS to perform the rendering. What is the MOST cost-effective storage option for this rendering application?
A. A storage optimized Amazon EC2 instance with instance store storage
B. A storage optimized Amazon EC2 instance with a Provisioned IOPS SSD (io1 or io2) Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volume
C. A burstable Amazon EC2 instance with a Throughput Optimized HDD (st1) Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volume
D. A burstable Amazon EC2 instance with Amazon S3 storage over a VPC endpoint
Question 123: A company is deploying a new application that will consist of an application layer and an online transaction processing (OLTP) relational database. The application must be available at all times. However, the application will have periods of inactivity. The company wants to pay the minimum for compute costs during these idle periods. Which solution meets these requirements MOST cost-effectively?
A. Run the application in containers with Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) on AWS Fargate. Use Amazon Aurora Serverless for the database.
B. Run the application on Amazon EC2 instances by using a burstable instance type. Use Amazon Redshift for the database.
C. Deploy the application and a MySQL database to Amazon EC2 instances by using AWS CloudFormation. Delete the stack at the beginning of the idle periods.
D. Deploy the application on Amazon EC2 instances in an Auto Scaling group behind an Application Load Balancer. Use Amazon RDS for MySQL for the database.
What are the 5 pillars of a well architected framework:
AWS Well-Architected helps cloud architects build secure, high-performing, resilient, and efficient infrastructure for their applications and workloads. Based on five pillars — operational excellence, security, reliability, performance efficiency, and cost optimization — AWS Well-Architected provides a consistent approach for customers and partners to evaluate architectures, and implement designs that can scale over time.
1. Operational Excellence
The operational excellence pillar includes the ability to run and monitor systems to deliver business value and to continually improve supporting processes and procedures. You can find prescriptive guidance on implementation in the Operational Excellence Pillar whitepaper.
The security pillar includes the ability to protect information, systems, and assets while delivering business value through risk assessments and mitigation strategies. You can find prescriptive guidance on implementation in the Security Pillar whitepaper.
The reliability pillar includes the ability of a system to recover from infrastructure or service disruptions, dynamically acquire computing resources to meet demand, and mitigate disruptions such as misconfigurations or transient network issues. You can find prescriptive guidance on implementation in the Reliability Pillar whitepaper.
4. Performance Efficiency
The performance efficiency pillar includes the ability to use computing resources efficiently to meet system requirements and to maintain that efficiency as demand changes and technologies evolve. You can find prescriptive guidance on implementation in the Performance Efficiency Pillar whitepaper.
5. Cost Optimization
The cost optimization pillar includes the ability to avoid or eliminate unneeded cost or suboptimal resources. You can find prescriptive guidance on implementation in the Cost Optimization Pillar whitepaper.
The AWS Well-Architected Framework provides architectural best practices across the five pillars for designing and operating reliable, secure, efficient, and cost-effective systems in the cloud. The framework provides a set of questions that allows you to review an existing or proposed architecture. It also provides a set of AWS best practices for each pillar.
Using the Framework in your architecture helps you produce stable and efficient systems, which allows you to focus on functional requirements.
Other AWS Facts and Summaries and Questions/Answers Dump
- AWS Certified Solution Architect Associate Exam Prep App
- AWS S3 facts and summaries and Q&A Dump
- AWS DynamoDB facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS EC2 facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS Serverless facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS Developer and Deployment Theory facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS IAM facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS Lambda facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS SQS facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS RDS facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS ECS facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS CloudWatch facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS SES facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS EBS facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS ELB facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS Autoscaling facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS VPC facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS KMS facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS Elastic Beanstalk facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS CodeBuild facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS CodeDeploy facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
- AWS CodePipeline facts and summaries and Questions and Answers Dump
What means undifferentiated heavy lifting?
The reality, of course, today is that if you come up with a great idea you don’t get to go quickly to a successful product. There’s a lot of undifferentiated heavy lifting that stands between your idea and that success. The kinds of things that I’m talking about when I say undifferentiated heavy lifting are things like these: figuring out which servers to buy, how many of them to buy, what time line to buy them.
Eventually you end up with heterogeneous hardware and you have to match that. You have to think about backup scenarios if you lose your data center or lose connectivity to a data center. Eventually you have to move facilities. There’s negotiations to be done. It’s a very complex set of activities that really is a big driver of ultimate success.
But they are undifferentiated from, it’s not the heart of, your idea. We call this muck. And it gets worse because what really happens is you don’t have to do this one time. You have to drive this loop. After you get your first version of your idea out into the marketplace, you’ve done all that undifferentiated heavy lifting, you find out that you have to cycle back. Change your idea. The winners are the ones that can cycle this loop the fastest.
On every cycle of this loop you have this undifferentiated heavy lifting, or muck, that you have to contend with. I believe that for most companies, and it’s certainly true at Amazon, that 70% of your time, energy, and dollars go into the undifferentiated heavy lifting and only 30% of your energy, time, and dollars gets to go into the core kernel of your idea.
I think what people are excited about is that they’re going to get a chance they see a future where they may be able to invert those two. Where they may be able to spend 70% of their time, energy and dollars on the differentiated part of what they’re doing.
AWS Certified Solutions Architect Associates Questions and Answers around the web.
Testimonial: Passed SAA-C02!
So my exam was yesterday and I got the results in 24 hours. I think that’s how they review all saa exams, not showing the results right away anymore.
I scored 858. Was practicing with Stephan’s udemy lectures and Bonso exam tests. My test results were as follows Test 1. 63%, 93% Test 2. 67%, 87% Test 3. 81 % Test 4. 72% Test 5. 75 % Test 6. 81% Stephan’s test. 80%
I was reading all question explanations (even the ones I got correct)
The actual exam was pretty much similar to these. The topics I got were:
A lot of S3 (make sure you know all of it from head to toes)
DataSync and Database Migration Service in same questions. Make sure you know the difference
One EKS question
2-3 KMS questions
Security group question
A lot of RDS Multi-AZ
SQS + SNS fan out pattern
ECS microservice architecture question
And that’s all I can remember)
I took extra 30 minutes, because English is not my native language and I had plenty of time to think and then review flagged questions.
Good luck with your exams guys!
Testimonial: Passed SAA-C02
Hey guys, just giving my update so all of you guys working towards your certs can stay motivated as these success stories drove me to reach this goal.
Background: 12 years of military IT experience, never worked with the cloud. I’ve done 7 deployments (that is a lot in 12 years), at which point I came home from the last one burnt out with a family that barely knew me. I knew I needed a change, but had no clue where to start or what I wanted to do. I wasn’t really interested in IT but I knew it’d pay the bills. After seeing videos about people in IT working from home(which after 8+ years of being gone from home really appealed to me), I stumbled across a video about a Solutions Architect’s daily routine working from home and got me interested in AWS.
It took me 68 days straight of hard work to pass this exam with confidence. No rest days, more than 120 pages of hand-written notes and hundreds and hundreds of flash cards.
In the beginning, I hopped on Stephane Maarek’s course for the CCP exam just to see if it was for me. I did the course in about a week and then after doing some research on here, got the CCP Practice exams from tutorialsdojo.com Two weeks after starting the Udemy course, I passed the exam. By that point, I’d already done lots of research on the different career paths and the best way to study, etc.
Cantrill(10/10) – That same day, I hopped onto Cantrill’s course for the SAA and got to work. Somebody had mentioned that by doing his courses you’d be over-prepared for the exam. While I think a combination of material is really important for passing the certification with confidence, I can say without a doubt Cantrill’s courses got me 85-90% of the way there. His forum is also amazing, and has directly contributed to me talking with somebody who works at AWS to land me a job, which makes the money I spent on all of his courses A STEAL. As I continue my journey (up next is SA Pro), I will be using all of his courses.
Neal Davis(8/10) – After completing Cantrill’s course, I found myself needing a resource to reinforce all the material I’d just learned. AWS is an expansive platform and the many intricacies of the different services can be tricky. For this portion, I relied on Neal Davis’s Training Notes series. These training notes are a very condensed version of the information you’ll need to pass the exam, and with the proper context are very useful to find the things you may have missed in your initial learnings. I will be using his other Training Notes for my other exams as well.
TutorialsDojo(10/10) – These tests filled in the gaps and allowed me to spot my weaknesses and shore them up. I actually think my real exam was harder than these, but because I’d spent so much time on the material I got wrong, I was able to pass the exam with a safe score.
As I said, I was surprised at how difficult the exam was. A lot of my questions were related to DBs, and a lot of them gave no context as to whether the data being loaded into them was SQL or NoSQL which made the choice selection a little frustrating. A lot of the questions have 2 VERY SIMILAR answers, and often time the wording of the answers could be easy to misinterpret (such as when you are creating a Read Replica, do you attach it to the primary application DB that is slowing down because of read issues or attach it to the service that is causing the primary DB to slow down). For context, I was scoring 95-100% on the TD exams prior to taking the test and managed a 823 on the exam so I don’t know if I got unlucky with a hard test or if I’m not as prepared as I thought I was (i.e. over-thinking questions).
Anyways, up next is going back over the practical parts of the course as I gear up for the SA Pro exam. I will be taking my time with this one, and re-learning the Linux CLI in preparation for finding a new job.
PS if anybody on here is hiring, I’m looking! I’m the hardest worker I know and my goal is to make your company as streamlined and profitable as possible. 🙂
Testimonial: How did you prepare for AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate Level certification?
Practical knowledge is 30% important and rest is Jayendra blog and Dumps.
Buying udemy courses doesn’t make you pass, I can tell surely without going to dumps and without going to jayendra’s blog not easy to clear the certification.
Read FAQs of S3, IAM, EC2, VPC, SQS, Autoscaling, Elastic Load Balancer, EBS, RDS, Lambda, API Gateway, ECS.
Read the Security Whitepaper and Shared Responsibility model.
The most important thing is basic questions from the last introduced topics to the exam is very important like Amazon Kinesis, etc…
– ACloudGuru course with practice test’s
– Created my own cheat sheet in excel
– Practice questions on various website
– Few AWS services FAQ’s
– Some questions were your understanding about which service to pick for the use case.
– many questions on VPC
– a couple of unexpected question on AWS CloudHSM, AWS systems manager, aws athena
– encryption at rest and in transit services
– migration from on-premise to AWS
– backup data in az vs regional
I believe the time was sufficient.
Overall I feel AWS SAA was more challenging in theory than GCP Associate CE.
some resources I bookmarked:
- Comparison of AWS Services
- Solutions Architect – Associate | Qwiklabs
- A curated list of AWS resources to prepare for the AWS Certifications
- AWS Cheat Sheet
Whitepapers are the important information about each services that are published by Amazon in their website. If you are preparing for the AWS certifications, it is very important to use the some of the most recommended whitepapers to read before writing the exam.
- Overview of Security Processes
- Storage Options in the Cloud
- Defining Fault Tolerant Applications in the AWS Cloud
- Overview of Amazon Web Services
- Compliance Whitepaper
- Architecting for the AWS Cloud
Data Security questions could be the more challenging and it’s worth noting that you need to have a good understanding of security processes described in the whitepaper titled “Overview of Security Processes”.
In the above list, most important whitepapers are Overview of Security Processes and Storage Options in the Cloud. Read more here…
Big thanks to /u/acantril for his amazing course – AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate (SAA-C02) – the best IT course I’ve ever had – and I’ve done many on various other platforms:
#AWS #SAAC02 #SAAC03 #SolutionsArchitect #AWSSAA #SAA #AWSCertification #AWSTraining #LearnAWS #CloudArchitect #SolutionsArchitect #Djamgatech
If you’re on the fence with buying one of his courses, stop thinking and buy it, I guarantee you won’t regret it! Other materials used for study:
Jon Bonso Practice Exams for SAA-C02 @ Tutorialsdojo (amazing practice exams!)
Random YouTube videos (example)
Official AWS Documentation (example)
TechStudySlack (learning community)
Study duration approximately ~3 months with the following regimen:
Daily study from
Usually early morning before work
Sometimes on the train when commuting from/to work
Sometimes in the evening
Due to being a father/husband, study wasn’t always possible
All learned topics reviewed weekly
Testimonial: I passed SAA-C02… But don’t do what I did to pass it
I’ve been following this subreddit for awhile and gotten some helpful tips, so I’d like to give back with my two cents. FYI I passed the exam 788
The exam materials that I used were the following:
AWS Certified Solutions Architect Associate All-in-One Exam Guide (Banerjee)
Stephen Maarek’s Udemy course, and his 6 exam practices
Adrian Cantrill’s online course (about `60% done)
(My company has udemy business account so I was able to use Stephen’s course/exam)
I scheduled my exam at the end of March, and started with Adrian’s. But I was dumb thinking that I could go through his course within 3 weeks… I stopped around 12% of his course and went to the textbook and finished reading the all-in-one exam guide within a weekend. Then I started going through Stephen’s course. While learning the course, I pushed back the exam to end of April, because I knew I wouldn’t be ready by the exam comes along.
Five days before the exam, I finished Stephen’s course, and then did his final exam on the course. I failed miserably (around 50%). So I did one of Stephen’s practice exam and did worse (42%). I thought maybe it might be his exams that are slightly difficult, so I went and bought Jon Bonso’s exam and got 60% on his first one. And then I realized based on all the questions on the exams, I was definitely lacking some fundamentals. I went back to Adrian’s course and things were definitely sticking more – I think it has to do with his explanations + more practical stuff. Unfortunately, I could not finish his course before the exam (because I was cramming), and on the day of the exam, I could only do Bonso’s four of six exams, with barely passing one of them.
Please, don’t do what I did. I was desperate to get this thing over with it. I wanted to move on and work on other things for job search, but if you’re not in this situation, please don’t do this. I can’t for love of god tell you about OAI and Cloudfront and why that’s different than S3 URL. The only thing that I can remember is all the practical stuff that I did with Adrian’s course. I’ll never forget how to create VPC, because he make you manually go through it. I’m not against Stephen’s course – they are different on its own way (see the tips below).
So here’s what I recommend doing before writing for aws exam:
Don’t schedule your exam beforehand. Go through the materials that you are doing, and make sure you get at least 80% on all of the Jon Bonso’s exam (I’d recommend maybe 90% or higher)
If you like to learn things practically, I do recommend Adrian’s course. If you like to learn things conceptually, go with Stephen Maarek’s course. I find Stephen’s course more detailed when going through different architectures, but I can’t really say that because I didn’t really finish Adrian’s course
Jon Bonso’s exam was about the same difficulty as the actual exam. But they’re slightly more tricky. For example, many of the questions will give you two different situation and you really have to figure out what they are asking for because they might contradict to each other, but the actual question is asking one specific thing. However, there were few questions that were definitely obvious if you knew the service.
I’m upset that even though I passed the exam, I’m still lacking some practical stuff, so I’m just going to go through Adrian’s Developer exam but without cramming this time. If you actually learn the materials and practice them, they are definitely useful in the real world. I hope this will help you passing and actually learning the stuff.
P.S I vehemently disagree with Adrian in one thing in his course. doggogram.io is definitely better than catagram.io, although his cats are pretty cool
Testimonial: I passed the SAA-C02 exam!
I sat the exam at a PearsonVUE test centre and scored 816.
The exam had lots of questions around S3, RDS and storage. To be honest it was a bit of a blur but they are the ones I remember.
I was a bit worried before sitting the exam as I was only hit 76% in the official AWS practice exam the night before but it turned out alright in the end!
I have around 8 years of experience in IT but AWS was relatively new to me around 5 weeks ago.
Training Material Used
Firstly I ran through the u/stephanemaarek course which I found to pretty much cover all that was required!
I then used the u/Tutorials_Dojo practice exams. I took one before starting Stephane’s course to see where I was at with no training. I got 46% but I suppose a few of them were lucky guesses!
I then finished the course and took another test and hit around 65%, TD was great as they gave explanations on the answers. I then used this go back to the course to go over my weak areas again.
I then seemed to not be able to get higher than the low 70% on the exams so I went through u/neal-davis course, this was also great as it had an “Exam Cram” video at the end of each topic.
I also set up flashcards on BrainScape which helped me remember AWS services and what their function is.
All in all it was a great learning experience and I look forward to putting my skills into action!
Many FSx / EFS / Lustre questions
S3 Use cases, storage tiers, cloudfront were pretty prominent too
Only got one “figure out what’s wrong with this IAM policy” question
A handful of dynamodb questions and a handful for picking use cases between different database types or caching layers.
Other typical tips: When you’re unclear on what answer you should pick, or if they seem very similar – work on eliminating answers first. “It can’t be X because oy Y” and that can help a lot.
Testimonial: Passed the AWS Solutions Architect Associate exam!
I prepared mostly from freely available resources as my basics were strong. Bought Jon Bonso’s tests on Udemy and they turned out to be super important while preparing for those particular type of questions (i.e. the questions which feel subjective, but they aren’t), understanding line of questioning and most suitable answers for some common scenarios.
Created a Notion notebook to note down those common scenarios, exceptions, what supports what, integrations etc. Used that notebook and cheat sheets on Tutorials Dojo website for revision on final day.
Found the exam was little tougher than Jon Bonso’s, but his practice tests on Udemy were crucial. Wouldn’t have passed it without them.
Piece of advice for upcoming test aspirants: Get your basics right, especially networking. Understand properly how different services interact in VPC. Focus more on the last line of the question. It usually gives you a hint upon what exactly is needed. Whether you need cost optimization, performance efficiency or high availability. Little to no operational effort means serverless. Understand all serverless services thoroughly.
Testimonial: Passed Solutions Architect Associate (SAA-C02) Today!
I have almost no experience with AWS, except for completing the Certified Cloud Practitioner earlier this year. My work is pushing all IT employees to complete some cloud training and certifications, which is why I chose to do this.
How I Studied:
My company pays for acloudguru subscriptions for its employees, so I used that for the bulk of my learning. I took notes on 3×5 notecards on the key terms and concepts for review.
Once I scored passing grades on the ACG practice tests, I took the Jon Bonso tests on Udemy, which are much more difficult and fairly close to the difficulty of the actual exam. I scored 45%-74% on every Bonso practice test, and spent 1-2 hours after each test reviewing what I missed, supplementing my note cards, and taking time to understand my weak spots. I only took these tests once each, but in between each practice test, I would review all my note cards until I had the content largely memorized.
This was one of the most difficult certification tests I’ve ever done. The exam was remote proctored with PearsonVUE (I used PSI for the CCP and didn’t like it as much) I felt like I was failing half the time. I marked about 25% of the questions for review, and I used up the entire allotted time. The questions are mostly about understanding which services interact with which other services, or which services are incompatible with the scenario. It was important for me to read through each response and eliminate the ones that don’t make sense. A lot of the responses mentioned a lot of AWS services that sound good but don’t actually work together (i.e. if it doesn’t make sense to have service X querying database Y, so that probably isn’t the right answer). I can’t point to one domain that really needs to be studied more than any other. You need to know all of the content for the exam.
The ACG practice tests are not a good metric for success for the actual SAA exam, and I would not have passed without Bonso’s tests showing me my weak spots. PearsonVUE is better than PSI. Make sure to study everything thoroughly and review excessively. You don’t necessarily need 5 different study sources and years of experience to be able to pass (although both of those definitely help) and good luck to anyone that took the time to read!
Testimonial: Passed AWS CSAA today!
AWS Certified Solutions Architect Associate
So glad to pass my first AWS certification after 6 weeks of preparation.
After a series of trial of error in regards to picking the appropriate learning content. Eventually, I went with the community’s advice, and took the course presented by the amazing u/stephanemaarek, in addition to the practice exams by Jon Bonso.
At this point, I can’t say anything that hasn’t been said already about how helpful they are. It’s a great combination of learning material, I appreciate the instructor’s work, and the community’s help in this sub.
Throughout the course I noted down the important points, and used the course slides as a reference in the first review iteration.
Before resorting to Udemy’s practice exams, I purchased a practice exam from another website, that I regret (not to defame the other vendor, I would simply recommend Udemy).
Udemy’s practice exams were incredible, in that they made me aware of the points I hadn’t understood clearly. After each exam, I would go both through the incorrect answers, as well as the questions I marked for review, wrote down the topic for review, and read the explanation thoroughly. The explanations point to the respective documentation in AWS, which is a recommended read, especially if you don’t feel confident with the service.
What I want to note, is that I didn’t get satisfying marks on the first go at the practice exams (I got an average of ~70%).
Throughout the 6 practice exams, I aggregated a long list of topics to review, went back to the course slides and practice-exams explanations, in addition to the AWS documentation for the respective service.
On the second go I averaged 85%. The second attempt at the exams was important as a confidence boost, as I made sure I understood the services more clearly.
The take away:
Don’t feel disappointed if you get bad results at your practice-exams. Make sure to review the topics and give it another shot.
The AWS documentation is your friend! It is vert clear and concise. My only regret is not having referenced the documentation enough after learning new services.
I scheduled the exam using PSI.
I was very confident going into the exam. But going through such an exam environment for the first time made me feel under pressure. Partly, because I didn’t feel comfortable being monitored (I was afraid to get eliminated if I moved or covered my mouth), but mostly because there was a lot at stake from my side, and I had to pass it in the first go.
The questions were harder than expected, but I tried analyze the questions more, and eliminate the invalid answers.
I was very nervous and kept reviewing flagged questions up to the last minute. Luckily, I pulled through.
The take away:
The proctors are friendly, just make sure you feel comfortable in the exam place, and use the practice exams to prepare for the actual’s exam’s environment. That includes sitting in a straight posture, not talking/whispering, or looking away.
Make sure to organize the time dedicated for each questions well, and don’t let yourself get distracted by being monitored like I did.
Don’t skip the question that you are not sure of. Try to select the most probable answer, then flag the question. This will make the very-stressful, last-minute review easier.
You have been engaged by a company to design and lead a migration to an AWS environment. The team is concerned about the capabilities of the new environment, especially when it comes to high availability and cost-effectiveness. The design calls for about 20 instances (c3.2xlarge) pulling jobs/messages from SQS. Network traffic per instance is estimated to be around 500 Mbps at the beginning and end of each job. Which configuration should you plan on deploying?
Spread the Instances over multiple AZs to minimize the traffic concentration and maximize fault-tolerance. With a multi-AZ configuration, an additional reliability point is scored as the entire Availability Zone itself is ruled out as a single point of failure. This ensures high availability. Wherever possible, use simple solutions such as spreading the load out rather than expensive high tech solutions
To save money, you quickly stored some data in one of the attached volumes of an EC2 instance and stopped it for the weekend. When you returned on Monday and restarted your instance, you discovered that your data was gone. Why might that be?
The volume was ephemeral, block-level storage. Data on an instance store volume is lost if an instance is stopped.
The most likely answer is that the EC2 instance had an instance store volume attached to it. Instance store volumes are ephemeral, meaning that data in attached instance store volumes is lost if the instance stops.
Reference: Instance store lifetime
Your company likes the idea of storing files on AWS. However, low-latency service of the last few days of files is important to customer service. Which Storage Gateway configuration would you use to achieve both of these ends?
A file gateway simplifies file storage in Amazon S3, integrates to existing applications through industry-standard file system protocols, and provides a cost-effective alternative to on-premises storage. It also provides low-latency access to data through transparent local caching.
Cached volumes allow you to store your data in Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) and retain a copy of frequently accessed data subsets locally. Cached volumes offer a substantial cost savings on primary storage and minimize the need to scale your storage on-premises. You also retain low-latency access to your frequently accessed data.
You’ve been commissioned to develop a high-availability application with a stateless web tier. Identify the most cost-effective means of reaching this end.
Use an Elastic Load Balancer, a multi-AZ deployment of an Auto-Scaling group of EC2 Spot instances (primary) running in tandem with an Auto-Scaling group of EC2 On-Demand instances (secondary), and DynamoDB.
With proper scripting and scaling policies, running EC2 On-Demand instances behind the Spot instances will deliver the most cost-effective solution because On-Demand instances will only spin up if the Spot instances are not available. DynamoDB lends itself to supporting stateless web/app installations better than RDS .
You are building a NAT Instance in an m3.medium using the AWS Linux2 distro with amazon-linux-extras installed. Which of the following do you need to set?
Ensure that “Source/Destination Checks” is disabled on the NAT instance. With a NAT instance, the most common oversight is forgetting to disable Source/Destination Checks. TNote: This is a legacy topic and while it may appear on the AWS exam it will only do so infrequently.
You are reviewing Change Control requests and you note that there is a proposed change designed to reduce errors due to SQS Eventual Consistency by updating the “DelaySeconds” attribute. What does this mean?
When a new message is added to the SQS queue, it will be hidden from consumer instances for a fixed period.
Delay queues let you postpone the delivery of new messages to a queue for a number of seconds, for example, when your consumer application needs additional time to process messages. If you create a delay queue, any messages that you send to the queue remain invisible to consumers for the duration of the delay period. The default (minimum) delay for a queue is 0 seconds. The maximum is 15 minutes. To set delay seconds on individual messages, rather than on an entire queue, use message timers to allow Amazon SQS to use the message timer’s DelaySeconds value instead of the delay queue’s DelaySeconds value. Reference: Amazon SQS delay queues.
Amazon SQS keeps track of all tasks and events in an application: True or False?
False. Amazon SWF (not Amazon SQS) keeps track of all tasks and events in an application. Amazon SQS requires you to implement your own application-level tracking, especially if your application uses multiple queues. Amazon SWF FAQs.
You work for a company, and you need to protect your data stored on S3 from accidental deletion. Which actions might you take to achieve this?
Allow versioning on the bucket and to protect the objects by configuring MFA-protected API access.
Your Security Manager has hired a security contractor to audit your network and firewall configurations. The consultant doesn’t have access to an AWS account. You need to provide the required access for the auditing tasks, and answer a question about login details for the official AWS firewall appliance. Which actions might you do?
AWS has removed the Firewall appliance from the hub of the network and implemented the firewall functionality as stateful Security Groups, and stateless subnet NACLs. This is not a new concept in networking, but rarely implemented at this scale.
Create an IAM user for the auditor and explain that the firewall functionality is implemented as stateful Security Groups, and stateless subnet NACLs
Amazon ElastiCache can fulfill a number of roles. Which operations can be implemented using ElastiCache for Redis.
Amazon ElastiCache offers a fully managed Memcached and Redis service. Although the name only suggests caching functionality, the Redis service in particular can offer a number of operations such as Pub/Sub, Sorted Sets and an In-Memory Data Store. However, Amazon ElastiCache for Redis doesn’t support multithreaded architectures.
You have been asked to deploy an application on a small number of EC2 instances. The application must be placed across multiple Availability Zones and should also minimize the chance of underlying hardware failure. Which actions would provide this solution?
Deploy the EC2 servers in a Spread Placement Group.
Spread Placement Groups are recommended for applications that have a small number of critical instances which need to be kept separate from each other. Launching instances in a Spread Placement Group reduces the risk of simultaneous failures that might occur when instances share the same underlying hardware. Spread Placement Groups provide access to distinct hardware, and are therefore suitable for mixing instance types or launching instances over time. In this case, deploying the EC2 instances in a Spread Placement Group is the only correct option.
You manage a NodeJS messaging application that lives on a cluster of EC2 instances. Your website occasionally experiences brief, strong, and entirely unpredictable spikes in traffic that overwhelm your EC2 instances’ resources and freeze the application. As a result, you’re losing recently submitted messages from end-users. You use Auto Scaling to deploy additional resources to handle the load during spikes, but the new instances don’t spin-up fast enough to prevent the existing application servers from freezing. Can you provide the most cost-effective solution in preventing the loss of recently submitted messages?
Use Amazon SQS to decouple the application components and keep the messages in queue until the extra Auto-Scaling instances are available.
Neither increasing the size of your EC2 instances nor maintaining additional EC2 instances is cost-effective, and pre-warming an ELB signifies that these spikes in traffic are predictable. The cost-effective solution to the unpredictable spike in traffic is to use SQS to decouple the application components.
True statements on S3 URL styles
Virtual-host-style URLs (such as: https://bucket-name.s3.Region.amazonaws.com/key name) are supported by AWS.
Path-Style URLs (such as https://s3.Region.amazonaws.com/bucket-name/key name) are supported by AWS.
You run an automobile reselling company that has a popular online store on AWS. The application sits behind an Auto Scaling group and requires new instances of the Auto Scaling group to identify their public and private IP addresses. How can you achieve this?
Using a Curl or Get Command to get the latest meta-data from http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/
What data formats are used to create CloudFormation templates?
JSOn and YAML
You have launched a NAT instance into a public subnet, and you have configured all relevant security groups, network ACLs, and routing policies to allow this NAT to function. However, EC2 instances in the private subnet still cannot communicate out to the internet. What troubleshooting steps should you take to resolve this issue?
Disable the Source/Destination Check on your NAT instance.
A NAT instance sends and retrieves traffic on behalf of instances in a private subnet. As a result, source/destination checks on the NAT instance must be disabled to allow the sending and receiving traffic for the private instances. Route 53 resolves DNS names, so it would not help here. Traffic that is originating from your NAT instance will not pass through an ELB. Instead, it is sent directly from the public IP address of the NAT Instance out to the Internet.
You need a storage service that delivers the lowest-latency access to data for a database running on a single EC2 instance. Which of the following AWS storage services is suitable for this use case?
Amazon EBS is a block level storage service for use with Amazon EC2. Amazon EBS can deliver performance for workloads that require the lowest-latency access to data from a single EC2 instance. A broad range of workloads, such as relational and non-relational databases, enterprise applications, containerized applications, big data analytics engines, file systems, and media workflows are widely deployed on Amazon EBS.
What are DynamoDB use cases?
Use cases include storing JSON data, BLOB data and storing web session data.
You are reviewing Change Control requests, and you note that there is a change designed to reduce costs by updating the Amazon SQS “WaitTimeSeconds” attribute. What does this mean?
When the consumer instance polls for new work, the SQS service will allow it to wait a certain time for one or more messages to be available before closing the connection.
Poor timing of SQS processes can significantly impact the cost effectiveness of the solution.
Long polling helps reduce the cost of using Amazon SQS by eliminating the number of empty responses (when there are no messages available for a ReceiveMessage request) and false empty responses (when messages are available but aren’t included in a response).
You have been asked to decouple an application by utilizing SQS. The application dictates that messages on the queue CAN be delivered more than once, but must be delivered in the order they have arrived while reducing the number of empty responses. Which option is most suitable?
Configure a FIFO SQS queue and enable long polling.
You are a security architect working for a large antivirus company. The production environment has recently been moved to AWS and is in a public subnet. You are able to view the production environment over HTTP. However, when your customers try to update their virus definition files over a custom port, that port is blocked. You log in to the console and you allow traffic in over the custom port. How long will this take to take effect?
You need to restrict access to an S3 bucket. Which methods can you use to do so?
There are two ways of securing S3, using either Access Control Lists (Permissions) or by using bucket Policies.
You are reviewing Change Control requests, and you note that there is a change designed to reduce wasted CPU cycles by increasing the value of your Amazon SQS “VisibilityTimeout” attribute. What does this mean?
When a consumer instance retrieves a message, that message will be hidden from other consumer instances for a fixed period.
Poor timing of SQS processes can significantly impact the cost effectiveness of the solution. To prevent other consumers from processing the message again, Amazon SQS sets a visibility timeout, a period of time during which Amazon SQS prevents other consumers from receiving and processing the message. The default visibility timeout for a message is 30 seconds. The minimum is 0 seconds. The maximum is 12 hours.
With EBS, I can ____.
Create an encrypted volume from a snapshot of another encrypted volume.
Create an encrypted snapshot from an unencrypted snapshot by creating an encrypted copy of the unencrypted snapshot.
You can create an encrypted volume from a snapshot of another encrypted volume.
Although there is no direct way to encrypt an existing unencrypted volume or snapshot, you can encrypt them by creating either a volume or a snapshot. Reference: Encrypting unencrypted resources.
Following advice from your consultant, you have configured your VPC to use dedicated hosting tenancy. Your VPC has an Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling designed to launch or terminate Amazon EC2 instances on a regular basis, in order to meet workload demands. A subsequent change to your application has rendered the performance gains from dedicated tenancy superfluous, and you would now like to recoup some of these greater costs. How do you revert your instance tenancy attribute of a VPC to default for new launched EC2 instances?
Modify the instance tenancy attribute of your VPC from dedicated to default using the AWS CLI, an AWS SDK, or the Amazon EC2 API.
You can change the instance tenancy attribute of a VPC from dedicated to default. Modifying the instance tenancy of the VPC does not affect the tenancy of any existing instances in the VPC. The next time you launch an instance in the VPC, it has a tenancy of default, unless you specify otherwise during launch. You can modify the instance tenancy attribute of a VPC using the AWS CLI, an AWS SDK, or the Amazon EC2 API only. Reference: Change the tenancy of a VPC.
What is Amazon DynamoDB?
Amazon DynamoDB is a fast, fully managed NoSQL database service. DynamoDB makes it simple and cost-effective to store and retrieve any amount of data and serve any level of request traffic.
DynamoDB is used to create tables that store and retrieve any level of data.
- DynamoDB uses SSD’s to store data.
- Provides Automatic and synchronous data.
- Maximum item size is 400KB
- Supports cross-region replication.
DynamoDB Core Concepts:
- The fundamental concepts around DynamoDB are:
- Tables-which is a collection of data.
- Items- They are the individual entries in the table.
- Attributes- These are the properties associated with the entries.
- Primary Keys.
- Secondary Indexes.
- DynamoDB streams.
- The Secondary index is a data structure that contains a subset of attributes from the table, along with an alternate key that supports Query operations.
- Every secondary index is related to only one table, from where it obtains data. This is called base table of the index.
- When you create an index you create an alternate key for the index i.e. Partition Key and Sort key, DynamoDB creates a copy of the attributes into the index, including primary key attributes derived from the table.
- After this is done, you use the query/scan in the same way as you would use a query on a table.
Every secondary index is instinctively maintained by DynamoDB.
DynamoDB Indexes: DynamoDB supports two indexes:
- Local Secondary Index (LSI)- The index has the same partition key as the base table but a different sort key,
- Global Secondary index (GSI)- The index has a partition key and sort key are different from those on the base table.
While creating more than one table using secondary table , you must do it in a sequence. Create table one after the another. When you create the first table wait for it to be active.
Once that table is active, create another table and wait for it to get active and so on. If you try to create one or more tables continuously DynamoDB will return a LimitExceededException.
You must specify the following, for every secondary index:
- Type- You must mention the type of index you are creating whether it is a Global Secondary Index or a Local Secondary index.
- Name- You must specify the name for the index. The rules for naming the indexes are the same as that for the table it is connected with. You can use the same name for the indexes that are connected with the different base table.
- Key- The key schema for the index states that every attribute in the index must be of the top level attribute of type-string, number, or binary. Other data types which include documents and sets are not allowed. Other requirements depend on the type of index you choose.
- For GSI- The partitions key can be any scalar attribute of the base table.
Sort key is optional and this too can be any scalar attribute of the base table.
- For LSI- The partition key must be the same as the base table’s partition key.
The sort key must be a non-key table attribute.
- Additional Attributes: The additional attributes are in addition to the tables key attributes. They are automatically projected into every index. You can use attributes for any data type, including scalars, documents and sets.
- Throughput: The throughput settings for the index if necessary are:
- GSI: Specify read and write capacity unit settings. These provisioned throughput settings are not dependent on the base tables settings.
- LSI- You do not need to specify read and write capacity unit settings. Any read and write operations on the local secondary index are drawn from the provisioned throughput settings of the base table.
You can create upto 5 Global and 5 Local Secondary Indexes per table. With the deletion of a table all the indexes are connected with the table are also deleted.
You can use the Scan or Query operation to fetch the data from the table. DynamoDB will give you the results in descending or ascending order.
An NLB is a Network Load Balancer.
Network Load Balancer Overview: A Network Load Balancer functions at the fourth layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. It can handle millions of requests per second. After the load balancer receives a connection request, it selects a target from the target group for the default rule. It attempts to open a TCP connection to the selected target on the port specified in the listener configuration. When you enable an Availability Zone for the load balancer, Elastic Load Balancing creates a load balancer node in the Availability Zone. By default, each load balancer node distributes traffic across the registered targets in its Availability Zone only. If you enable cross-zone load balancing, each load balancer node distributes traffic across the registered targets in all enabled Availability Zones. It is designed to handle tens of millions of requests per second while maintaining high throughput at ultra low latency, with no effort on your part. The Network Load Balancer is API-compatible with the Application Load Balancer, including full programmatic control of Target Groups and Targets. Here are some of the most important features:
- Static IP Addresses – Each Network Load Balancer provides a single IP address for each Availability Zone in its purview. If you have targets in us-west-2a and other targets in us-west-2c, NLB will create and manage two IP addresses (one per AZ); connections to that IP address will spread traffic across the instances in all the VPC subnets in the AZ. You can also specify an existing Elastic IP for each AZ for even greater control. With full control over your IP addresses, a Network Load Balancer can be used in situations where IP addresses need to be hard-coded into DNS records, customer firewall rules, and so forth.
- Zonality – The IP-per-AZ feature reduces latency with improved performance, improves availability through isolation and fault tolerance, and makes the use of Network Load Balancers transparent to your client applications. Network Load Balancers also attempt to route a series of requests from a particular source to targets in a single AZ while still providing automatic failover should those targets become unavailable.
- Source Address Preservation – With Network Load Balancer, the original source IP address and source ports for the incoming connections remain unmodified, so application software need not support X-Forwarded-For, proxy protocol, or other workarounds. This also means that normal firewall rules, including VPC Security Groups, can be used on targets.
- Long-running Connections – NLB handles connections with built-in fault tolerance, and can handle connections that are open for months or years, making them a great fit for IoT, gaming, and messaging applications.
- Failover – Powered by Route 53 health checks, NLB supports failover between IP addresses within and across regions.
There are two types of VPC endpoints: (1) interface endpoints and (2) gateway endpoints. Interface endpoints enable connectivity to services over AWS PrivateLink.
Amazon AWS uses key pair to encrypt and decrypt login information.
A sender uses a public key to encrypt data, which its receiver then decrypts using another private key. These two keys, public and private, are known as a key pair.
You need a key pair to be able to connect to your instances. The way this works on Linux and Windows instances is different.
First, when you launch a new instance, you assign a key pair to it. Then, when you log in to it, you use the private key.
The difference between Linux and Windows instances is that Linux instances do not have a password already set and you must use the key pair to log in to Linux instances. On the other hand, on Windows instances, you need the key pair to decrypt the administrator password. Using the decrypted password, you can use RDP and then connect to your Windows instance.
Amazon EC2 stores only the public key, and you can either generate it inside Amazon EC2 or you can import it. Since the private key is not stored by Amazon, it’s advisable to store it in a secure place as anyone who has this private key can log in on your behalf.
There are two types of Security Groups based on where you launch your instance. When you launch your instance on EC2-Classic, you have to specify an EC2-Classic Security Group . On the other hand, when you launch an instance in a VPC, you will have to specify an EC2-VPC Security Group. Now that we have a clear understanding what we are comparing, lets see their main differences:
- When the instance is launched, you can only choose a Security Group that resides in the same region as the instance.
- You cannot change the Security Group after the instance has launched (you may edit the rules)
- They are not IPv6 Capable
- You can change the Security Group after the instance has launched
- They are IPv6 Capable
Generally speaking, they are not interchangeable and there are more capabilities on the EC2-VPC SGs. You may read more about them on Differences Between Security Groups for EC2-Classic and EC2-VPC
I think this is historical in nature. S3 and DynamoDB were the first services to support VPC endpoints. The release of those VPC endpoint features pre-dates two important services that subsequently enabled interface endpoints: Network Load Balancer and AWS PrivateLink.
- Separate the Lambda handler from your core logic.
- Take advantage of execution context reuse to improve the performance of your function. Initialize SDK clients and database connections outside of the function handler, and cache static assets locally in the
/tmpdirectory. Subsequent invocations processed by the same instance of your function can reuse these resources. This saves execution time and avoid potential data leaks across invocations, don’t use the execution context to store user data, events, or other information with security implications. If your function relies on a mutable state that can’t be stored in memory within the handler, consider creating a separate function or separate versions of a function for each user.
- Use AWS Lambda Environment Variables to pass operational parameters to your function. For example, if you are writing to an Amazon S3 bucket, instead of hard-coding the bucket name you are writing to, configure the bucket name as an environment variable.
You can use VPC Flow Logs. The steps would be the following:
- Enable VPC Flow Logs for the VPC your EC2 instance lives in. You can do this from the VPC console
- Having VPC Flow Logs enabled will create a CloudWatch Logs log group
- Find the Elastic Network Interface assigned to your EC2 instance. Also, get the private IP of your EC2 instance. You can do this from the EC2 console.
- Find the CloudWatch Logs log stream for that ENI.
- Search the log stream for records where your Windows instance’s IP is the destination IP, make sure the port is the one you’re looking for. You’ll see records that tell you if someone has been connecting to your EC2 instance. For example, there are bytes transferred, status=ACCEPT, log-status=OK. You will also know the source IP that connected to your instance.
I recommend using CloudWatch Logs Metric Filters, so you don’t have to do all this manually. Metric Filters will find the patterns I described in your CloudWatch Logs entries and will publish a CloudWatch metric. Then you can trigger an alarm that notifies you when someone logs in to your instance.
Here are more details from the AWS Official Blog and the AWS documentation for VPC Flow Logs records:
Also, there are 3rd-party tools that simplify all these steps for you and give you very nice visibility and alerts into what’s happening in your AWS network resources. I’ve tried Observable Networks and it’s great: Observable Networks
While enabling ports on AWS NAT gateway when you allow inbound traffic on port 80/443 , do you need to allow outbound traffic on the same ports or is it sufficient to allow outbound traffic on ephemeral ports (1024-65535)?
Typically outbound traffic is not blocked by NAT on any port, so you would not need to explicitly allow those, since they should already be allowed. Your firewall generally would have a rule to allow return traffic that was initiated outbound from inside your office.
Is AWS traffic between EC2 nodes in the same availability zone secure with respect to sending sensitive data?
According to Amazon’s documentation, it is impossible for one instance to sniff traffic bound for a different instance.
- Packet sniffing by other tenants. It is not possible for a virtual instance running in promiscuous mode to receive or “sniff” traffic that is intended for a different virtual instance. While you can place your interfaces into promiscuous mode, the hypervisor will not deliver any traffic to them that is not addressed to them. Even two virtual instances that are owned by the same customer located on the same physical host cannot listen to each other’s traffic. Attacks such as ARP cache poisoning do not work within Amazon EC2 and Amazon VPC. While Amazon EC2 does provide ample protection against one customer inadvertently or maliciously attempting to view another’s data, as a standard practice you should encrypt sensitive traffic.
But as you can see, they still recommend that you should maintain encryption inside your network. We have taken the approach of terminating SSL at the external interface of the ELB, but then initiating SSL from the ELB to our back-end servers, and even further, to our (RDS) databases. It’s probably belt-and-suspenders, but in my industry it’s needed. Heck, we have some interfaces that require HTTPS and a VPN.
What’s the use case for S3 Pre-signed URL for uploading objects?
I get the use-case to allow access to private/premium content in S3 using Presigned-url that can be used to view or download the file until the expiration time set, But what’s a real life scenario in which a Webapp would have the need to generate URI to give users temporary credentials to upload an object, can’t the same be done by using the SDK and exposing a REST API at the backend.
Asking this since I want to build a POC for this functionality in Java, but struggling to find a real-world use-case for the same
Pre-signed URLs are used to provide short-term access to a private object in your S3 bucket. They work by appending an AWS Access Key, expiration time, and Sigv4 signature as query parameters to the S3 object. There are two common use cases when you may want to use them:
- Simple, occasional sharing of private files.
- Frequent, programmatic access to view or upload a file in an application.
Imagine you may want to share a confidential presentation with a business partner, or you want to allow a friend to download a video file you’re storing in your S3 bucket. In both situations, you could generate a URL, and share it to allow the recipient short-term access.
There are a couple of different approaches for generating these URLs in an ad-hoc, one-off fashion, including:
- Using the AWS Tools for Powershell.
- Using the AWS CLI.
FROM AWS:REINVENT 2021:
Join Peter DeSantis, Senior Vice President, Utility Computing and Apps, to learn how AWS has optimized its cloud infrastructure to run some of the world’s most demanding workloads and give your business a competitive edge.
Join Dr. Werner Vogels, CTO, Amazon.com, as he goes behind the scenes to show how Amazon is solving today’s hardest technology problems. Based on his experience working with some of the largest and most successful applications in the world, Dr. Vogels shares his insights on building truly resilient architectures and what that means for the future of software development.
Applied artificial intelligence (AI) solutions, such as contact center intelligence (CCI), intelligent document processing (IDP), and media intelligence (MI), have had a significant market and business impact for customers, partners, and AWS. This session details how partners can collaborate with AWS to differentiate their products and solutions with AI and machine learning (ML). It also shares partner and customer success stories and discusses opportunities to help customers who are looking for turnkey solutions.
An implication of applying the microservices architectural style is that a lot of communication between components is done over the network. In order to achieve the full capabilities of microservices, this communication needs to happen in a loosely coupled manner. In this session, explore some fundamental application integration patterns based on messaging and connect them to real-world use cases in a microservices scenario. Also, learn some of the benefits that asynchronous messaging can have over REST APIs for communication between microservices.
Avoiding unexpected user behavior and maintaining reliable performance is crucial. This session is for application developers who want to learn how to maintain application availability and performance to improve the end user experience. Also, discover the latest on Amazon CloudWatch.
Amazon is transforming customer experiences through the practical application of AI and machine learning (ML) at scale. This session is for senior business and technology decision-makers who want to understand Amazon.com’s approach to launching and scaling ML-enabled innovations in its core business operations and toward new customer opportunities. See specific examples from various Amazon businesses to learn how Amazon applies AI/ML to shape its customer experience while improving efficiency, increasing speed, and lowering cost. Also hear the lessons the Amazon teams have learned from the cultural, process, and technical aspects of building and scaling ML capabilities across the organization.
Data has become a strategic asset. Customers of all sizes are moving data to the cloud to gain operational efficiencies and fuel innovation. This session details how partners can create repeatable and scalable solutions to help their customers derive value from their data, win new customers, and grow their business. It also discusses how to drive partner-led data migrations using AWS services, tools, resources, and programs, such as the AWS Migration Acceleration Program (MAP). Also, this session shares customer success stories from partners who have used MAP and other resources to help customers migrate to AWS and improve business outcomes.
User-facing web and mobile applications are the primary touchpoint between organizations and their customers. To meet the ever-rising bar for customer experience, developers must deliver high-quality apps with both foundational and differentiating features. AWS Amplify helps front-end web and mobile developers build faster front to back. In this session, review Amplify’s core capabilities like authentication, data, and file storage and explore new capabilities, such as Amplify Geo and extensibility features for easier app customization with AWS services and better integration with existing deployment pipelines. Also learn how customers have been successful using Amplify to innovate in their businesses.
AWS Amplify is a set of tools and services that makes it quickand easy for front-end web and mobile developers to build full-stack applications on AWS
Amplify DataStore provides a programming model for leveraging shared and distributed data without writing additional code for offline and online scenarios, which makes working
with distributed, cross-user data just as simple as working with local-only data
AWS AppSync is a managed GraphQL API service
Amazon DynamoDB is a serverless key-value and document database that’s highly scalable
Amazon S3 allows you to store static assets
While DevOps has not changed much, the industry has fundamentally transformed over the last decade. Monolithic architectures have evolved into microservices. Containers and serverless have become the default. Applications are distributed on cloud infrastructure across the globe. The technical environment and tooling ecosystem has changed radically from the original conditions in which DevOps was created. So, what’s next? In this session, learn about the next phase of DevOps: a distributed model that emphasizes swift development, observable systems, accountable engineers, and resilient applications.
Innovation Day is a virtual event that brings together organizations and thought leaders from around the world to share how cloud technology has helped them capture new business opportunities, grow revenue, and solve the big problems facing us today, and in the future. Featured topics include building the first human basecamp on the moon, the next generation F1 car, manufacturing in space, the Climate Pledge from Amazon, and building the city of the future at the foot of Mount Fuji.
Latest AWS Products and Services announced at re:invent 2021
Graviton 3: AWS today announced the newest generation of its Arm-based Graviton processors: the Graviton 3. The company promises that the new chip will be 25 percent faster than the last-generation chips, with 2x faster floating-point performances and a 3x speedup for machine-learning workloads. AWS also promises that the new chips will use 60 percent less power.
Trn1 to train models for various applications
AWS Mainframe Modernization: Cut mainframe migration time by 2/3
AWS Private 5G: Deploy and manage your own private 5G network (Set up and scale a private mobile network in days)
Transaction for Governed tables in Lake Formation: Automatically manages conflicts and error
Serverless and On-Demand Analytics for Redshift, EMAR, MSK, Kinesis:
Amazon Sagemaker Canvas: Create ML predictions without any ML experience or writing any code
AWS IoT TwinMaker: Real Time system that makes it easy to create and use digital twins of real-world systems.
Amazon DevOps Guru for RDS: Automatically detect, diagnose, and resolve hard-to-find database issues.
Amazon DynamoDB Standard-Infrequent Access table class: Reduce costs by up to 60%. Maintain the same performance, durability, scaling. and availability as Standard
AWS Database Migration Service Fleet Advisor: Accelerate database migration with automated inventory and migration: This service makes it easier and faster to get your data to the cloud and match it with the correct database service. “DMS Fleet Advisor automatically builds an inventory of your on-prem database and analytics service by streaming data from on prem to Amazon S3. From there, we take it over. We analyze [the data] to match it with the appropriate amount of AWS Datastore and then provide customized migration plans.
Amazon Sagemaker Ground Truth Plus: Deliver high-quality training datasets fast, and reduce data labeling cost.
Amazon SageMaker Training Compiler: Accelerate model training by 50%
Amazon SageMaker Inference Recommender: Reduce time to deploy from weeks to hours
Amazon SageMaker Serverless Inference: Lower cost of ownership with pay-per-use pricing
Amazon Kendra Experience Builder: Deploy Intelligent search applications powered by Amazon Kendra with a few clicks.
Amazon Lex Automated Chatbot Designer: Drastically Simplifies bot design with advanced natural language understanding
Amazon SageMaker Studio Lab: A no cost, no setup access to powerful machine learning technology
AWS Cloud WAN: Build, manage and monitor global wide area networks
AWS Amplify Studio: Visually build complete, feature-rich apps in hours instead of weeks, with full control over the application code.
AWS Carbon Footprint Tool: Don’t forget to turn off the lights.
AWS Well-Architected Sustainability Pillar: Learn, measure, and improve your workloads using environmental best practices in cloud computing
AWS re:Post: Get Answers from AWS experts. A Reimagined Q&A Experience for the AWS Community
How do you build something completely new?
FROM AWS:REINVENT 2020:
You can automate any task that involves interaction with AWS and on-premises resources, including in multi-account and multi-Region environments, with AWS Systems Manager. In this session, learn more about three new Systems Manager launches at re:Invent—Change Manager, Fleet Manager, and Application Manager. In addition, learn how Systems Manager Automation can be used across multiple Regions and accounts, integrate with other AWS services, and extend to on-premises. This session takes a deep dive into how to author a custom runbook using an automation document, and how to execute automation anywhere.
Learn how you can quickly build scaled AWS operations tooling to meet some of the most complex and compliant operations system requirements.
Learn about the performance improvements made in Amazon EMR for Apache Spark and Presto, giving Amazon EMR one of the fastest runtimes for analytics workloads in the cloud. This session dives deep into how AWS generates smart query plans in the absence of accurate table statistics. It also covers adaptive query execution—a technique to dynamically collect statistics during query execution—and how AWS uses dynamic partition pruning to generate query predicates for speeding up table joins. You also learn about execution improvements such as data prefetching and pruning of nested data types.
Explore how state-of-the-art algorithms built into Amazon SageMaker are used to detect declines in machine learning (ML) model quality. One of the big factors that can affect the accuracy of models is the difference in the data used to generate predictions and what was used for training. For example, changing economic conditions could drive new interest rates affecting home purchasing predictions. Amazon SageMaker Model Monitor automatically detects drift in deployed models and provides detailed alerts that help you identify the source of the problem so you can be more confident in your ML applications.
Amazon Lightsail is AWS’s simple, virtual private server. In this session, learn more about Lightsail and its newest launches. Lightsail is designed for simple web apps, websites, and dev environments. This session reviews core product features, such as preconfigured blueprints, managed databases, load balancers, networking, and snapshots, and includes a demo of the most recent launches. Attend this session to learn more about how you can get up and running on AWS in the easiest way possible.
This session dives into the security model behind AWS Lambda functions, looking at how you can isolate workloads, build multiple layers of protection, and leverage fine-grained authorization. You learn about the implementation, the open-source Firecracker technology that provides one of the most important layers, and what this means for how you build on Lambda. You also see how AWS Lambda securely runs your functions packaged and deployed as container images. Finally, you learn about SaaS, customization, and safe patterns for running your own customers’ code in your Lambda functions.
Unauthorized users and financially motivated third parties also have access to advanced cloud capabilities. This causes concerns and creates challenges for customers responsible for the security of their cloud assets. Join us as Roy Feintuch, chief technologist of cloud products, and Maya Horowitz, director of threat intelligence and research, face off in an epic battle of defense against unauthorized cloud-native attacks. In this session, Roy uses security analytics, threat hunting, and cloud intelligence solutions to dissect and analyze some sneaky cloud breaches so you can strengthen your cloud defense. This presentation is brought to you by Check Point Software, an AWS Partner.
AWS provides services and features that your organization can leverage to improve the security of a serverless application. However, as organizations grow and developers deploy more serverless applications, how do you know if all of the applications are in compliance with your organization’s security policies? This session walks you through serverless security, and you learn about protections and guardrails that you can build to avoid misconfigurations and catch potential security risks.
The Amazon Cash application service matches incoming customer payments with accounts and open invoices, while an email ingestion service (EIS) processes more than 1 million semi-structured and unstructured remittance emails monthly. In this session, learn how this EIS classifies the emails, extracts invoice data from the emails, and then identifies the right invoices to close on Amazon financial platforms. Dive deep on how these services automated 89.5% of cash applications using AWS AI & ML services. Hear about how these services will eliminate the manual effort of 1000 cash application analysts in the next 10 years.
Dive into the details of using Amazon Kinesis Data Streams and Amazon DynamoDB Streams as event sources for AWS Lambda. This session walks you through how AWS Lambda scales along with these two event sources. It also covers best practices and challenges, including how to tune streaming sources for optimum performance and how to effectively monitor them.
Build real-time applications using Apache Flink with Apache Kafka and Amazon Kinesis Data Streams. Apache Flink is a framework and engine for building streaming applications for use cases such as real-time analytics and complex event processing. This session covers best practices for building low-latency applications with Apache Flink when reading data from either Amazon MSK or Amazon Kinesis Data Streams. It also covers best practices for running low-latency Apache Flink applications using Amazon Kinesis Data Analytics and discusses AWS’s open-source contributions to this use case.
Learn how you can accelerate application modernization and benefit from the open-source Apache Kafka ecosystem by connecting your legacy, on-premises systems to the cloud. In this session, hear real customer stories about timely insights gained from event-driven applications built on an event streaming platform from Confluent Cloud running on AWS, which stores and processes historical data and real-time data streams. Confluent makes Apache Kafka enterprise-ready using infinite Kafka storage with Amazon S3 and multiple private networking options including AWS PrivateLink, along with self-managed encryption keys for storage volume encryption with AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS).
Data-driven business intelligence (BI) decision making is more important than ever in this age of remote work. An increasing number of organizations are investing in data transformation initiatives, including migrating data to the cloud, modernizing data warehouses, and building data lakes. But what about the last mile—connecting the dots for end users with dashboards and visualizations? Come to this session to learn how Amazon QuickSight allows you to connect to your AWS data and quickly build rich and interactive dashboards with self-serve and advanced analytics capabilities that can scale from tens to hundreds of thousands of users, without managing any infrastructure and only paying for what you use.
Is there an Updated SAA-C03 Practice Exam?
As of this writing, the official SAA-C02 practice exam is not yet available. It would probably take about 3 more months before AWS finally releases the official version of the SAA-C03 practice exam for the new AWS Certified Solutions Architect Associate. In the meantime, you can try the new SAA-C03 sample exam so you can have a better idea of what will be the topic coverage would be, and how the scenarios will be presented.
This sample SAA-C03 sample exam PDF file can provide you with a hint of what the real SAA-C03 exam will look like in your upcoming test. In addition, the SAA-C03 sample questions also contain the necessary explanation and reference links that you can study.
Top-paying Cloud certifications:
- Google Certified Professional Cloud Architect — $175,761/year
- AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate — $149,446/year
- Azure/Microsoft Cloud Solution Architect – $141,748/yr
- Google Cloud Associate Engineer – $145,769/yr
- AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner — $131,465/year
- Microsoft Certified: Azure Fundamentals — $126,653/year
- Microsoft Certified: Azure Administrator Associate — $125,993/year
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AWS Cloud Certifications Breaking News – Testimonials – AWS Top Stories
- Is there a way to troubleshoot my DNS records on route 53?by /u/tomacdmota (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 19, 2022 at 7:39 am
Hey guys, So I transferred my domain from Namecheap to route 53 yesterday. I have a web app hosted with Amplify. I am trying to connect the domain to it but for some reason, I am getting stuck on the "SSL configuration" bit. Now, from my understanding, it automatically adds the CNAME record required for this verification to happen. I have checked on route 53 and the record has indeed been created and is there. However, when I use something like https://www.whatsmydns.net/#CNAME/www.trustmotores.com (that is the domain and record in question), it fails in every place in the world. I have read the documentation but couldn't find anything on this. The record is created but isn't working? My guess yesterday was that since I had just transferred the domain, I needed to wait for it to propagate, but has been over 14h and still nothing. Any guesses?Thank you. https://preview.redd.it/v7q4wobkzd091.png?width=2716&format=png&auto=webp&s=eb941eabfe69399ee95d7c7bb60c4a2b4d7c1034 https://preview.redd.it/70jairbkzd091.png?width=2880&format=png&auto=webp&s=a9ed1f280eca5bac029c4c7cbc56e9c4292f12ac submitted by /u/tomacdmota [link] [comments]
- Aurora Serverless v2 in Production?by /u/Mpjhorner (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 19, 2022 at 6:18 am
Is anyone using this at scale in production without issues? We are testing it at the moment with a production database and get random spikes stuck at 100% then it hangs and begins giving connections issues. As well as that we also get random drops outs. All of this same work load was running on a X-Large RDS instance prior with no issues. Support always saying this small issues etc. however I get the feeling it isn’t production ready. I know it’s new but it was pre-release for ages, hence giving it a try. What is your experience so far? submitted by /u/Mpjhorner [link] [comments]
- How can I federate users to AWS (SSO?) using LDAP or SCIM and then locking down CLI access with AWS-based MFA?by /u/xrscx (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 19, 2022 at 3:59 am
I have been doing some research and talking to support but I'm not exactly figuring out the solution for my use case. I want to federate users to AWS to be used across our AWS Org (AWS SSO?) via either LDAP or SCIM. However, we want to control MFA on the AWS side. That is, the federated user has MFA assigned inside of AWS and that they are not redirected to the IdP for MFA challenges. Largely, this is to put MFA on CLI access. Due to some factors of our environment, we cannot enforce MFA from there (to AWS CLI, at least). Any ideas on how to achieve this or if it is possible? Again, federate users to AWS and then enforce MFA on the user profiles that now live in AWS. Cost is a major factor as well. submitted by /u/xrscx [link] [comments]
- Hot Off the Presses: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9by /u/prajyo1430 (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 19, 2022 at 3:33 am
submitted by /u/prajyo1430 [link] [comments]
- AWS Secrets Manager vs SSM Parameter Store?by /u/PerfectlyCooperative (AWS Certifications) on May 19, 2022 at 2:28 am
Can anyone explain the differences and when to use either of these two? submitted by /u/PerfectlyCooperative [link] [comments]
- Difference between using X-Ray APM's with OTEL vs Meshby /u/araujobnelsong (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 19, 2022 at 1:21 am
Hello guys, So right now I have a Ruby application running in an EKS Cluster. We are currently using Datadog for tracing all our requests but it's has been asked to switch to AWS' X-Ray APM. I have been investigating and basically found 2 options to achieve this: 1) AWS Distro for OpenTelemetry : The site itself is a bit confusing but I think I'm understading it. If I'm right, I should follow those steps in my infrastructure: https://aws-otel.github.io/docs/setup/eks which basically guides you to install the OTEL collector as a sidepod (and also add a couple of lines in your application code) 2) Using Appmesh: Using the appmesh chart to EKS (which I already have configured) but passing some parameters such as : --set tracing.provider=x-ray -- The second one seems simple to do (considering I'm already using mesh) but maybe I'm missing something (?). Perhaps using the second way I wont be able to capture certain things, I don't know. Would be cool if anyone with some expertise on this can tell me the pros/cons of those 2 ways. Thanks in advanced. submitted by /u/araujobnelsong [link] [comments]
- Taking an Instructor-led Course After or Before Study Materials?by /u/g0stsec (AWS Certifications) on May 19, 2022 at 1:01 am
Looking for recommendations on this. Background: I'm an IT professional with 20 years experience. Experience up and down the OSI model from end user support, helpdesk and enterprise service management. Solid background in networking, network security, systems administration, (Linux and Windows), storage solutions, and some virtualization experience (VMWare ESXi specifically). Opportunity: I have an opportunity to take a 3 day instructor-led course to prepare for the Solution Architect Associate exam. I'm not under the impression that this instructor led course is all I need. I expect to study materials for several weeks. Would you recommend taking the course soon (in the next few weeks) then studying for weeks, or taking the course after studying for several weeks (based on your experience if you have it please). submitted by /u/g0stsec [link] [comments]
- Choosing a Database for Serverless Applicationsby /u/RichardGrant_ (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 11:24 pm
submitted by /u/RichardGrant_ [link] [comments]
- New to AWS Certs, do I need anything before AWS SCS?by /u/GroundbreakingMark4 (AWS Certifications) on May 18, 2022 at 10:19 pm
Hi everyone! I’m new to AWS certs but have some experience penetration testing AWS environments. I was thinking of doing AWS Solutions Architect Associate (with probably Cloud practitioner as part of my study) followed by AWS Security Specialist but I wasn’t sure if: a) there are any pre-requisites for the security specialist or if I could jump straight in b) if anyone has just jumped straight in to security specialist or if they any of the aforementioned certs (solutions architect and practitioner) are recommended. Thanks! submitted by /u/GroundbreakingMark4 [link] [comments]
- Question about Compute Optimized Instancesby /u/TheKwom (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 8:43 pm
I am just beginning to learn about EC2 in hopes to get the cloud practitioner certification. I am taking the essential course that is provided by Amazon. When talking about compute optimized instances it gives the example of dedicated gaming servers. I thought a dedicated server was one that you had in house. Wouldn’t using AWS mean it’s not a dedicated server? Or is it saying it would be just as good? Sorry if this is a dumb question, very new to cloud computing. submitted by /u/TheKwom [link] [comments]
- AWS Backup Now Supports Amazon FSx for NetApp ONTAPby Jeff Barr (AWS News Blog) on May 18, 2022 at 8:08 pm
If you are a long-time reader of this blog, you know that I categorize some posts as “chocolate and peanut butter” in homage to an ancient (1970 or so) series of TV commercials for Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups. Today, I am happy to bring you the latest such post, combining AWS Backup and Amazon FSx
- AWS Solution Architecture modification to original design....Thoughtsby /u/Accurate-Beach-994 (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 7:46 pm
submitted by /u/Accurate-Beach-994 [link] [comments]
- Using custom license in Azure Data Exchangeby /u/rox11goly (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 7:20 pm
Hey redditors, Is there a way for a data provider to enable subscribers to use a vendor provided license instead of the AWS Data Exchange subscription when subscribing to the individual products offers? My use case here is I want to distribute the data through multiple platforms and not just AWS Data Exchange. So ideally, I would want subscribers to use the license which could be generated by the customers/subscribers through my license portal and use this to allow/enable them to subscribe to the product offerings in AWS Data Exchange. This way I can then publish my data to some other platform say Azure Data Factory and the customer/subscriber would be able to use the same license to access the data there as well without having to create separate subscriptions on individual platforms. Is this possible to do? Or is there any workaround for this? submitted by /u/rox11goly [link] [comments]
- Managing Cloudformation parameter filesby /u/Mahler911 (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 7:13 pm
We don't use Terraform or CDK, maybe one day. Right now it's just CFN YAML files and the associated parameter JSON files. We store the templates themselves in GitHub, but the different parameter files are getting a little out of control. So we have redis.yaml, but then we have redis-app1-dev-params.json, redis-app2-dev-params.json, redis-app1-prod-params.json...etc. Is there a better/easier/recommended way to handle these files? submitted by /u/Mahler911 [link] [comments]
- Is this a good deal? $1250 for AWS Solutions Architect Course and Certification. I am looking to get AWS Certified and prefer an actual instructor which this offers. I usually have a hard time with self study.by /u/soulreaver99 (AWS Certifications) on May 18, 2022 at 6:00 pm
submitted by /u/soulreaver99 [link] [comments]
- Moving Local Machine Learning Experiments to Amazon Cloud with Terraform - Tutorialby /u/thumbsdrivesmecrazy (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 5:22 pm
In this tutorial, you can learn how to move a local machine learning experiment to a remote cloud machine on AWS with the help of Terraform Provider Iterative (TPI): Moving Local Experiments to the Cloud with Terraform Provider Iterative (TPI) submitted by /u/thumbsdrivesmecrazy [link] [comments]
- Client-side LDAPS closing connection.by /u/jsupun (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 5:18 pm
I'm trying to use LDAPS with my managed AD. I've created a CA certificate for my test. openssl ecparam -out MyRootCA.key -name prime256v1 -genkey openssl req -new -sha256 -key MyRootCA.key -out MyRootCA.csr openssl x509 -req -sha256 -days 365 -in MyRootCA.csr -signkey MyRootCA.key -out MyRootCA.crt I've registered/uploaded the MyRootCA.crt file, it accepted it. I can see the certificate in the list, the Common name matches directory name. I enabled Client-side LDAPS. Port 636 is accessible from my EC2 instance. I can perform a ldapsearch on port 389 without a problem, but if I switch to ldaps:// and port 636 I get an error message before even entering the password. ldap_start_tls: Can't contact LDAP server (-1) If I telnet to the IP, the connection get closed instantly. [ec2-user@ip-172-31-XX-XX ~]$ telnet 172.31.XX.XX 636 Trying 172.31.XX.XX... Connected to 172.31.XX.XX. Escape character is '^]'. Connection closed by foreign host. And when using openssl s_client to test [ec2-user@ip-172-31-XX-XX ~]$ openssl s_client -connect xx.ad:636 CONNECTED(00000003) write:errno=104 --- no peer certificate available --- No client certificate CA names sent --- SSL handshake has read 0 bytes and written 289 bytes --- New, (NONE), Cipher is (NONE) Secure Renegotiation IS NOT supported Compression: NONE Expansion: NONE No ALPN negotiated SSL-Session: Protocol : TLSv1.2 Cipher : 0000 Session-ID: Session-ID-ctx: Master-Key: Key-Arg : None Krb5 Principal: None PSK identity: None PSK identity hint: None Start Time: 1652894061 Timeout : 300 (sec) Verify return code: 0 (ok) --- Being a managed service it's hard to tell what is going on. The 636 port is open, but something doesn't like my connection. Not sure if I'm missing setup AD to accept the connection. Thanks. submitted by /u/jsupun [link] [comments]
- Cross account access using s3 acesspointby /u/SlumberMine (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 5:16 pm
Can someone in most simplified and minimal steps tell me how can i setup cross account s3 access to account B from account A using nothing but s3 access points The principal of the policies should be at the account level so any role in account b can access the bucket. p.s. I have tried setting it up, but aws console seems to reject my valid acess point policy. Even example from the docs doesn’t seems to be working. submitted by /u/SlumberMine [link] [comments]
- Hosting dotnet core web app in aws elasticbeanstalk with datadog. Do I need to install datadog agent per web server or just install datadog agent in a dedicated server and use that agent from all web servers?by /u/shahisunil (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 4:35 pm
Can any one help me with this noob question? I know this is more of a datadog question than aws question but was wondering if anyone here has some experience with datadog with elasticbeanstalk. I am trying to host a dotnet core web application in aws elasticbeastalk. Windows With IIS platform. And trying to collect traces from my web application to datadog. I was under the impression that we can have a dedicated datadog agent server and send all the traces to that agent. Is this right approach? or do I need to install datadog agent in each ec2(web servers). If dedicated server is ok. I created a dedicated server and installed the datadog agent but when I run telnet or powershell Test-NetConnection command to check connection to the server port 8126 it shows tcp connection failed. Firewall is not an issue. Test-NetConnection -ComputerName my.domain.com -Port 8126 submitted by /u/shahisunil [link] [comments]
- A Guide to Preview Deployments with Serverless CI/CDby /u/RichardGrant_ (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 4:27 pm
submitted by /u/RichardGrant_ [link] [comments]
- Security Group not whitelisting CIDR rangeby /u/thekingofbeans42 (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 4:26 pm
I have a security group that whitelists RDP traffic for the range 184.108.40.206/16 A VDI was unable to connect, so the same RDP rule was added specifically for its IP (220.127.116.11/32) and that fixed the issue. Shouldn't the first rule cover this? The instance's IP is part of the CIDR but for some reason only listing it specifically has granted access. I'm thinking something else must have been changed but I do want to check if there would be any reason this change could have done it. submitted by /u/thekingofbeans42 [link] [comments]
- Allow ECS Task Role to assume any role or invoke any lambda function. Yay or nay?by /u/RemarkableFlow (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 3:42 pm
Hey all, I'm having ECS assume roles and invoke lambdas in other trusted accounts in my AWS Org. To keep maintenance simple as this scales, I added a PolicyDocument to my ECS Task Role that allows lambda:InvokeFunction on resource * and sts:AssumeRole on resource *. Because the ECS Task role can only be assumed by the ECS service, I get the impression it's decently well secured and therefore not much of a weak link in our security. Am I missing something, do you think it's safe to allow this ECS task to assume any role or invoke any Lambda function? submitted by /u/RemarkableFlow [link] [comments]
- CloudFront popular objectsby /u/865346457 (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 3:15 pm
In CF I have not enabled logging but I see a page that shows popular objects. How can I disable this? I do not want to see clients files names etc.. submitted by /u/865346457 [link] [comments]
- Migration Questionby /u/ackrite07 (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 3:01 pm
I've been asked to migrate a client to AWS. It looks fairly simple as they already have VMWare, they want to migrated because they don't want to keep paying VMWare's licensing fees. I'm not too sure how to connect the clients to the server once it's on AWS. Normally, I'd just setup a VPN connection between sites but half their workers work from home and I don't know how to handle at. Any help, suggestions or pointers would be appreciated. submitted by /u/ackrite07 [link] [comments]
- Problem with ELK stack setup.by /u/cp24eva (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 2:16 pm
Hi. I was recently tasked to set up and ELK stack (first time for me) and I am having an issue with the authentication. This is part of the error I'm getting when doing a curl to the localhost:9200 - "security_exception","reason":"missing authentication credentials for REST request So, I'm not sure how to handle this authentication issue. The only users on the EC2 instance is the default ec2-user and root. Do I have to put a cert on the local profile or something? Again, I'm first timer and a bit new at this. Thanks. submitted by /u/cp24eva [link] [comments]
- How I passed Certified Cloud Practitioner Exam by studying < 15 hours (Tips)by /u/Adventurous-Sign4520 (AWS Certifications) on May 18, 2022 at 1:47 pm
Hey everyone, I am writing this post to serve as a guide for folks who are looking for a quicker way to crack the exam. FYI, I have < 1 year AWS experience. Before I started my prep I was aware about high level basics for EC2, Lambda, SQS, SNS, RDS. I did Ultimate AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner - 2022 course by Stephne Maarek and skipped the hands on parts (you can do the hands-on if you are curious about something). I watched lectures at 1.25x and after end of every module, I would go through summary lecture and do the quizzes for the module. Before my exam, I went through all summary sections again and did all those practice quizzes again for each module. I appeared in the exam and surprisingly, everything that was asked was seen in the course. Just my two cents for people who are in a bit of a rush. Give yourself 2 days and schedule time blocks in calendar to study for the exam. Edit1: Create a document to remember high level summary of what each thing does. If instructor mentions something important (or something is highlighted in bold in the slides), put it in your notes. Take a minute to guess (or memorize) what the service does before instructor talks about it in the summary. I skipped Section 20: Other services as it was likely not going to be in the exam submitted by /u/Adventurous-Sign4520 [link] [comments]
- InvalidVpcID on DeleteVpc operation, despite describe_vpcs just outpitting that same ID, whut?by /u/KBricksBuilder (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 1:42 pm
Using Boto3 im playing around with deleting VPC's and the code works most of the time, however in some case I can literally call the describe_vpcs operation and get the ID I know the VPC has printed correctly, but then when that same ID is hardcoded and used in the line below it will throw an InvalidVpcID error. Anyone seen this shit before? https://preview.redd.it/v7jnokzan8091.png?width=1419&format=png&auto=webp&s=710802d504c7de6d90cdddd44eb17b0f787d19ce submitted by /u/KBricksBuilder [link] [comments]
- SAP-C02 AWS Certified Solutions Architect - Professional certification exam is changing November 15, 2022. The last date to take the current exam is November 14, 2022by /u/HolmesChong (AWS Certifications) on May 18, 2022 at 1:29 pm
Starting November 15, 2022, a new version of the AWS Certified Solutions Architect - Professional exam will be available. The AWS Certified Solutions Architect - Professional exam has been updated to align with the AWS Well-Architected Framework across all domains and will ensure the certification validates the latest AWS technical skills and cloud expertise. Please review the updated exam guide to learn what to expect and to help you prepare. If you are preparing for the current AWS Certified Solutions Architect - Professional exam, or need to recertify, you’ll want to make sure to take the current exam by November 14, 2022. https://aws.amazon.com/certification/coming-soon/ submitted by /u/HolmesChong [link] [comments]
- How do I get logs for Windows Server?by /u/MadAltruist (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 1:29 pm
I'm new to using AWS and Windows Server. I'm trying to run an application but it gets stuck on "loading" and it never loads. Will someone please teach me what log to look at and where to find it so I can troubleshoot it? Thank you very much in advance. submitted by /u/MadAltruist [link] [comments]
- appspec.yaml or appspec.yml for a code deloy on an ECS clusterby /u/KeyCup2606 (AWS Certifications) on May 18, 2022 at 1:26 pm
Hello, I'm having this AWS Developer Certification question: https://preview.redd.it/2kc0egxak8091.png?width=1217&format=png&auto=webp&s=b0589fa4121477855259de1cf8ea1afa8f9831b2 But according to AWS.We can use appsepc.yaml or appspec.yml . https://preview.redd.it/y7shtqajk8091.png?width=1418&format=png&auto=webp&s=5573403a3399267dc45de470511f304a4c68d4c5 I'm really confused .What's the correct answer ? submitted by /u/KeyCup2606 [link] [comments]
- Passed SOA-C02 with 848by /u/nonFungibleHuman (AWS Certifications) on May 18, 2022 at 12:33 pm
So finally received my results today, thanks to everyone that posted his/her experience here doing the exam. I took it in a Test center (Person Vue) because of your recommendations and would 100% repeat the experience, flawless and the labs went smooth. Background: This is my second cert, last year got the Developer Associate and up today I've got around 2 years working with AWS, lately on personal projects for learning purpouses. Having experience with the console helps a ton with the labs, and doing such projects helped me grasping the knowledge better. I am a software developer with 5 years of exp. and I want to jump into Architect or Devops, that will depend on my new job. I used u/stephanemaarek udemy course and u/jon-bonso-tdojo practice exams/labs, studied for 2 and a half months 1 to 2 hours daily, and took a bunch of notes in the form of flashcards (around 900 flashcards), which I revised daily (10-100 cards per day). On practice tests I was scoring around 80%, I did the one in Mareek course and then the final exam in job bonso material, doing the exams in section mode and review mode helped me a lot to tackle the weak points, and the explanations of each answer are just amazing. I am going to focus now on skill development, so no certs for now but after I decide with path to go (probably devops) I'll go for Devops Pro. submitted by /u/nonFungibleHuman [link] [comments]
- CloudWatch Alarm when I/O's exceed x amount for the month.by /u/stupid_aws_qs (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 10:57 am
Hi there, Is there a way to setup an AWS CloudWatch alarm that will monitor the I/O's of my RDS Aurora instance for the month? I checked it out and seems like the metric I need to use is the VolumeReadIOPS and VolumeWriteIOPS, since those seem to be the billed ones. I am having issues setting it up to combine the two metrics and get the total amount. But then there is the whole period issue, since I'd like it to check every 5 mins or so, but it should only take into account the current month. I don't want to look at April's data on the 1st of May, for example. The sum should start at 0 again. Is this possible? And if so, how? Thanks so much! submitted by /u/stupid_aws_qs [link] [comments]
- AWS training materials vs coursesby /u/FBAmike (AWS Certifications) on May 18, 2022 at 7:43 am
HI, At the associate level, you see a lot of recommendations for Stephane, Neal, or Adrian's course, with some free resources mixed in (freecodecamp, etc) with a few practice test options. I don't have a good sense of AWS' own training. Is it simply too shallow to pass with? Is it organized poorly? Is it a viable alternative? Can someone who has a good sense of the various paid courses and AWS training put them in a context for me so I can figure out how to approach this. submitted by /u/FBAmike [link] [comments]
- How do I end this recurring charge?by /u/SalvosMachina (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 18, 2022 at 5:10 am
The aws console user interface is so confusing. How do I stop this reoccurring charge? https://preview.redd.it/og6netbv36091.png?width=2652&format=png&auto=webp&s=fc61833f4099879ea23c5eb76bfbb4b151cfdbb8 submitted by /u/SalvosMachina [link] [comments]
- Failed SAA-C02by /u/CrazyRichBen (AWS Certifications) on May 18, 2022 at 2:37 am
Hi everyone, just received my results, scored 705/1000. Which kinda sucks because it's so close to 720! (It's close, right? I'm not really too sure about the margins). Exam was on the 17th of May. I finished Stephane's course literally the day before. Didn't even attempt the practice test cuz well, to be honest, I didn't expect the course to have SO much content. All I did was review the quizes at the end of each chapter and did the 10 free questions off the AWS website. I wished I'd found this sub sooner, seeing that there are so much helpful content, like tutorials dojo practice exams (which I hear is really helpful). Am gonna take a few days off and then booking another test date to try again. Also, is the retest 50% off? My first attempt was FOC via a voucher my company. -Edit- Thanks for the tips and encouragement guys! I have a copy of Neal Davis' book, AWS Certified Solutions Architect Associate Practice Tests 2021 [SAA-C02]: 390 AWS Practice Exam Questions with Answers & detailed Explanations. Anyone knows is it similar to the material he has online? Thanks. submitted by /u/CrazyRichBen [link] [comments]
- Cloud Engineering Vs Software Engineeringby /u/AnikImtiaz (AWS Certifications) on May 18, 2022 at 12:40 am
Which career between software engineering and cloud engineering has better future prospects in terms of salary, growth, and job stability? submitted by /u/AnikImtiaz [link] [comments]
- AWS, I love your services and APIs but your API/SDK/CLI docs are killin' me!by /u/YeNerdLifeChoseMe (Amazon Web Services (AWS): S3, EC2, SQS, RDS, DynamoDB, IAM, CloudFormation, Route 53, VPC and more) on May 17, 2022 at 8:21 pm
I can't be the only one feeling this. I love AWS APIs. I love the services. But the API/SDK/CLI docs are soooo painful to navigate. I've written my own doc search helper for CLI/API that helps me get around. I’m going to have to write something else to help with the boto3 AWS python SDK. I think it’s even more painful than the CLI docs. A common problem with the docs is that you have this big table of contents on the left so you click on a topic, and it bring up a page and possibly to an anchor, but the page is huuuuuuge and there’s often no hyperlinks to get around easily, so you have to search. Here’s an example: IAM — Boto3 Docs 1.23.1 documentation (amazonaws.com). When you click on that link you go to the IAM service Policy resource about 4/5 down a web page that goes on for miles. The table of contents isn’t synced. And the only way to navigate is to search or Ctrl-Home and there’s a slightly more focused TOC than the left frame. There's other "mini-TOCs" scattered throughout the page. So instead of just complaining with no solution, here’s what I think would help on most of the documentation: Have the TOC on the left frame be hierarchical and context sensitive. So you can expand/collapse sections with a useful search that stays visible when you scroll. Break up the content on the right frame into much smaller pages Have more hyperlinks in the content Microsoft actually does an excellent job. Here’s an example: SmtpClient Class (System.Net.Mail) | Microsoft Docs I spend all day doing AWS, and I love it, so this isn't just spewing hate. This is simply a daily pain point for me and I can imagine it is for many others as well. EDIT: To clarify, the docs are complete and well written. Just really painful to navigate. I know the docs are open source and I can help fix it, but AWS isn't a charity and I spend my entire days working on stuff that ultimately AWS gets paid for. I think they have the resources to handle this. I'm not a big complainer, but this is a really valid source of pain for me each day. I would literally be twice as productive if the docs were easier to navigate. I know software and systems development. I don't know the syntax to every API and the attributes of every model. The reality this is the world we live in. Things change so quickly. Kudos to AWS for keeping the documentation up to date. It's to their benefit. It would also be to their benefit to update their documentation frameworks on the development side. This isn't an open source or academic project. It's the largest for-profit cloud provider in the world. submitted by /u/YeNerdLifeChoseMe [link] [comments]
- Free sample exam lab for SOA-C02by /u/trofosila (AWS Certifications) on May 17, 2022 at 8:11 pm
Just registered for the proctored exam with Pearson VUE. In the confirmation email I read this For a limited time, we are allowing you to test out a free sample exam lab to get hands-on experience with the exam lab environment before you take the exam. You will be allowed to take the exam lab three (3) times over a 90-day period from your first exam lab attempt. and then I'm supplied with login info and an URL. Is this new or has it always been like this? LE: this is what I'm talking about: https://preview.redd.it/2g58h5w9h3091.png?width=1436&format=png&auto=webp&s=e58d0a1d1c0f36a23f8422960ddfc04ca12a7f5d submitted by /u/trofosila [link] [comments]
- Am I on the right path?by /u/DreadMarvaz (AWS Certifications) on May 17, 2022 at 6:00 pm
Guys, long story short Completed Neal Davis course, 49% on his exam. Now i'm finishing Stephane Marek course and also have 5 TD exams. Is it convenient to take exams and write my own flashcards? Or keep going with the course (65%)? Today I got completely burned, couldn't even think. Got to take the real exame on May 27th, 10 days from now. What would be your advices? submitted by /u/DreadMarvaz [link] [comments]
- Delay PearsonVue test resultsby /u/M7EE45 (AWS Certifications) on May 17, 2022 at 3:23 pm
I’ve passed my Developer associate exam today, it displayed pass at the end of the exam. However, I haven’t revived any mail from aws about the exam or any score/certification confirmation. How long does it take for aws to confirm and by when can I see it in certmetrics ? submitted by /u/M7EE45 [link] [comments]
- AWS Cloud practitioner curricullum vs Udemy training curriculum -I do not see a match hereby /u/MineMe4Reddit (AWS Certifications) on May 17, 2022 at 2:36 pm
Below are the two side by sideThis is the training I am referring to https://www.udemy.com/course/aws-certified-cloud-practitioner-new/ Is the column A equivalent with B, sorry I have no cloud experience and I have no idea it there is a match between the two https://preview.redd.it/o9dibnttr1091.png?width=1251&format=png&auto=webp&s=fab89e8a4c221238d9ece4b7c5f868a8d67cf6b1 submitted by /u/MineMe4Reddit [link] [comments]
- Passed SAA-C02by /u/pawills (AWS Certifications) on May 17, 2022 at 2:02 pm
Big thank you to u/acantril and his cats for their excellent course, and to u/jon-bonso-tdojo for the practice exams + cheat sheets. The gold standard, as I've said a few times. 858 / 1000 for me, so not my best effort, but a solid pass. I'll take it. Now onto the SysOps Associate.... submitted by /u/pawills [link] [comments]
- SAA-C02 Passby /u/sdotIT (AWS Certifications) on May 17, 2022 at 11:53 am
Studied for 2 months. I had some complicated personal stuff going on and probably would have cut that down a bit had I not. Finished with a 796. Took the exam at home with Pearson. Woke up very ill and it was quite difficult to focus on the exam. I paid for it so I wasn't going to not take it. Finished with 50 minutes left. Tried to go through some questions but after a few minutes of that I wrapped the exam. Couldn't stand sitting there any longer and needed to lay down. Used Adrian Cantrill's course and Tutorial Dojos practice exams. All you need, really. I took 2 pages of notes. I'm not a big note taker and only really did so to reinforce facts. I also had Stephane Maareks udemy course from before I knew about Adrian's (months before I started studying). I used this in lieu of notes. Used the short videos to brush up on things I needed to from practice exam results. If I felt I needed more I rewatched Adrian's video on it. Went through his slides twice, once a week before and once the day of. I had some wild questions on the exam regarding Polly, Lake Formation, and Code Pipeline. Roughly 70% of the exam I feel like was based on databases and decoupling. I felt ready. I feel I should have done better. I don't think my not feeling well played much if any role in my score. Some of the questions were worded very confusingly. Much more than other certs I've taken or the tutorial dojo practice ones. I feel the exam was quite a bit more difficult than the practice exams. I scored 65% on the first two practice exams, 73% on the third, and 80%+ on the rest. Each time following first two, brushing up on things I missed (was noting down topics as I went through answers so I had a list of topics to go through). Happy to answer any questions! submitted by /u/sdotIT [link] [comments]
- Landed a jr. SA role with <1 yr experience. Let's talkby /u/keypairvalue (AWS Certifications) on May 17, 2022 at 11:27 am
Questions are preferred, I don't think I can type out a wall of text that is going to help everyone in their specific situations. I achieved the SAA and SAP in a span of 7 months. I got my SAA while not in tech, SAP while working a tech job. My first and only job thus far was non-technical monitoring in a NOC team at a VAR. I was promoted to jr. SA internally. A big contributing factor to landing that first job, imo is that I researched companies before deciding to apply to them. I didn't spend entire days sending out resumes/applying. My criteria for the companies I was looking to apply to were: MSP/VAR. Generally agreed upon as fast-paced and stressful in a lot of departments, but having many different clients and problems to solve is a great learning experience. They also tend to hire like crazy. Numerous cloud roles available, especially junior/associate level ones even if they weren't the specific role I was looking for. Companies may have opportunities that aren't necessarily posted on their job boards. I wasn't going to be picky, I was OK with working my way up in a company to get that breakthrough. A big plus if providing cloud solutions was a relatively new thing for them As for the interview I could write pages on it. In short, me being super fresh & having the SA Pro clearly threw up some doubt/red flags in the interviewer's mind. He made sure I had the practical knowledge to go along with it. Big emphasis on practical, as more often than not, people unfortunately don't come out with practical knowledge after passing a cert. Which can make these interviews go from tough, to actually impossible. Also the dude who made a throwaway to just say I exam-dumped it on my last post, can suck my nuts. You need to have a plan.. it's tough being new to tech and picking out an end-goal, but it's the most optimal way to climb quick. Lay out your steps. Your certs, projects, & technical skills need to paint a clear picture of where you're going. All my certs, projects, and skills.. they're all architecture related. As for my future - I'm getting more engineering experience since a full-fledged SA is expected to handle low-level technical implementations to a degree, but also plan around the nuances of that. submitted by /u/keypairvalue [link] [comments]
- Is it normal to feel super confused after the first day of studying for a Cloud practitionerby /u/FlimsyParty544 (AWS Certifications) on May 17, 2022 at 4:26 am
I'm a musician looking to dive into the tech side of music. A friend of mine suggested I go get my AWS cloud practitioner then solutions and get an entry-level job and work my way up in the industry. I'm using A cloud guru to help study but after going through units one and 2 I feel kind of lost. Is this a normal feeling to have? submitted by /u/FlimsyParty544 [link] [comments]
- Prepping for SysOps Admin, Practice Lab Walkthrough Videosby /u/JBizzle703 (AWS Certifications) on May 17, 2022 at 1:16 am
I've been prepping for the SysOps Admin Associate exam (primarily using ExamPro as the study content), but have started to make some lab walkthrough videos of some of the core technical components. I wanted to share my latest one here on Auto Scaling and Load Balancing, in case it might help some folks studying for this or the SAA. If you like it, I have a few more on the channel I've done (VPC's/Networking, Cloudformation, and S3 and lifecycle polices). https://youtu.be/RBKNVhAD6bw submitted by /u/JBizzle703 [link] [comments]
- Passed AWS Certified Developer - Associate (CDA)by /u/Account_Aged_Well (AWS Certifications) on May 16, 2022 at 7:21 pm
Last Saturday I took and passed the AWS Certified Developer Associate (CDA) certification exam. Woohoot! Just want to share the achievement with the group. I credit two things for passing: my current role and Tutorials Dojo practice exams on Udemy. For the latter, I would take an exam and then build flashcards from what I didn't know. Then it was spaced repetition until memorized. At my current role as a Software Developer working the full stack I deal with AWS on a daily basis. I've been in the profession for two years, so this helped out a bunch as well. submitted by /u/Account_Aged_Well [link] [comments]
- AWS Week in Review – May 16, 2022by Marcia Villalba (AWS News Blog) on May 16, 2022 at 7:10 pm
This post is part of our Week in Review series. Check back each week for a quick roundup of interesting news and announcements from AWS! I had been on the road for the last five weeks and attended many of the AWS Summits in Europe. It was great to talk to so many of you
- how much time will it take to know the result aws SAA C02?by /u/udaymahanthi (AWS Certifications) on May 16, 2022 at 6:43 pm
submitted by /u/udaymahanthi [link] [comments]
- Failed SAA-C02by /u/Guilty-Owl-9625 (AWS Certifications) on May 16, 2022 at 1:24 pm
Took the test Sunday and Got my score today. I failed the SAA-C02 (705). Totally bummed. I’m looking for recommendations on what I can do to pass the SAA-C02. I completed the Stephen Maarek Udemy course and the tutorialsdojo practice tests by Jon Bonso. Apparently this isn’t enough. Do I sign up for Cantrill’s course or do I more practice tests? submitted by /u/Guilty-Owl-9625 [link] [comments]
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